The development of the country, as we know it today, was an evolutionary(进化的,演变的) process over more than eight decades. Manitoba became a province after some controversial events involving the federal government and the Metis, French-speaking descendants of French fur traders who married American Indian girls. This ethnic(人种的,种族的) group settled near Fort Gary, the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba what is called today.
John A. Macdonald, the new and first Prime Minister of the new nation, made a deal with the western-most colony in Vancouver guaranteeing on the building of a railroad from the east to the west if that colony would join Canadian Confederation. The property of the Metis, to which the letter felt legally entitled, was in the path of the new railway. The federal government essentially took the land. The Metis were compelled to move further west, but not without a fight. (The Metis and the federal government were on an inevitable(无法避免的) collision course. Twice, Metis revolts rested the might(权力,威力) of the federal government and relationship between French-and English-speaking in Canada). The federal government was able to defeat the Metis in both clashes. Louis Riel, the leader of the Metis was hanged for treason(叛国,谋反) in 1885 for his leading role in resisting the federal government. He became a martyr to French-Canadians. His death only added fuel to the growing discontent(不满意) between French and English Canada.
Throughout this whole period, 1869 to 1885, the federal (or central) government ignored the appeals of the Metis. It appeared that, according to Macdonald and his followers, the creation of the new nation was more important than relieving the plight(困境) of a relatively small minority group. The Metis probably deserved much better of the federal government. Different versions of these events are still debated in Canadian classrooms today.
Macdonald was also criticized for concealing the fact that he took some money illegally to complete the railway. In 1873 as “The Pacific Scandal” became known, the construction of the railway suspended temporarily. The determined Macdonald and his government, obsessed(担心,困扰) by the possibility of the Americans moving in and taking over the west, boldly pushed railway construction to completion.
Manitoba became a province in 1870, British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905. The admission of Newfoundland into Confederation in 1948 completed the Canadian Confederation of ten provinces from sea to sea, as they exist today. The railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was completed before the agreed deadline.