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15篇文章贯通六级词汇Unit14-Part2


[00:00.00]While in London,
[00:02.41]Sun received an unexpected boost
[00:04.86]to his efforts of eliciting help for his cause.
[00:07.70]While on his way there, in 1896,
[00:12.29]he was kidnapped and held
[00:14.16]in the Chinese (Qing) Embassy.
[00:16.56]He managed to sneak a message to a friend
[00:19.84]who talked to the press.
[00:21.48]This created an embarrassing situation
[00:24.76]for the Chinese government,
[00:26.52]which consequently, released Sun.
[00:29.03]The Chinese portrayed Sun as insane or as an idiot.
[00:34.72]This incident, along with a popular book
[00:38.88]that he wrote about the experience,
[00:40.74]magnified his reputation internationally.
[00:44.24]In Japan, shortly after,
[00:47.41]he was welcomed as an international celebrity.
[00:51.36]In order to carry out a successful revolution,
[00:55.84]he realized that his agenda required
[00:58.79]the support of intellectuals.
[01:00.65]To enroll the support of the latter,
[01:03.83]he needed a well thought-out plan or theory.
[01:07.11]From this realization,
[01:09.84]the doctrine of The Three Principles
[01:12.58]of the People was disclosed.
[01:14.76]The three were nationalism, democracy,
[01:19.14]and the people's livelihood.
[01:21.22]Nationalism was interpreted initially
[01:25.27]to mean anti?Manchu,
[01:27.02]while democracy meant a republican form of government.
[01:30.85]The people's livelihood was perceived
[01:34.35]as state ownership of property.
[01:36.54]This would be the solution
[01:39.05]to avoid the problemsof economic inequalities
[01:42.45]experienced in the west.
[01:44.19]Given his knowledge of the west's experience,
[01:48.35]Sun saw this approach
[01:50.76]for China as more practical and reliable.
[01:54.04]His plan for revolution suggested three stages:
[01:58.96]military rule, political tutelage,
[02:02.69]and constitutional government.
[02:05.74]He saw that military rule
[02:08.37]was needed for a period of time
[02:10.67]to rid China of lingering corruption
[02:13.73]from the Qing period,
[02:15.49]and to create an environment of stability
[02:18.66]to create the new Chinese society.
[02:21.72]Political tutelage guardianship,
[02:25.11]for perhaps three years,
[02:27.19]was needed to gradually develop a stronger,
[02:30.47] more permanent political system,
[02:32.88]and to acclimatize the Chinese people
[02:35.73]to these political changes.
[02:38.35]After six years, China might be ready for
[02:42.73]a permanent constitutional republican government.
[02:46.88]He sincerely hoped that
[02:49.51]his plan would permeate China
[02:51.37]with widespread acceptance.
[02:53.56]In 1905, while in Japan,
[02:58.81]Sun was instrumental in setting up
[03:02.09]the United League of China.
[03:03.73]The Wuchang (Wuhan) Revolt,
[03:07.34]in October of 1911,
[03:09.75]brought Sun Yat-sen to Shanghai.
[03:12.37]Shortly after the successful overthrow
[03:16.21]of the Qing Dynasty,
[03:18.07]Sun was elected Interim President
[03:20.58]of the new Republic of China
[03:22.55]in Nanking, the capital.
[03:24.74]This government immediately set out
[03:28.02]to develop a provisional(temporary) constitution.
[03:31.52]However, by February of 1912,
[03:36.67]Sun resigned as president to give way
[03:39.18]to Yuan Shikai,
[03:41.59]who brought with him
[03:43.45]a lot of support from the north,
[03:45.09]which provided the opportunity
[03:46.95]to unify greater parts of China.
[03:50.12]Also in 1912, the United League of China
[03:55.59]set up the Kuomingtang (KMT),
[03:58.00]the National Party of China.
[04:01.61]Yuan Shikai, in the meantime
[04:05.44]betrayed the republic and Sun's trust,
[04:08.50]by attempting to set himself up as a dictator.
[04:12.55]Sun immediately proceeded in pursuit of Yuan
[04:16.93]but was unsuccessful and
[04:19.44]had to go into exile in Japan.
[04:22.18]In 1924, the Kuomingtang convened
[04:27.65]at Guangzhou to establish three principles
[04:31.15]to solidify and strengthen the republic
[04:34.10]and to unify the rest of China.
[04:37.05]These principles included
[04:40.34]developing an alliance with Russia,
[04:42.52]helping farmers, workers, and bourgeoisie,
[04:46.25]and recommending a national conference
[04:49.20]to end the brutal, unequal treaties
[04:52.37]imposed by foreign nations.
[04:54.34]The result was “the Declaration of Beijing”,
[04:59.05]the last official act of Dr. Sun Yat-sen
[05:03.42]before liver cancer took his life
[05:06.37]in March of 1925.
[05:09.00]Sun Yat-sen was widely mourned
[05:12.83]as tributes came in from all over.
[05:15.45]Many intellectuals saw Sun as a man of action,
[05:20.20]a pragmatist, and not as a great intellectual.
[05:24.36]Throughout his life,
[05:26.93]he was not above contradicting his own principles,
[05:30.76]or tolerating opposing views
[05:33.60]or parties to further his cause.
[05:36.11]For Sun, during these turbulent times,
[05:40.16]the end sometimes did seem to justify the means.
[05:44.43] His philosophy changed, over time,
[05:48.26]to meet changing needs.
[05:50.45]For many academics, Sun's career
[05:54.72]was not seen as the making of a myth,
[05:56.57]but as a real man
[05:58.43]dealing with real complex realities of his time.
[06:02.59]His presence, inside and outside of China,
[06:06.75]dominated Chinese history during the late 19th
[06:11.34]and early 20th centuries.
[06:13.09]He adopted and tailored western ideas
[06:17.25]to the Chinese experience,
[06:19.33]in order to create his vision of a new China.
[06:22.72]Many academics also felt that
[06:26.99]Sun's western experiences greatly influenced his work
[06:31.25]and contributed to his predominant place
[06:33.99]in Chinese and world history.
[06:36.61]Before he died, he stated that
[06:40.11]the whole nation had to be awakened
[06:42.52]and united with those
[06:44.05]who treated them equally,
[06:45.92]and fight side by side with them.
[06:48.87]Sun Yat-sen had received the respect
[06:53.03]of people throughout the world,
[06:54.56]even from non-communist sources.
[06:57.95]In China, he became a legend.
[07:01.01]When the Kuomingtang and
[07:04.29]the Communists split in 1927,
[07:07.14]both claimed to be heirs of his work.
[07:10.09]No one can deny Sun Yat-sen his rightful place,
[07:15.02]not only in Chinese history
[07:17.64]but also in world history.
[07:19.83]He truly deserves the title
[07:22.46]and honour of Father of the Chinese Revolution.
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