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新编大学英语阅读部分第三册Unit10-2

Unit 10
Business Strategies

After-Class Reading

PASSAGE I National Stereotypes and Business Behavior

We are repeatedly warned to beware of generalizations yet, paradoxically, it seems that the human mind cannot resist categorizing people and things. We love to "pigeonhole", to make order out of a universe that frequently seems to us confusing and even chaotic.[1] Nowhere is this tendency more evident than in our willingness to generalize about nationalities.[2] We create national stereotypes and cling tenaciously to our prejudices. To illustrate this point, we shall look at the findings of a survey carried out by the market research firm, Parkland Research Europe.
This organization carried out a detailed study of European attitudes by questioning 185 business executives, lawyers, engineers, teachers and other professional people from seven European countries. These were: Germany, France, Britain, Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium. The resulting publication, Guide to National Practices in Western Europe, gave some idea of what Europeans think of each other. It revealed many widely-held stereotypes, but also came up with a few surprises. The following summary gives some of the data from this survey.

Parkland Findings

GERMANS Liked themselves best of all. Most Europeans agreed that the Germans had the highest proportion of good qualities. They considered themselves very tolerant, but nobody else did. They saw themselves as fashionable. Others found them "square"[3].
FRENCH Not Really admired by anyone except the Italians. Other Europeans found them conservative, withdrawn, brilliant, superficial. Also, not very friendly. The French agreed on the last point!
BRITISH Mixed reactions. Some found them calm, reserved, open-minded, trustworthy; others deemed them narrow-minded, insular and superior. Everyone was unanimous that the British had an excellent sense of humor. The British most admired the Dutch.
SWISS Showed considerable lucidity and powers of self-analysis. Saw themselves as serious, trustworthy, but too money-minded[4] and suspicious. Most Europeans agreed. The Swiss liked the Germans best.
ITALIANS Generally considered by everyone to be lazy and untrustworthy. And the Italians agreed! Most also found them to be charming, hospitable and noisy. The Italians admired the French and the Dutch. Hardly anyone loved the Italians except the French.
DUTCH Most admired people in Europe—except by their neighbors—the Belgians. Everyone agreed that the Dutch are hard-working, thrifty, good-natured, tolerant and business-minded. The Netherlands, however, was not considered a good place to live in.
BELGIANS Least admired in this group. They see themselves as easy-going and diligent workers. Other Europeans consider them undisciplined and narrow-minded—and terrible drivers!
As a follow-up to this study, businessmen were asked to imagine they were setting up a multinational company. They had to choose a national for the positions of president, managing director, chief cashier, public relations officer and skilled and unskilled labor.
The Germans came out of this exercise smelling of roses![5] They were the universal choice for the top jobs, and also first choice for skilled workers. The Italians were relegated to the unskilled jobs; the French received massive support for the light-weight public relations post[6]. According to the economist in charge of Parkland Research, "No European picked an Italian as president or chief cashier. Moreover, no Italian or Frenchman picked one of his own nationals as chief cashier!"
What might have been the choices, one speculates, if all nationalities had been eligible for the above posts. Would the Japanese have swept the board?[7] Surely not! Could a Japanese be chosen as chief cashier over a Swiss? And then, what about the Americans? They would surely force their way into[8] the organization structure of this multinational company. And there again[9], there should be room for an industrious Chinese or a shrewd Russian ...
From the theory, we turn to practice. We will conclude by giving some examples of how national characteristics can affect business behavior. We take as our source a study made recently by two British journalists of the problems encountered when Germans work in Britain and vice versa.
The German characteristics of industry and punctuality were illustrated by the example of a German executive who was appointed to the head of a specialist department of his company's branch in London. While he arrived at his office every morning at 9 a.m. on the dot, his senior employees rarely rolled up much before 10 a.m. For several weeks, harsh words were exchanged and tempers became more and more frayed. Finally, however, the German realized that his subordinates frequently worked on until eight or nine in the evening. They were doing certain work in the evening which he did early in the morning. Since most of the company's business was with the US, this kind of work schedule made sense. Eventually, the German changed his working hours—much to his wife's displeasure!
A British executive working in Germany found that he had to modify his employment policies because of the German liking for system and formality. He told the investigating reporters, "A number of the German people we have employed have complained that we did not have a comprehensive enough policy manual." He met the problem by spelling out in company recruitment advertising that employees had to have an understanding and liking for the British way of life. During interviews, he warned prospective employees that they would have to work in a much less formal environment than they were used to. Their colleagues would call them by their first names and expect this practice to be reciprocated.[10] They would work on their own initiative and junior employees especially would probably have more responsibility than their counterparts in German companies.
Finally, the executive stressed that employees would be expected to make decisions based on a "commonsense" interpretation of the company's policy guidelines rather than operate on the principle that "if it's not in the book, it can't be done."
The policy of this executive had certainly paid off since[11], with this approach to recruitment, staff turnover had been reduced significantly. (971 words)


Proper Names

Belgian
比利时人

Belgium
比利时

Italy
意大利

the Netherlands
荷兰

Swiss
瑞士人

Switzerland
瑞士


New Words

categorize *
v. put people or things in a category, classify 把......归类
e.g. I ) Her writing is very individual-it's difficult to categorize.
II) Animals can be categorized according to the food they eat.

chaotic *
adj. in a state of complete disorder and confusion 混乱的
e.g. I ) She leads a very chaotic life, always running around doing several things at once.
II) There were chaotic scenes in shops as people found out that food stocks would soon run out.

commonsense *
adj. having practical good sense and judgment gained from experience, rather than special knowledge from school or study 有常识的,懂情理的
e.g. I like her commonsense approach to everyday problems.

comprehensive
adj. including a lot or everything 广泛的,综合的
e.g. We carried out a comprehensive survey of plant life in the area.

conservative
adj.
1) not liking changes or new ideas 保守的,守旧的
e.g. She argues from a rather conservative standpoint.
2) not very modern in style, taste, manners etc., traditional 不赶时髦的,传统的
e.g. The girl was well dressed, as usual, though in a more conservative style.

counterpart
n. a person or thing that has the same purpose or does the same job as another in a different system 与对方地位相当的人,与另一方作用相当的物
e.g. The Minister of Defense is meeting his American counterpart in Washington today.

deem
v. consider, have the opinion, judge 认为,视为,断定为
e.g. I ) The country would support the use of force if the UN deemed it necessary.
II) She was deemed by the judge to be in contempt of the court.

diligent
adj. showing steady careful effort, hardworking 勤奋的,勤勉的
e.g. The diligent workers finished the project on time.

economist *
n. a specialist in economics 经济学家
e.g. Lloyd's Bank economists are predicting that inflation will rise to five percent this year.

eligible
adj. having the necessary qualities, satisfying the necessary conditions 有条件被选中的,有恰当资格的
e.g. I ) You could be eligible for a university scholarship.
II) Are you eligible for early retirement?

fashionable
adj. characteristic of, influenced by, or representing a current popular trend or style 符合时尚的,时髦的,流行的
e.g. It's not fashionable to wear short skirts at the moment.

formality *
n. careful attention to rules and accepted forms of behavior 拘泥形式,拘谨,遵守礼节
e.g. Even with close friends he observes a certain formality.

fray
v. cause (a person's temper, nerves, etc.) to become worn out 使(脾气等)烦躁

hospitable
adj. (of a person) pleased to welcome and entertain guests 好客的,殷勤的
e.g. Your parents were very hospitable to me when I first came to Edinburgh and knew nobody.

industrious
adj. hardworking, diligent 勤劳的,勤奋的
e.g. She spent an industrious morning in the garden.

insular
adj. narrow-minded and avoiding contact with others 偏狭保守的

lucidity
n. a presumed capacity to perceive the truth directly and instantaneously 洞彻事理

multinational *
adj. (of a company) having factories, offices, or other operations in many different countries 多国的,跨国的
e.g. He works for one of the major multinational food companies.

paradoxically *
adv. in a way that is surprising because it is the opposite of what one would expect 自相矛盾地,反常地
e.g. Paradoxically (enough), the faster he tried to finish, the longer it seemed to take him.

pigeonhole
v. put into the proper class or group 把......归类
e.g. It's the sort of job you can't pigeonhole-he seems to do different things every day.
n. any of a set of box-like divisions in a frame
e.g. on a wall or on top of a desk, for putting papers or letters 鸽笼式文件(信箱)架
e.g. Leave the report in my pigeonhole when you've read it.

prospective
adj. likely to be or become, expected or intended 可能的,预期的,未来的
e.g. We have received letters of application from several prospective candidates.

punctuality *
n. the observance of not being late, happening, doing something, etc., at the exact time 严守时刻,准时
e.g. The boss does expect punctuality from us.

relegate
v. put somebody/something into a lower rank or position 使降位,使降级

reserved *
adj. unwilling to express one's emotions or talk about one's problems 矜持的,沉默寡言的

shrewd
adj. having or showing good judgment and common sense 敏锐的,精明的
e.g. He was shrewd enough not to take the job when there was the possibility of getting a better one a few months later.

speculate
v.
1) form opinions without having definite or complete knowledge or evidence 推测,推断
e.g. I ) I don't really know what happened-I'm just speculating.
II) The expert speculated that the inflation rate would remain low.
2) assume a business risk in hope of gain 投机,做投机买卖
e.g. People who speculate have to be prepared to take the risk of losing money.

tenaciously
adv. in the state of being determined to do something and unwilling to stop trying even when the situation is difficult 坚韧不拔地,执着地

trustworthy
adj. deserving of trust, dependable 值得信赖的,可靠的
e.g. He was an experienced and trustworthy travelling companion.

turnover
n.
1) rate at which workers leave a factory, company, etc. and are replaced 人员流动率,人事变动率
e.g. They have a very high turnover of staff because their working conditions are so bad.
2) the amount of business done in a particular period, measured in money, or the rate at which a particular kind of article is sold 营业额,成交量
e.g. The shop has a turnover of $ 10,000.00 a week.

unanimous
adj. all agreeing on a decision or an opinion 全体一致的,一致同意的,无异议的
e.g. I ) The decision to strike was unanimous.
II) The committee were unanimous that the application should be turned down.

undisciplined *
adj. lacking in discipline, uncontrolled in behavior or manner 不遵守纪律的,难控制的
e.g. People often complain that British children are undisciplined.

Phrases and Expressions

on one's own initiative
without anyone else ordering one to do something or suggesting that one should do it 主动地,自发地
e.g. I ) He went to see the headmaster on his own initiative.
II) On their own initiative they have started a local campaign against the use of tobacco.

on the dot
(informal) at the exact point in time 准时,在指定的时间
e.g. I ) Lessons start at 8 o'clock on the dot.
II) The plane landed on the dot of two o'clock.

pay off
bring good results, be successful 成功
e.g. I ) Did your plan pay off?
II) Sandra was determined to become a doctor and her persistence paid off.

roll up
(informal) arrive, especially late or in some unacceptable way (尤指姗姗来迟地或以某种不当的方式)抵达,到达
e.g. I ) Bill finally rolled up two hours late.
II) I might have known you wouldn't roll up until the meeting had nearly finished.

spell out
explain something clearly and in detail 清楚地说明,详细地解释
e.g. My instructions seem simple enough-do I have to spell them out again?

sweep the hoard
win everything that can be won, especially very easily (轻易地)大获全胜
e.g. I) Switzerland swept the board in the skiing competition.
II) I swept the board at the casino (赌场) last night.

vice versa
with the order changed, with the relations reversed 反之亦然,反过来(也是这样)
e.g. When she wants to go out, he wants to stay in, and vice versa.


PASSAGE II The Japanese Approach to Management

During the 1970s and 1980s, American managers invested much time and money studying Japanese approaches to management because of the fine quality of Japanese products and the general productivity of their organizations. While the American and Japanese cultures differ significantly in many ways, it is still possible to examine Japanese management and discover several relevant principles.
Extensive studies of Japanese organizations have demonstrated that Japanese managers stress the following:
1. Bottom-up Initiative. Japanese managers believe that change and initiative within an organization should come from those closest to the problem. So they elicit change from below. Top-level Japanese managers see their task as creating an atmosphere in which subordinates are motivated to seek better solutions.
2. Top Management as Facilitator. Japanese managers do not view themselves as having all the answers. When a subordinate brings in a proposal, the manager neither accepts nor rejects it. Rather, he tactfully, politely asks questions, makes suggestions, and provides encouragement.
3. Middle Management as Impetus for and Shaper of Solutions. In the Japanese system, junior (middle) managers are initiators who perceive problems and formulate tentative solutions in coordination with others; they are not functional specialists who carry out their boss's directives. Because so much emphasis is placed on coordination and integration, solutions to problems evolve more slowly, but they are known and understood by all those who have been a part of the solution generation process.[1] Horizontal communication[2] is stressed as essential to the coordination of problem-solving efforts.
4. Consensus as a Way of Making Decisions. The Japanese are less inclined to think in terms of absolutes, that is, the solution (which is right) versus the alternatives (which are wrong).[3] Rather, they recognize a range of alternatives, several of which might work and all of which possess advantages and disadvantages. When a group makes a decision, all members become committed to the chosen solution. From a Japanese perspective, that commitment, and the ensuing dedication toward working to make the solution successful, is probably more important than the objective quality of the decision. The Japanese have an interesting concept of consensus. Those who consent to a decision are not necessarily endorsing it. Rather, consent means that each person is satisfied that his point of view has been fairly heard, and although he or she may not wholly agree that the decision is the best one, he or she is willing to go along with it and even support it.
5. Concern for Employees' Personal Well-being. Japanese managers have a kind of paternalistic attitude toward their employees. Traditionally, Japanese organizations have offered their workers housing, extensive recreational facilities, and lifetime employment. The Japanese believe that it is impossible to divorce a worker's personal and professional lives.[4] Good managers express concern for workers as persons with homes and families as well as for the quality of the products the workers produce. Managers typically work alongside their subordinates, counsel them regarding their personal lives, and encourage much peer interaction.
It is interesting that principles that are considered by many to be advantages of the Japanese system can also be viewed as problems, at least from an American perspective. There is a fine line between encouraging consensus and forcing it.[5] When groups place too much emphasis on being agreeable and conforming to organizational expectations, poor quality decision making is a likely outcome. Moreover, the Japanese notion of taking care of employees can extend into an extreme form of paternalism with which few well-educated Americans would be comfortable. It is appropriate to protect children or others who cannot think for or look after themselves. But professionals hardly fall into these categories. Most Americans would prefer an organizational system that makes it possible for them to function as mature, intelligent human beings, responsible for their own security and well-being.
Finally, some authors have suggested that Japanese style management as adapted to American organizations is little more than a tool for even greater management control.[6] An employee who has a life commitment to a particular organization, for instance, becomes vulnerable. Since he does not perceive viable options, he is more likely to tolerate existing working conditions, even if he finds them unpleasant. The employee is also encouraged to become a generalist rather than a specialist. Thus, a person's expertise in a particular area is rarely sufficiently developed so that the organization actually grows to depend on him or her as an irreplaceable employee. Instead, substitutes are readily found. Moreover, should an employee who has worked in this kind of organizational environment decide to abandon his commitment to this organization after a few years of working as a generalist, he would be poorly equipped to move into other American organizations since he would be competing with specialists.
The body of research on Japanese organizations continues to grow. Recent research suggests that one cannot generalize about Japanese workers — that males and females, young and old, differ in their decision-making style and management preference. One study reported that Japanese workers were more passive than commonly thought, preferring to be persuaded of the value of a decision by their supervisor over making the decision themselves.[7] However, a different study found that Japanese managers place a far greater emphasis on corporate participation and cooperation than their American counterparts. Thus, a consistent and coherent view of Japanese organizations does not yet exist.
Like the other approaches to management, the Japanese approach is very interesting. In reminding us of the value of the individual, the need for participative decision making, and the potential of facilitative management, it has been extremely useful. It is not a panacea, however. Because of extreme differences between the Japanese and American cultures, some Japanese management practices are simply poorly suited to American organizations. (950 words)


New Words

agreeable
adj.
1) being in harmony 符合的,一致的
e.g. His reasoning is agreeable to the philosophical principles of Sir Isaac Newton.
2) willing to do something or to allow something to be done 欣然同意的,乐意的
e.g. Bring your wife too, if she is agreeable (to coming).
3) pleasing to the mind or senses 令人愉快的
e.g. The hotel was good and the weather agreeable.

alongside
prep.
1) working in the same place and cooperating with them 和......在一起
e.g. I ) The idea is to get them working on simple things alongside other people.
II) He had worked alongside Frank and Mark and they had become friends.
2) being next to something 在......旁边,沿着......的边
e.g. Much of the industry was located alongside rivers.
adv. close by, along the side, in parallel position 在旁边,沿着边,并排地
e.g. He waited several minutes for a car to pull up along-side.

coherent
adj.
1) well planned so that it is clear and sensible and all its parts go well with each other 一致的,协调的
e.g. He has failed to work out a coherent strategy for modernizing the service.
2) talking in a way that is clear and easy to understand (话语等)条理清楚的,连贯的
e.g. At last his sister was coherent enough to explain.

consensus
n. general agreement amongst a group of people about a subject or about how something should be done (意见等的)一致,一致同意
e.g. There is no consensus among experts about the causes of global warming.

coordination *
n. the act or action of coordinating 协作,协调
e.g. I) There should be greater coordination between doctors and biologists.
II) Both countries agreed to intensify efforts at economic policy coordination.

directive *
n. an official order or instruction 指示,命令
e.g. The management has issued a new directive about the use of company cars.

emphasis
n. (pl. emphases) special importance, value, or prominence given to something 强调,重点
e.g. I) In Japan there is a lot of emphasis on politeness.
II) We should put as much emphasis on preventing disease as we do on curing it.

endorse
v. express formal support or approval for someone or something 赞同,支持
e.g. The committee has endorsed our proposals.

ensuing *
adj. happening after a particular action or event, especially as a result of it 继而发生的
e.g. When the computer cracked, the ensuing problem gave me a headache.

existing
adj. being in use or in operation 现存的,目前的
e.g. Changes will be made to the existing laws.

facilitative *
adj. making something easier 使便利的

facilitator *
n. a person who helps another person to do something or to achieve a particular thing 帮助者
e.g. I see my role as that of a facilitator, enabling other people to work in the way that suits them best.

functional *
adj. of or having a special activity, purpose, or task 职能的,职务上的,起作用的
e.g. There are important functional differences between left and right brain.

generalist
n. one whose skills, interests, or habits are varied and unspecialized (有多方面知识和经验的)通才,多面手

horizontal
adj.
1) of or relating to a position or individual of similar status 相同地位的,同行业的
e.g. All vice-presidents in the company hold horizontal positions, thus have equal power.
2) in a flat position, along or parallel to level ground 水平的,与地平线平行的
e.g. I ) Every horizontal surface in the room was piled high with books.
II) Coal is found in horizontal layers beneath the soil surface in most large coal deposits of the world.

housing *
n. the houses or conditions that people live in [总称]房屋,住房
e.g. The college offers students housing in the dorms.

impetus
n. a force that moves one to action, impulse 推动力,原动力
e.g. The present conflict might provide fresh impetus for peace talks.

initiator *
n. a person who is responsible for thinking of a plan or process or starting it 开始者,发起者
e.g. He was one of the initiators of the tumultuous (混乱的)changes in Eastern Europe.

irreplaceable *
adj. too special, valuable, or unusual to be replaced by anything else 不能为其他事物所替代的
e.g. We'll miss him when he leaves the company, but no one is irreplaceable.

panacea
n. a solution or remedy for all difficulties or diseases 治百病的万灵药,对付一切困难的万能措施

participative *
adj. relating to, or being a style of management in which subordinates participate in decision making 由多人一起参加的
e.g. A participative management style has been developed in Japan to induce better cooperation.

paternalism
n. the system, principle, or practice of managing or governing individuals, business, nations, etc., in the manner of a father dealing benevolently and often intrusively with his children 家长式管理,家长式领导

paternalistic
adj. managing or governing in the manner of a father dealing with his children 家长管理式的,家长作风的

recreational *
adj. relating to things people do in their spare time to relax 消遣的,娱乐的
e.g. The city park provides many recreational activities.

subordinate
n. someone who has a lower position and less authority than someone else in an organization 下级,部属
e.g. Haig tended not to seek guidance from subordinates.
adj. placed in or belonging to a lower order or rank; of less importance 下级的;次要的
e.g. I) The new recruit was subordinate to all of the officers.
II) It was an art in which words were subordinate to images.

viable
adj. capable of working, functioning or developing adequately 可行的,能发展的
e.g. It is important for farms to remain economically viable units.

vulnerable
adj. easily harmed or hurt emotionally, physically, or morally 易受伤害的,脆弱的
e.g. The company would be in a vulnerable position.

wholly
adv. completely 完全地,全部地
e.g. While the two are only days apart in age, they seem to belong to wholly different generations.


Phrases and Expressions

bring in
introduce something 引进,提出
e.g. I ) The government intended to bring in a new law about wearing safety belts in cars.
II) Congress brought in reforms to prevent abuse of presidential power.

carry out
do something that one has been ordered to do 执行
e.g. I ) He explained that he was simply carrying out instructions.
II) An investigation into the cause of the crash will be carried out by the Department of Transport.

fall into
be divided into 分成
e.g. This topic falls naturally into three sections.

go along with
agree with, support 赞同,支持
e.g. They were quite happy to go along with our suggestion.

persuade somebody of something
cause somebody to believe or feel certain, convince 使相信,使信服
e.g. I ) The jury was persuaded of her innocence.
II) We worked hard to persuade him of your seriousness about this.


PASSAGE III Doing Business in Asia

Many Westerners wanting to do business in Asian nations seek information and advice about things they need to know in order to be successful. By Westerners who have already been working in Asian nations, they are told to remember as priorities the five "Fs": family, face, fate, favors and friends. Although they do have some subtle differences in meanings and connotations in different parts of Asia, nevertheless, Western businessmen need to be sensitive to these issues if they wish to be successful. The five "Fs" are explained in the following way.
Family: This means that business is often closely connected to family and that there is a family network that branches out regionally and internationally, providing efficient political, financial and emotional support, as well as distribution knowledge.[1] This networking is particularly obvious among Chinese who control huge business segments in Asia and are by far the most successful business group in the region. Their large presence also helps[2] — Singapore is 77 percent Chinese; Malaysia, 45 percent; Taiwan, a Chinese province, 99 percent. Indonesia and the Philippines also have sizable and prosperous Chinese communities. It is explained that the importance of family goes back to Confucius, who taught that family represents relationships that one can trust. Although families in the West may be connected, they're almost never as closely connected as in Confucian Asia. This family dependence is also true in Korea. The largest corporation in South Korea is Hyundai, a multibillion-dollar company. Headed by the eldest brother, the company's five major divisions are either managed by one of the five brothers, a brother-in-law or a son-in-law.
Face: Two interpretations are given for the meaning of "face". One is literal — Asians like to do business face-to-face. They want to put a face together with a business, to recognize an individual and to associate an individual with a given company. Many foreign companies have made the mistake of sending a series of different executives to Asia during lengthy contract negotiations. They are advised not to do this; that if negotiations are started by one individual they should be completed by that same person if at all possible.[3] However, if a change must be made, then the first person should take the new one and formally present him as his successor so that the two faces are identified.[4] The second interpretation of "face" is that in a way it means "respect". The businessman is told that he must show the "proper respect" according to the age and position of the person he is dealing with and also take into account the size of the person's company in comparison with his own. In Western countries, age is not necessarily given respect, but in Confucian Asia, age is given great respect. Thus businessmen are told to always pay attention to any elderly persons attending a business meeting. They are also warned that it is very difficult for Japanese to speak directly and say no. This too has everything to do with "face". They will do almost anything to avoid saying no, even to the point of not giving an answer at all. By giving no answer or saying something like "I'll think about it", or "I'll consider it", they are "saving face", and really mean "no". This is the opposite of the Western "yes or no" mentality. Thus a Western businessman is warned never to put a Japanese businessman in the position of having to say "yes" or "no".
Businessmen are also given advice about how to show "face" to someone of higher rank. Richard Tallboy, CEO of the World Coal Organization, who has had extensive experience in Asia, tells foreigners not to forget the "Chairman's 1/2 percent for the chairman's own pocket". He says that this means they should always start negotiating at a higher price with Asians. In the first round of negotiations foreigners should allow themselves to come down in price 10 percent. In the second round of negotiations they should at last come down another five percent. Then finally when everyone is ready to sign the contract, the Westerner should allow the chairman to negotiate another 1/2 percent off. This way the chairman can say he was able to achieve more than his staff was able to. Thus he gains great "face". Tallboy concludes that this way everyone is happy and the Westerner is assured that his product will be well taken care of.
Fate: Westerners are told that many Asians strongly believe that fate influences life, that certain events are destined, and that people have lived many lives and will live many more after death. Because of this philosophy, Asians are more willing than most Westerners to accept things they cannot change. Many Westerners may call these beliefs superstitious. However, they are warned to keep these thoughts to themselves and are told to learn about local customs and beliefs in Asia and to respect them.
Favors: Westerners are told that "Always repay a favor" is a common saying among Asians. A favor or debt should never be forgotten. If a Western businessman gets a favor from an Asian, he should expect to repay this favor, no matter how much time passes. Asians are thus serious about the saying, "If you'll scratch my back, I'll scratch yours."[5] In other words, Asian societies are reciprocal societies. The former deputy mayor of New York City, Kenneth Lipper, tells the following story. When he was in Japan for six months in the early 1960s, he suggested the name of a Japanese acquaintance for a possible scholarship. One day, 27 years later in New York City, he received a call from this man who was making his first trip to the United States with his family. Now a top executive in a major Japanese company, he and his family wanted to pay their respects to the man who had done him a favor so long ago.
Friends: If Westerners have no relatives in Asia, they are told that the next best thing to have when doing business in Asia is to have gone to school with someone from there. Asians want to deal with people that they know well, or with people to whom they have been introduced by people they know well. One successful American business executive working in Asia tells people that he spent most of his time developing and maintaining GUANXI, which he explains as a Chinese word meaning ties, relationships, or connections. The Japanese equivalent is KONE. How can Western businessmen make the right connections in Asian countries? Hiring a consultant is one way, but the best way is to make friendships and to keep them. How can a Westerner do this? The answer for those people working in Korea, Thailand and Japan is "golf". Successful businessmen agree that it's the best way to get to know important people in society, the way to meet royalty, top government officials, and corporate chiefs. A lifetime golf membership in Tokyo can cost an incredible one million dollars, but some Western businessmen or their corporations have been willing to pay this because of the connections it will bring.
So, these are the five "Fs": family, face, fate, favors, and friends. These are the priorities for Westerners when they are doing business in Asia. (1210 words)


Proper Names

Confucian
adj. 儒家的,孔子的

Confucius
孔子

Hyundai
(韩国公司名)现代集团

Indonesia
印度尼西亚

Kenneth Lipper
(男子名)肯尼思.利珀

Korea
朝鲜

Malaysia
马来西亚

Philippines
菲律宾

Richard Tallboy
(男子名)理查德.塔尔伯

Singapore
新加坡

South Korea
韩国

Thailand
泰国

Tokyo
东京


New Words

distribution
n.
1) the marketing, transporting, and selling of goods 货物的推销、运输、销售
e.g. The company has an extensive international distribution network.
2) the action or process of dividing and giving out in shares 分发,分配
e.g. His job is to organize the distribution of money to students.
3) the state or manner of spreading throughout a space or over an area 散布,分布
e.g. The distribution of these animals has changed in the last century.

division
n.
1) a large part of an organization, company, etc., consisting of several smaller parts 部门
e.g. The manufacturing division was sold to another company.
2) the act of dividing something into different parts or the way it is divided 分,分开
e.g. The fence marks the division between the neighbors' yards.

literal
adj. taking words in their usual or most basic sense 照字面的,原义的
e.g. In many cases, the people there are fighting, in a literal sense, for their homes.

mentality *
n. a particular kind of attitude or way of thinking, especially one that you think is wrong or stupid 心态,思想方法
e.g. She says I have a slave mentality.

negotiate
v.
1) discuss something in order to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics 协商,谈判
e.g. They called off the action to make it easier for the union leaders and employers to negotiate.
2) obtain or bring about by negotiating 议定,商定
e.g. I've managed to negotiate a five percent pay increase with my boss.

networking *
n.
1) the exchange of information or services among individuals, groups, or institutions 一种互相性的网络体系
e.g. If executives fail to exploit the opportunities of networking, they risk being left out.
2) the design, establishment or use of a computer network 计算机网络的设计、建立或利用
e.g. Modern networking provides access to all these systems from several hundred terminals.

prosperous
adj. successful and rich 繁荣的,兴旺的
e.g. I ) She was the second daughter of a prosperous merchant banker.
II) We wish you a Merry Christmas and a prosperous New Year.

reciprocal
adj. given and received in return, exchanged between two people or groups 有来有往的,互相的,互惠的
e.g. Many states have passed laws that will allow nationwide reciprocal banking.

repay
v.
1) reward someone for helping you 报答,回报
e.g. How can I ever repay his kindness?
2) pay back money that you have borrowed 归还,偿还
e.g. He had to sell his car to repay the loan from the bank.

scholarship
n.
1) an amount of money that is given to someone by an educational organization to help pay for their education 奖学金
e.g. I) I applied for several scholarships to help pay for school.
II) She won a scholarship to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (麻省理工学院).
2) serious academic study and the knowledge that is obtained from it 学问,学识,学术研究
e.g. I want to take advantage of your lifetime of scholarship.

sizable or sizeable *
adj. fairly large 相当大的
e.g. He made a sizable income from renting his land.

successor
n. a person or thing that succeeds another 接替的人或物,继任者
e.g. I ) John Major got the leadership because he was seen as the natural successor of Mrs Thatcher.
II) This range of computers is very fast, but their successors' will be even faster.

superstitious
adj. influenced by old-fashioned beliefs about luck and magic 迷信的
e.g. The superstitious girl walked on the sidewalk without stepping on cracks.

Phrases and Expressions

branch out
add to the range of one's interests or activities 扩大(兴趣、活动)范围
e.g. The bookshop has decided to branch out into selling records and tapes.

by far
by a large amount or degree 最......
e.g. I ) This was by far the largest city in the area.
II) By far the most important issue for them is unemployment.

come down
fall to a lower level 下跌,下降
e.g. I ) The price of oil has come down dramatically.
II) John came down in my opinion after his bad behavior.

in other words
used to express an idea or opinion in a way that is easier to understand 换句话说,也就是说
e.g. The company says it has to reduce its labor costs; in other words, some of us are going to lose our jobs.

take into account
to give proper consideration to a fact, situation, etc. 考虑,注意
e.g. His exam results were not very good, but we must take into account his long illness.
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