VOA常速 前美国务卿建议制定新战争权力法 08-7-9
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2008-07-09 14:45:09  【打印
Commission Recommends New US War Powers Act

前美国务卿建议制定新战争权力法

 

Two former U.S. Secretaries of State are recommending that the United States change its procedures for deciding to go to war.

 

两位前美国国务卿建议,美国改变本国参战的程序。

James Baker and Warren Christopher say a U.S. president should be required by law to consult with Congress before going to war. And they want to require Congress to approve or disapprove the action within 30 days.

 

前国务卿贝克和克里斯托弗说,法律应要求美国总统必须在开战前与国会商榷。而且他们也要求国会在30天内做出同意或不同意参战行动的决定。

Baker was Secretary of State under Republican President George H.W. Bush, and Christopher held the same office under Democratic President Bill Clinton. Together, they led a year-long study by the National War Powers Commission.

 

贝克是共和党总统老布什手下的国务卿,而克里斯托弗是民主党总统克林顿执政时的国务卿。他俩共同主导国家战争权力委员会进行的一项为期一年的研究。

Baker says the commission believes the 1973 War Powers Resolution needs to be replaced.

 

贝克说,这个委员会认为应当取代1973年的战争权力决议案。

"We think that the rule of law, which is, of course, a centerpiece of American democracy, is undermined and is damaged when the main statute in this vital policy area is regularly questioned or ignored," said James Baker.

 

他说:“我们认为法治无疑是美国民主的支柱,然而当这个关键政策领域的主要法令经常遭到质疑和被无视的时候,法治便受损或消亡了。”

The 1973 legislation was a response to the Vietnam War. Baker and Christopher say it is ineffective and unconstitutional. They say no president has ever recognized its constitutionality, Congress has never challenged it, and the Supreme Court has never ruled on it.

 

1973年的立法是应越南战争而制定的。贝克和克里斯托弗说,这一立法效率低而且不符合宪法。他们说,没有一位总统曾认同这一立法的合法性,国会也从来没有对它提出质疑,而最高法院从未就其作出裁决。

The U.S. Constitution designates the president as commander-in-chief of the armed forces, but gives Congress the power to control war funding.

 

美国宪法指定总统为武装部队的统帅,但是宪法授权国会来控制战争经费。

The legislation proposed by Baker and Christopher's commission would require a president to consult with Congress before sending troops into combat for more than a week. It would also create a Joint Congressional Consultation Committee, with members of both houses of Congress. Christopher says this would include Congress in an important decision.

 

贝克和克里斯托弗主导的委员会所提出的议案要求在派遣部队上战场之前一个多星期,务必与国会协商。这一立法将设立一个由参、众两院议员组成的国会协商联合委员会。克里斯托弗说,这样做能够在做出重大决定的时候让国会参与。

"This statute gives Congress a seat at the table, in deciding whether or not to go to war - not just a seat at the table, but one with a permanent staff, a permanent professional staff, and access to all the available intelligence information," said Warren Christopher.

 

他说:“这个条款给予国会一个桌旁的席位,从而参与决定是否参战,这还不仅是一个桌旁的座位,还包括配备常任职员,常任专业人员,以及接触所有的相关情报信息。”

The commission's proposal would also call for Congress to approve or disapprove any "significant armed conflict" within 30 days.

 

这个委员会的提议也要求国会在30天内作出定夺:是否批准参与重大武装冲突。

Baker said the plan is not directed toward any particular conflict in which the U.S. has been involved.

 

贝克说,有关计划并非针对美国已经参与的任何特定战争。

Former Republican Congressman Lee Hamilton, a commission member, says the group hopes the legislation can be passed by Congress and signed by the president next year.

 

前共和党议员汉密尔顿是这个委员会的成员之一。他说,委员会希望国会能通过这项立法,也希望总统签署这项立法。

"We think it would be a marvelous piece of legislation for the next president and the next Congress to enact early on, as a signal of bipartisanship in this country, on a national security issue," said Lee Hamilton.

 

他说:“我们认为下届总统和下届国会在上任初期就立刻执行这项立法将是件了不起的好事,因为这显示在国家安全问题上两党的协作立场。”

A new opinion poll shows 79 percent of Americans think the president should be required to have approval from Congress before sending troops into combat outside the United States.

 

最近进行的一次民意调查结果显示,79%的美国人认为,应当要求总统在向国外战场派兵前先征得国会的批准。