15篇文章贯通4级词汇Unit10-Part4
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2008-04-22 16:25:06  【打印
The development of the country, as we know it today, was an evolutionary(进化的,演变的) process over more than eight decades. Manitoba became a province after some controversial events involving the federal government and the Metis, French-speaking descendants of French fur traders who married American Indian girls. This ethnic(人种的,种族的) group settled near Fort Gary, the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba what is called today.

  John A. Macdonald, the new and first Prime Minister of the new nation, made a deal with the western-most colony in Vancouver guaranteeing on the building of a railroad from the east to the west if that colony would join Canadian Confederation. The property of the Metis, to which the letter felt legally entitled, was in the path of the new railway. The federal government essentially took the land. The Metis were compelled to move further west, but not without a fight. (The Metis and the federal government were on an inevitable(无法避免的) collision course. Twice, Metis revolts rested the might(权力,威力) of the federal government and relationship between French-and English-speaking in Canada). The federal government was able to defeat the Metis in both clashes. Louis Riel, the leader of the Metis was hanged for treason(叛国,谋反) in 1885 for his leading role in resisting the federal government. He became a martyr to French-Canadians. His death only added fuel to the growing discontent(不满意) between French and English Canada.

  Throughout this whole period, 1869 to 1885, the federal (or central) government ignored the appeals of the Metis. It appeared that, according to Macdonald and his followers, the creation of the new nation was more important than relieving the plight(困境) of a relatively small minority group. The Metis probably deserved much better of the federal government. Different versions of these events are still debated in Canadian classrooms today.

  Macdonald was also criticized for concealing the fact that he took some money illegally to complete the railway. In 1873 as “The Pacific Scandal” became known, the construction of the railway suspended temporarily. The determined Macdonald and his government, obsessed(担心,困扰) by the possibility of the Americans moving in and taking over the west, boldly pushed railway construction to completion.

  Manitoba became a province in 1870, British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905. The admission of Newfoundland into Confederation in 1948 completed the Canadian Confederation of ten provinces from sea to sea, as they exist today. The railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was completed before the agreed deadline.

正如我们今天所知道的那样,这个国家在80多年里不断发展演进。在几次涉及联邦政府和梅蒂斯人的有争议的事件之后,马尼托巴成为加拿大的一个省。梅蒂斯人是美洲印第安女孩与法国毛皮贸易商的后裔,讲法语。这个族群定居在加里要塞附近的温尼伯城,即今马尼托巴。

  约翰?A?麦克唐纳,这个新兴国家的第一任总理,与温哥华的最西边的殖民地达成协议,保证说如果该殖民地加入加拿大联邦,他将建一条从西到东的铁路。梅蒂斯人的地产——他们认为是合法拥有的——正好在这条新铁路线上。联邦政府完全剥夺了他们的土地。梅蒂斯人被迫向西,但并非没有抵抗。(梅蒂斯人不可避免地要与联邦政府进行抗争。他们的对联邦政府的两次反叛考验了联邦政府的权威和说法语与说英语的加拿大之间的关系。)在两次冲突中,联邦政府都成功以失败了梅蒂斯人。1885年,梅蒂斯人的领袖路易斯?瑞尔,因带头试图反抗联邦政府以叛国的罪名被绞死。他成为说法语的加拿大人的死难者。他的遇难对说法语和说英语的加拿大之间日益激化的纠纷无疑是火上浇油。

  在整个1869年至1885年期间,联邦政府都没有理睬梅蒂斯人的诉求。很显然,在麦克唐纳和他的继任者们看来,建立一个新国家比解除一个相对弱小的少数民族的困境更重要。也许,梅蒂斯人可以享受到联邦政府更好的待遇。今天,在加拿大的教室里,对这些事件的不同看法不在争论不休。

  麦克唐纳还被指责隐瞒事实,非法挪用资金完成铁路建设。那次有名的1873年的“太平洋丑闻”曾使铁路建设一度停了下来。后来麦克唐纳和他的政府,由于担心美国人入侵并接管西部,坚定果断地推动完成铁路建设。

  1870年马尼托巴成为一个省,1871年英属哥伦比亚加入,1873年爱德华太子岛加入,1905年艾伯塔和萨斯喀彻温加入。1949年,纽芬兰岛获准加入联邦,使拥有10个省的东岸到西岸的加拿大联邦完整起来,也就是今天的加拿大。那条铁路,即加拿大太平洋铁路在预定完工日期之前也已建成。