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新编大学英语阅读部分第二册Unit01-2

Unit 1
Food

After-Class Reading

PASSAGE I The Menu

Proper Names

Delmonico's
德尔莫尼柯餐馆(美国纽约市餐馆名)

New Words
achieve *
v. succeed in doing (something) or reaching (an aim) 获得或达到
e.g. Though highly respected for her writing, she never achieved much commercial success.

appetite *
n. a desire for food 食欲,胃口
e.g. The American visitor had a big appetite because he liked the Chinese food.

association *
n. group of people joined together voluntarily for a common purpose 社团,协会,学会
e.g. Do you belong to any professional associations?

cafeteria *
n. a restaurant in which diners select food at a counter and carry it to tables 自助餐馆

casual *
adj. occasional 偶尔的; informal 非正式的
e.g. We also offer a wide range of activities which are available on a daily basis to casual visitors.

chalkboard
n. (AmE) a blackboard 黑板

commonly *
adv. usually or by most people 通常地,常常地
e.g. Elbow injuries are commonly found among tennis players.

decline *
n. the condition or process of becoming less in quantity, importance, or quality 消减
e.g. I ) The city's population is in decline.
II ) Many forms of organized religion seem to be on the decline.

diner
n. someone who is having dinner in a restaurant 食客

distinctive
adj. having a special quality, characteristic, or appearance that is different or easy to recognize 有区别的,有特色的
e.g. I caught her distinctive handwriting on the envelope.

documentation
n. official documents that are used to prove that something is true or correct 文献资料,文件证据
e.g. Do you have documentation that proves you paid these bills?

drive-in
n. place to order from one's car 顾客无需下车即可得到服务的餐馆

expression *
n. a word or group of words with a particular meaning 表示,表达
e.g. "Round the bend" is an old-fashioned expression meaning "crazy".

feature *
v. show a particular person or thing 给某物显著地位,将......特写
e.g. The hour-long program will be updated each week and feature highlights (最精彩的部分) of recent games.

formal *
adj. 正式的
e.g. No formal announcement has been made.

graphics *
n. the activity of drawing or making pictures, especially in publishing, industry, or computing 制图法,制图学
e.g. Computer graphics is taught today in many American high schools and colleges.

guideline *
n. official instructions about the best way to do something 指导方针
e.g. The EU has issued some guidelines on appropriate levels of pay for part-time manual (体力) workers.

handle *
v. touch, pick up or carry 拿,抓
e.g. Wash your hand before you handle food.

historian *
n. someone who studies or writes about history 历史学家

legibility
n. the quality of being clear enough for one to read (字迹、印刷)清晰,易读

management
n. the control and organization of something 经营,管理

mood *
n. the way one feels at a particular time 心境,情绪
e.g. He's in quite a good mood, in spite of everything.

originality *
n. the quality of being completely new and different from anything that anyone has thought of before 独特
e.g. The Microsoft Corporation showed great originality when they created "Windows" software for computers.

pancake
n. 薄煎饼

photography *
n. 摄影,照相

pizza
n. 意大利馅饼,比萨饼

pleasing
adj. that gives someone satisfaction or enjoyment 令人喜爱的,合意的
e.g. It was a very pleasing result.

preserve *
v. save something from being harmed or destroyed 保存
e.g. We want to preserve the character of the town while improving the facilities.

printing *
n. the process of making a book, magazine, etc. 印刷
e.g. The book was so popular that it went into its fifth printing.

publication *
n. book, periodical, etc. that is published 出版物
e.g. The publication was well received by the students.

rationing
n. a system of limiting the amount of something that each person is allowed to have 定量供应

recitation *
n. the act of saying something aloud 背诵,朗诵

singular *
adj. of an unusually high quality and standard, outstanding 突出的

souvenir
n. an object someone keeps to remind oneself of a special occasion or a place one has visited 纪念品

steak *
n. 牛排
e.g. Do you want your steak rare, medium, or well done?

theme *
n. the main subject or area in a piece of writing, speech, film, etc. 主题
e.g. The theme music from Titanic won two Oscar Awards, one for best song of the year in a movie and one for best background music for a serious movie.

underestimate *
v. think that something is smaller, cheaper, less important, etc. than it really is 低估
e.g. People often underestimate the importance of training.

version *
n. a particular variant of something 版本
e.g. An English-language version of the book is planned for the autumn.

voyage *
n. a long journey, especially on a ship or in a spacecraft 航行
e.g. He aims to follow Columbus' voyage to the West Indies.

The Menu

Food history tells us that in early restaurants the recitation of the available food dishes became an increasingly time-consuming chore; therefore, written menus were developed to help guide diners in their eating choices. This list of dishes was commonly handwritten on a chalkboard or listed on a board that could be easily seen by the customers. Developments in printing finally led to a change and the larger restaurants'floor plans[1] made a single handwritten menu impractical, so printed menus were introduced.
Delmonico's restaurant in New York City is often given credit for introducing the first printed menu in the United States in 1834. That menu, as well as others of the period, was simple in design and offered specific information. Special occasions led to a call for unique designs and eventually led to more highly decorated menus.
For the most part, however, menu decoration followed the art movements of the time. The highly decorated late 19th century menus, which were influenced by Victorian art[2], gave way to modern art in the 20th century. Developments with graphics and printing allowed distinctive menu cover art.
By the 1930s, the menu was seen as a part of the restaurant's plan to create a memorable meal. It could develop an appetite, tell a joke, explain a food item, create a mood, tell something of the history of the restaurant, and, above all, sell some food. Restaurant trade publications encouraged the use of the menu as part of the business strategy, and the National Restaurant Association promoted effective menu graphics in its annual competition of best menus in the nation. Its guidelines for judging included (1) originality, (2) legibility, (3) ease of handling, and (4) sales effectiveness. Restaurant Management magazine in its November 1935 issue stated that most restaurant owners considerably underestimated the importance of the appearance of the menu. The magazine went on to say that the menu really has two important functions: (1) to sell food; and (2) to repeat and emphasize the unique atmosphere of that restaurant.
In spite of the Depression of the 1930s[3], restaurants did well and menu design became important. There were increasing numbers of many different types of restaurants during this decade, including cafeterias, drive-ins, and lunch counters[4]in stores, as well as the traditional, more formal restaurants. Many of the restaurants developed themes in food, decoration and menu styles.
Progress in printing, photography, and especially color photography opened up more opportunities for creative expression. During the Second World War food rationing often hurt the business of restaurants, but as soon as victory was achieved, eating out became very popular again.
In spite of the risks of casual dining and fast food restaurants, the mid-20th century provided many new opportunities for creative menu design. By the end of the 1960s, the increasingly popular coffee shops and restaurants that featured a singular item such as pizza, steak, or pancakes used new menu graphics. The 1970s brought a decline in eating out, but the 1980s, especially in homes where both parents were working, brought a big increase in the demand for many types of restaurants. Since then, menu design has provided the American public with a pleasing prelude to the dining experience.
Some popular historians are studying menus as a very special kind of documentation of America's love of eating out. For many generations of diners, taking a restaurant menu has been a way of preserving a memory or documenting a trip or a voyage. Many restaurants have provided customers with souvenir versions of their menus. The restaurant owners believe that this is a good way of advertising. Thus the menu now serves a new, but also important function.

Phrases and Expressions

above all
most important of all 最重要的
e.g. I ) It's too far, too late, and above all, too dangerous.
II ) Max is fair, hardworking, and above all, honest.

eat out
have dinner in a restaurant 出去吃饭

give.. .credit for...
praise/respect... for... 因......赞扬/尊敬.....
e.g. I gave him credit for his judgement.

give way to
yield 让位于
e.g. Give way to traffic coming from the left, especially at roundabouts.



PASSAGE II The Nutrients in Food

New Words

absorption *
n. the fact or activity of taking in something 吸收
e.g. Some poisonous gases can enter the body by absorption through the skin.

acid *
n. 酸
e.g. Because the pH (value) of this liquid is below 7.0 we can say it is an acid.

amino acid
n. 氨基酸

anemia
n. 贫血症

automobile *
n. (AmE) 汽车,机动车

bacon *
n. 熏猪肉,咸猪肉

calcium *
n. 钙

carbohydrate
n. 碳水化合物,糖类; (plural) 淀粉质或糖类食物

citrus
n. 柑橘属果树
e.g. citrus fruits

clot
v. 使 (血等) 凝固
e.g. Aspirin (阿司匹林) apparently thins the blood and inhibits clotting.

cod
n. 鳕

headlight
n. one of the large lights at the front of a vehicle (汽车等的) 前灯

jelly
n. 果冻

leafy
adj. 长有叶子的

lemon *
n. 柠檬

liver *
n. 肝脏

milligram
n. 毫克 (千分之一克)

mineral *
n. 矿物质
e.g. Many people drink mineral water (矿泉水) because they do not want to drink tap water (自来水).

mixture *
n. 混合物
e.g. The mixture of flour, water, and yeast (酵母) is then left in a warm place for four hours.

nutrient
n. a chemical or food that provides what is needed for plants or animals to live and grow 营养成分

nutritionist
n. 营养学家

oxygen *
n. 氧,氧气

pepper
n. 辣椒

phosphorus
n. 磷

pollution *
n. 污染
e.g. People should be concerned about the continuing pollution of the environment.

poultry
n. meat from domestic birds such as chickens, turkeys, and ducks (总称)家禽肉

rickets
n. 佝偻病

starch
n. 淀粉

tissue *
n. [生] 组织
e.g. All the cells and tissues in the body benefit from the increased intake of oxygen.

tropical *
adj. 热带的
e.g. Tropical forests contain around half of the world's species of animals and plants.

ultraviolet *
adj. 紫外(线)的
e.g. The sun's ultraviolet rays are responsible for both tanning (晒黑) and burning.

The Nutrients in Food

Nutrients are the parts of food that are important for life and health. Nutrients are important for three reasons. First, some nutrients provide fuel and energy. Second, some nutrients build and repair body tissues. Third, some nutrients help control different processes of the body like the absorption of minerals and the clotting of blood. Scientists think there are 40 to 50 nutrients. These nutrients are divided into five general groups: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.
The first group of nutrients is carbohydrates. There are two kinds of carbohydrates: starches and sugars. Bread, potatoes, and rice are starches. They have many carbohydrates. Candy, soft drinks, jelly, and other foods with sugar also have carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are important because they provide the body with heat and energy. Sugar, for instance, is 100 percent energy. It has no other food value. Sugar does not build body tissues or control body processes. If there are too many carbohydrates in the body, they are stored as body fat. The body stores fuel as fat.
There are two types of fats: animal and vegetable. Butter, cream, and the fat in bacon are animal fats. Olive oil, corn oil, and peanut oil are vegetable fats. The body has fat under the skin and around some of the organs inside. The average adult has 10 to 11 kilograms of body fat. If adults eat too many carbohydrates and fats, they can add another 45 kilograms to their bodies. Fat is extra fuel. When the body needs energy, it changes the fat into carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are used for energy. Fat also keeps the body warm.
The third group of nutrients is protein. The word "protein" comes from a Greek word that means "of first importance". Proteins are "of first importance" because they are necessary for life. Proteins are made of amino acids, which build and repair body tissues. They are an important part of muscles, organs, skin, and hair. The body has 22 different amino acids. Nutritionists call eight of these amino acids essential because the body does not manufacture them.
There are two kinds of proteins: complete proteins and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins, which the body needs for growth, have all the essential amino acids. Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, and cheese have complete proteins. The body needs complete proteins every day. Incomplete proteins do not have all the essential amino acids. The proteins in vegetables and grains, for instance, are incomplete proteins. Two ways to form complete proteins from incomplete proteins are: (1) to mix vegetables and grains correctly, or (2) to add a small amount of meat or milk to a large amount of grains. The body can then use the complete proteins which result from the mixtures.
Extra protein in the body can be changed to fat and stored as body fat. It can also be changed to carbohydrates and used for energy. If people do not eat enough carbohydrates for the energy that they need, their body uses proteins for energy. Then the body does not have the proteins that it needs to build and repair tissues. A nutritious diet includes carbohydrates and fats for energy, and proteins for growth.
The fourth group of nutrients is minerals. More than twenty different minerals are in the body. Three of the most important minerals are calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Calcium and phosphorus work together. The bones and the teeth have 99 percent of the calcium in the body. If people have enough calcium and phosphorus, their bones and teeth will be strong and hard. In addition, their muscles, nerves, and heart will work correctly. Milk and hard cheeses are the best sources of calcium. After the age of 19, people need 400 to 500 milligrams of calcium a day. People who do not drink three glasses of milk daily can eat 50 hamburgers or 56 apples to get the calcium they need.
Iron is the mineral that makes blood look red. All lean meats have iron; liver is an especially good source of iron. Whole grains[1], nuts, some vegetables, and dried fruits also have iron. If there is not enough iron in their diets, people will get a disease that is commonly called anemia. Anemia is found all over the world. People with anemia do not have enough iron in their blood. Because iron carries oxygen, people who do not have enough iron do not get enough oxygen for their normal activities. Their hearts beat faster so their bodies can get more oxygen. People who have anemia often get tired easily. Sometimes their skin looks white; it does not look pink and healthy.
Nutritionists think there are thirteen vitamins that humans need. Vitamins are important because they prevent diseases and help control body processes. Vitamin A is important for healthy skin and eyes. People who do not have enough vitamin A may have night blindness. Some automobile accidents happen in the evening because people who lack vitamin A do not see the road well after they look at the bright headlights of a car. Vitamin A in the diet comes from deep yellow fruits and vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables, and whole milk [2].
When people have enough B vitamins, their appetite is good and their nerves are calm. B vitamins in the diet come from some meats and vegetables, milk, cottage cheese[3], and whole grains. When a grain is processed, it loses vitamins. For example, there is a big difference between brown and white rice. When rice is processed, the brown outside is lost. The brown outside of rice has an important B vitamin which white rice lacks. In short, brown rice has more B vitamins than processed rice.
Vitamin C keeps the cells of the body together. It helps skin tissue recover from cuts and burns. Vitamin C in the diet comes from tomatoes, citrus fruits like lemons and oranges, and some vegetables such as cabbage and green peppers.
Vitamin D is called the "sunshine" vitamin. When people sit outside, ultra- violet rays from the sun change a fat in their skin to vitamin D. Vitamin D is also in cod liver oil and the yellow of eggs. It is sometimes added to milk. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. It helps build strong bones, and it prevents a disease in children that is called rickets. When children have this disease, their bones bend because they do not become hard. Rickets is seldom found in sunny, tropical countries. Rickets is more common in countries that have long winters with little sunshine, in cities that have pollution that keeps the sun out, and in towns surrounded by mountains that keep the sun out.
There is no one food that is essential, but there are nutrients that are necessary for good health. If people want to be healthy and active, they need to get all the essential nutrients. A healthy body needs carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.


Phrases and Expressions

in short
总之,简言之
e.g. I ) The hotel was miles from the center, it was noisy and the food was awful; in short, I wouldn't recommend it.
II) She was surrounded by doctors, lawyers, housewives--people, in short, like herself.
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