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Unit 3

Section (A)

Where Principles Come First

The Hyde School operates on the principle that if you teach students the merit of such values as

truth, courage, integrity, leadership, curiosity and concern, then academic achievement naturally

follows. Hyde School founder Joseph Gauld claims success with the program at the $18,000-a-year

high school in Bath, Maine, which has received considerable publicity for its work with troubled


"We don't see ourselves as a school for a type of kid," says Malcolm Gauld, Joseph's son, who

graduated from Hyde and is now headmaster. "We see ourselves as preparing kids for a way of life —

by cultivating a comprehensive set of principles that can affect all kids."

Now, Joe Gauld is trying to spread his controversial Character First idea to public, inner-city schools

willing to use the tax dollars spent on the traditional program for the new approach. The first Hyde

public school program opened in September 1992. Within months the program was suspended.

Teachers protested the program's demands and the strain associated with more intense work.

This fall, the Hyde Foundation is scheduled to begin a preliminary public school program in

Baltimore. Teachers will be trained to later work throughout the entire Baltimore system. Other US

school managers are eyeing the program, too. Last fall, the Hyde Foundation opened a magnet program

within a public high school in the suburbs of New Haven, Connecticut, over parents' protests. The

community feared the school would attract inner-city minority and troubled students.

As in Maine the quest for truth is also widespread at the school in Connecticut. In one English class,

the 11 students spend the last five minutes in an energetic exchange evaluating their class performance

for the day on a 1-10 scale.

"I get a 10."

"I challenge that. You didn't do either your grammar or your spelling homework."

"OK, a seven."

"You ought to get a six."

"Wait, I put my best effort forth here."

"Yeah, but you didn't ask questions today."

Explaining his approach to education, Joe Gauld says the conventional education system cannot be

reformed. He notes "no amount of change" with the horse and carriage "will produce an automobile".

The Hyde School assumes "every human being has a unique potential" that is based on character, not

intelligence or wealth. Conscience and hard work are valued. Success is measured by growth, not

academic achievement. Students are required to take responsibility for each other. To avoid the

controversy of other character programs used in US schools, Gauld says the concept of doing your best

has nothing to do with forcing the students to accept a particular set of morals or religious values.

The Hyde curriculum is similar to conventional schools that provide preparation for college, complete

with English, history, math and science. But all students are required to take performing arts and

sports, and provide a community service. For each course, students get a grade for academic

achievement and for "best effort". At Bath, 97% of the graduates attend four-year colleges.

Commitment among parents is a key ingredient in the Hyde mixture. For the student to gain

admission, parents also must agree to accept and demonstrate the school's philosophies and outlook.

The parents agree in writing to meet monthly in one of 20 regional groups, go to a yearly three-day

regional retreat, and spend at least three times a year in workshops, discussion groups and seminars at

Bath. Parents of Maine students have an attendance rate of 95% in the many sessions. Joe and Malcolm

Gauld both say children tend to do their utmost when they see their parents making similar efforts.

The biggest obstacle for many parents, they say, is to realize their own weaknesses.

The process for public school parents is still being worked out, with a lot more difficulty because it is

difficult to convince parents that it is worthwhile for them to participate. Of the 100 students enrolled

in New Haven, about 30% of the parents attend special meetings. The low attendance is in spite of

commitments they made at the outset of the program when Hyde officials interviewed 300 families.

Once the problems are worked out, Hyde should work well in public schools, says a teacher at Bath

who taught for 14 years in public schools. He is optimistic that once parents make a commitment to the

program, they will be daily role models for their children, unlike parents whose children are in boarding


One former inner-city high school teacher who now works in the New Haven program, says teachers

also benefit. "Here we really begin to focus on having a fruitful relationship with each student. Our focus

is really about teacher to student and then we together deal with the…academics. In the traditional

high school setting, it's teacher to the material and then to the student." The teacher-student

relationship is taken even further at Hyde. Faculty evaluations are conducted by the students.

Jimmy DiBattista, 19, is amazed he will graduate this May from the Bath campus and plans to attend

a university. Years ago, he had seen his future as "jail, not college".

DiBattista remembers his first days at Hyde.

"When I came here, I insulted and cursed everybody. Every other school was, 'Get out, we don't

want to deal with you. 'I came here and they said, 'We kind of like that spirit. We don't like it with the

negative attitudes. We want to turn that spirit positive.'"

Words: 903

New Words

 publicity n. 1.公众的注意;名声 2.(商业)广告,宣传,宣扬
 cultivate vt. 1.培养,陶冶,发展 2.耕种,耕作
 comprehensive a. 综合的,全面的,广泛的
 controversial a. 有争议的,引起争议的
 suspend vt. 1.暂停,中止 2.悬挂
 strain n. 1.(对精力、体力、能力的)苛求,压力 2.拉紧,绷紧
vt. 1.扭伤,损伤 2.拉紧,绷紧 3.尽力使用,使紧张
vi. 竭力,尽全力
 preliminary a. 预备的,初步的
n. 初步做法,准备工作
 magnet n. 1.有强大吸引力的人或物 2.磁铁,磁体
 minority n. 1.少数民族 2.少数,少数派
▲quest n. 探寻,寻求,研究
▲energetic a. 精力充沛的,充满活力的
 grammar n. 语法,语法规则
 conventional a. 常规的,惯例的,传统的
 reform v. 改革,改进,改良
n. 改革,改造
 controversy n. 争议,争论
 moral n. 1.行为标准,道德规范;品行 2.寓意
a. 道德的
▲curriculum n. 课程
 preparation n. 1.准备,预备 2.准备工作,准备措施
 mixture n. 1.混合物 2.混合
 admission n. 1.允许进入,准许加入 2.承认,供认
 outlook n. 1.观点,看法 2.前景
 monthly ad. 每月地;每月一次地
a. 每月的;每月一次的
n. 月刊
 workshop n. 1.研讨会,讲习班 2.车间,工场,作坊
▲seminar n. 研讨会
▲attendance n. 1.出席人数 2.到场,出席,参加 3.护理,照料
 session n. 1.(从事某项活动的) 一段时间 2.学年;学期;上课时间
 utmost n. 极限,最大限度
a. 最大的,极度的
 worthwhile a. 值得(做)的
 outset n. 开端,开始
 optimistic a. 乐观的,有信心的
 fruitful n. 有成果的,成功的
 faculty n. 1.全体教员 2.能力,才能,资质
 campus n. 校区,校园
 jail n. 监狱;监禁
vt. 监禁,拘留
 insult vt. 侮辱,辱骂
n. 侮辱,辱骂
 curse v. 诅咒,咒骂
n. 诅咒,咒骂

Phrases and Expressions

 see sb./sth. as 认为某人或某物是……
 prepare sb. for sth. 使做好准备
 spread (sth.) to (使)传播
 be willing to do 愿意做某事,不反对做某事
 spend sth. on sth. / (in) doing sth. 在……上花费时间或金钱
 be scheduled to do 被安排,定于
 over protest 在有异议的情况下
 take responsibility for 对... ...负责任
 complete with 包括,备有
 do one's utmost 竭尽全力
 work out 计划,设计,想出 解决难题,找到... ...的方法
 focus (sth.) on (使)集中于
 kind of 有点,有几分

Proper Names

 Hyde School 海德中学
 Joseph Gauld 约瑟夫·高尔德
 Bath, Maine 缅因州巴思市
 Malcolm Gauld 马尔科姆·高尔德
 Joe 乔 (Joseph的昵称)
 Hyde Foundation 海德基金会
 Baltimore 巴尔的摩(美国马里兰州中北部港市)
 New Haven,Connecticut 康涅狄格州纽黑文市
 Jimmy DiBattista 吉米·迪巴蒂斯塔


Cultural Differences in Western and Japanese Decision-making

To talk about problem-solving or decision-making within a national environment means examining

many complex cultural forces. It means trying to measure the impact of these forces on contemporary

life, and also coming to grips with changes now taking place.

In Japan, the most important thing is what organization you work for. This is of extreme importance

when trying to analyze the direction-taking or decision-making process. At the least, it explains the

greater job stability in Japan, in contrast to the great job mobility in America.

While we differ in many ways, such differences are neither superior nor inferior to each other. A

particular pattern of management behavior develops from a complex mixture of unique cultural factors

— and will only work within a given culture.

Let me try to describe three or four characteristics of the Japanese environment that in some way

affect decision-making or direction-taking and problem-solving. These characteristics are related to

each other.

First, in any approach to a problem and in any negotiations in Japan, there is the "you to you"

approach, as distinguished from the Western "I to you" approach. The difference is this: in "I to you",

both sides present their arguments openly from their own point of view — they state what they want

and what they expect to get. A confrontation situation is thereby set up, and Westerners are very

skillful in dealing with this.

The "you to you" approach practiced in Japan is based on each side — automatically and often

unconsciously — trying to understand the other person's point of view. Thus, the direction of the

meeting is a mutual attempt to reduce confrontation and achieve harmony.

A second characteristic is based on "consensus opinion" and "bottom-up direction". In Japan great

consideration is given to the thoughts and opinions of everyone at all levels. This is true of both private

enterprises and government ministries. In Japan there is a drive for unity within the group — whether

it is family, company, or Parliament.

The difference is that Western style decision-making proceeds mostly from top management and

often does not consult middle management or the worker while in Japan, ideas can be created at the

lowest levels, travel upward through an organization and have an impact on the eventual decision. This

is "bottom up".

There is also a characteristic style of communication in Japan that is different from the Western way.

The Japanese business person works to achieve harmony, even if the deal falls through, and will

spend whatever time is necessary to determine a "you to you" approach, communicating personal

views only indirectly and delicately.

This places time in a different perspective. In Japan the Western deadline approach is secondary to a

thorough job. Owing to this difference in emphasis, the Japanese are thorough in their meetings as well

as in their production. Thus Americans are often frustrated by the many successive meetings in many

Japanese businesses. But where the American is pressing for a specific decision, the Japanese is trying

to devise a rather broad direction.

On the other hand, once a given agreement is made, it is the Japanese who sometimes wonder at the

slow pace in which Westerners implement the decision. The Japanese are eager to move forward and

Westerners, perhaps, lag behind as they take the time for in-depth planning.

Now, while Japan's industry and technology are highly developed, they have not replaced the

fundamental force of human energy and motivation. By that I mean that the Japanese take great pride

in doing a job well and getting it done no matter how much time is required. There is a commitment and

sense of responsibility which have not yet been discarded in this age of machines.

In my field — finance and securities — I am often asked by Westerners how Nomura Securities has

managed to escape the paper traffic jam that American firms have faced. We, too, have had that

problem. The Tokyo Stock Exchange often has between 200 and 300 million transactions a day. This

volume is many times more than that of the New York Stock Exchange. How can it be feasible to handle

this load?

First, we have very sophisticated computers. Second, and most important, the operational personnel

responsible for processing all these transactions stay and stay until the job is done. Perhaps in 20 years

— or sooner — they will be more Westernized and insist on going home at five o'clock. But today, still,

most insist on staying until the job is done. There is a sincere concern for quality.

This willingness to help in a pinch is an important aspect of Japanese problem-solving, and you find it

at every level. Some years ago, the Matsushita company was having a very bad time. Among the many

measures taken, Mr. Matsushita, the founder and then chairman, became the manager of the sales


Also, when we at Nomura converted to computers about five years ago, the new system eliminated

the jobs of 700 people. We did not dismiss these people; rather, we converted them to securities sales

people and some of these are now our leading sales people. Provided there is intelligence and a

willingness to exert yourself, there is a place within the company to try and to succeed. In Japan, a

person's capabilities are not forced into an inflexible area. And we feel the company owes a worker

something for loyalty and commitment.

Words: 900

New Words

 complex a. 1.复合的,复杂的 2.难以理解的,复杂的
 grip n. 1.控制,支配 2.紧握,抓牢
vt 1.握紧,抓牢 2.吸引……的注意力或想像力等
 extreme a. 1.最高限度的,极度的 2.尽可能远的;遥远的
n. 极端,过分
 analyze vt. 分析,细查
▲stability n. 稳定,稳固
 mobile a. 活动的,易于移动的,流动的
 mobility n. 流动性,移动性,易变性
 differ vi. 1.不同,有异 2.(在意见方面)发生分歧
 superior a. 1.优于,强于 2.优良的,卓越的 3.(在职位、地位方面)较高的
n. 上级,上司
 inferior a. 级别低的,社会地位低的;次要的,次等的
n. 下级,下属
 negotiate v. 谈判,磋商
 negotiation n. 商议,谈判,洽谈
 thereby ad. 因此,从而
 harmony n. 和谐,融洽,和睦,一致
▲consensus n. 共同看法,(意见等的)一致
 consideration n. 1.考虑,思考 2.体谅,照顾
 enterprise n. 1.企业单位,商业公司 2.(艰巨的)事业,计划
 ministry n. (政府的)部
 unity n. 和睦,协调,团结,统一
 parliament n. 议会,国会
 consult vt. 1.请教,咨询,找……商量 2.查阅,查看
vi. 交换意见,商议
 delicate a. 1.巧妙的,需技巧的,敏感的 2.易损的,娇嫩的
 delicately ad. 巧妙地,细致地
 owing a. 应付的,未付的
 successive a. 继续的,连续的
 lag vi. 走得慢,落后
n. 时间间隔;滞后
 fundamental a. 基本的,基础的,主要的
n. 基本原则,基本法则
 discard vt. 丢弃,抛弃
▲transaction n. 交易,业务
 volume n. 1.量,份量,额 2.(书的)卷,册 3.音量,响度 4.体积,容积,容量
 feasible a. 可行的,可能的,行得通的
 sophisticated a. 1.复杂的,尖端的 2.世故的,老练的,精通的
 operational a. 1.操作(上)的;经营的 2.即可使用的,即可行动的
 sincere a. 真诚的,诚实的
 pinch n. 1.捏,掐,拧 2.一撮,微量
v. 捏,掐,拧
 aspect n. 部分,方面
 dismiss vt. 1.解雇,开除 2.放弃(想法、感情等),不再考虑 3.解散,遣散
 provided conj. 如果,假若
 exert vt. 1.努力,用力,尽力 2.运用(能力或技巧),发挥
 flexible a. 1.灵活的,可变通的,可适应的 2.易弯曲的,柔韧的
 inflexible a. 不可改变的,不受影响的,不屈服的
 loyalty n. 忠诚,忠心

Phrases and Expressions

 come to grips with 着手解决(问题)或对付(挑战)
 work for 为... ...工作,受雇于... ...
 in contrast to 对比,比照
 in some way 在某种意义上;有一点,有些
 be related to 与... ...相关,与... ...有联系
 distinguish from 与... ...相区别
 set up 造成,产生
 fall through 失败,成为泡影
 owing to 因为,由于
 press for 反复请求,紧急要求
 wonder at 对... ...感到惊讶,惊叹
 lag behind 走得慢,落后
 in a pinch 必要时
 exert oneself 努力

Proper Names

 Nomura Securities 野村证券
 Tokyo Stock Exchange 东京证券交易所
 New York Stock Exchange 纽约证券交易所
 Matsushita (company) 松下(公司)
 Matsushita 松下幸之助(松下公司创始人)

Section (C)

The Pressure to Succeed from an Earlier Age

Like many Japanese, Naoto Eguchi feels tremendous pressure to get ahead. Rising at dawn, he works

a full day with his regular colleagues and another three hours each evening in special study sessions. He

then does a couple of hours of work at home before going to bed at midnight.

It is a heavy load for an 11-year-old.

Naoto's immediate goal is to pass the entrance examinations for a private junior high school, a vital

step for eventual admission to a prestigious (有名望的) university. But he is already thinking about the

future. "My goal is to get a good job with a good company," he said.

The struggle to succeed in one of the world's most competitive societies is starting earlier and earlier,

and is most evident in the growing popularity of special schools that train students during evenings and

weekends to pass the examinations required to enter private schools and colleges. Once on the edge of

the educational system, such schools, or jukus, are now so common in Japan that, especially for those

people at the top level of society, they have begun to function as a kind of shadow educational system,

replacing regular schools in importance for parents and students and even reaching down to 2 and 3-

year-old children.

The rise of jukus is praised by some as one of the secrets of Japanese success, a healthy sign of a

system where people advance on the basis of merit. It is also criticized as a movement forcing a new

generation of Japanese to sacrifice their childhood out of an extreme desire for status and getting

ahead. "Jukus are harmful to Japanese education and to children," said a professor at the University of

Tokyo. "It's not healthy for kids to have so little free time. It is not healthy to become completely

caught up in competition and status at such a young age."

Recently, one research institute found that nearly 4.4 million students were enrolled in some 50,000

to 60,000 jukus. That represents 18.6 percent of elementary school children and 52.2 percent of

students in seventh through ninth grades. The Japanese spent $10.9 billion for teaching outside of

regular classes last year, according to the institute, including $9 billion on jukus for students in the ninth

grade or below — almost double the figure spent seven years ago.

The people who run and teach at jukus say the schools are popular only because they work, creating

a lively and interesting environment in which students learn because they are enjoying themselves.

One of the most prestigious jukus for 2 and 3-year-olds sends most of its pre-kindergarten graduates

to prestigious elementary schools. If these students get good grades in a prestigious school, they can

advance all the way to a university without having to take examinations.

"We don't push knowledge on them," said the head of a branch of this juku in northwest Tokyo. "We

are interested in teaching them how to play and enjoy learning." In a nearby class, eight children, each

about 3, sat politely in little chairs in a row as a teacher held up pictures of a kite and other objects,

calling on the students to identify them. "What is this shape?" she then said, holding up first a square, a

triangle, and then a circle.

Several mothers who were waiting to pick up their children expressed anxiety about subjecting their

youngsters to such pressure. But they reasoned that it would be worth it if their children got into

private schools early and did not have to worry about passing examinations later on. "It's not an ideal

thing to send your kids to such a place," said one mother, asking not to be identified for fear of criticism

from other parents. She said she thought that her daughter was having a good time in this school, but

continued, "If I told you I wasn't thinking about entrance examinations, I would be lying."

Juku teachers and managers say that because their schools are profit-making enterprises, they have

to promise results to succeed. The results are easy to measure, because they depend on how many

graduates pass the examinations for private schools.

The "examination hell (地狱)" imposed on children is widely criticized in Japan. In a recent

survey, two-thirds of parents said competitive examinations were their worst problem in raising

children. But parents are also eager to give their children every advantage. "Jukus are playing on the

status anxieties of these parents," said Makoto Oda, an author who taught in jukus in Tokyo for more

than 20 years. "All parents are terribly frightened that their children will fall behind."

Juku defenders say that students are only gaining the discipline and the ability to endure pressure

that they will need in life. But the very success of jukus in training youngsters to pass exams has made

the competition worse: Jukus help more students pass exams, so the exams have to be made more


"Jukus are raising a generation of kids who only know how to pass entrance examinations," said an

official of the Japan Teachers Union. "But the most important educational purpose is giving children the

ability to live in society. That's being left out." The Education Ministry has tried to combat the juku

system by improving public schools, reducing class sizes, improving teacher training, and making the

curriculum more flexible. But ministry officials concede that those steps have not worked.
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