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Unit 10
Man and Animals

In-Class Reading

Aggression in Humans and Animals

I. Word List
Directions: Memorize the words and phrases before class. You will benefit from your effort when you get the passage from your teacher and read it in class.

Proper Names

Anthony Storr

the United Nations

New Words

abnormal *
adj. 不正常的
e.g. abnormal behavior/weather/conditions/heart rhythm (心律)

absorb *
v. 并入,同化
e.g. The US was able to absorb thousands of new immigrants.

accumulation *
n. a large number of things which have been collected together or acquired over a period of time 积累,积聚
e.g. Accumulations of sand can be formed by the action of waves on coastal beaches.

aggressive *
adj. 侵犯的,攻击的,挑衅的
e.g. If I criticize him he gets very aggressive and starts shouting.

assert *
v. state an opinion, claim a right or establish authority forcefully 断定,主张

available *
adj. be able to be used or can easily be bought or found 可利用的,可获得的
e.g. We have already used up all the available space.

beast *
n. an animal, especially a large or dangerous one 野兽,牲畜

behave *
v. do things in a particular way 表现,举止
e.g. I'm sorry about last night--I behaved like a child.

bomb *
n. 炸弹

bored *
adj. feeling tired and impatient because you have lost interest in something or because you have nothing to do 厌烦的,厌倦的
e.g. I am getting very bored with this entire business.

adj. dull and uninteresting 令人厌烦的
e.g. Not only are mothers not paid but also most of their boring or difficult work is unnoticed.

caged *
adj. inside a cage 困在笼中的
e.g. Mark was still pacing like a caged animal.

adj. 集中的

chart *
n. 图表

competition *
n. 竞争
e.g. There's been some fierce (激烈的) competition for the position.

conflict *
n. fighting or a war 冲突
e.g. We wish to avoid conflict between our countries if at all possible.

adj. having a good effect or likely to produce good results 建设性的
e.g. If you don't have anything constructive to say I'd rather you kept quiet.

continually *
adv. 不停地,频频
e.g. They are continually arguing.

n. 工匠,能工巧匠

crowded *
adj. full of people 拥挤的
e.g. By ten o'clock the bar was crowded.

destructive *
adj. causing damage to people or things 破坏性的,毁灭性的
e.g. Modern weapons have an extremely high destructive force.

evidently *
adv. clearly, obviously 明显地
e.g. Mary was evidently upset when she heard about Tom's death.

frustrated *
adj. annoyed or discouraged because of difficulties or problems which you are unable to deal with 灰心的,沮丧的
e.g. He gets frustrated when he can't win.

gesture *
n. 姿势
e.g. Jim raised his head in a despairing gesture.

grassy *
adj. 长满草的
e.g. a grassy hillside /slope (斜坡)

hesitate *
v. be unwilling to do something because you are not sure or nervous 犹豫,踌躇
e.g. Don't hesitate to contact me if you need any more information.

impersonal *
adj. not showing any feelings of sympathy, friendliness, etc.
e.g. She left a short impersonal note, saying that she was leaving.

impulse *
n. a sudden strong desire to do something before thinking whether it is a sensible thing to do 冲动
e.g. Unable to resist the impulse, he glanced at the sea again.

inhabitant *
n. 居民,住户
e.g. The inhabitants of the village protested against the new road.

injure *
v. hurt, cause physical harm to 伤害,损伤

injured *
adj. 受伤的
e.g. She was told to stay in bed to rest her injured back.

instinct *
n. the natural tendency that a person or animal has to behave or react in a particular way 本能
e.g. I don't have as strong a maternal instinct as some other people.

v. go into a place or situation in which you are not wanted or not expected to be 闯入,侵入

n. 闯入者,侵入者

adv. 讽刺地,具有讽刺性地

jungle *
n. 丛林

adj. 大规模的,大范围的

likelihood *
n. probability 可能性
e.g. There is little likelihood now that interest rates will come down further.

loser *
n. 输者,失败者

mechanical *
adj. without thinking about what you are doing, especially because you do it often 机械的,呆板的
e.g. The children were being taught to read in a mechanical way.

necessarily *
adv. 必然地

not necessarily
possibly but not certainly
e.g. Expensive restaurants are not necessarily the best.

paw *
n. an animal's foot that has nails or claws 爪子

adj. 史前的
prey *
n. 猎物

remote *
adj. far away in space or time 遥远的,偏僻的
e.g. The house was very remote and I felt lonely all the time.

scale *
n. 规模,范围
e.g. There has been development on a massive scale since 1980.

species *
n. (单复数同)种
e.g. Biologists have estimated that there are around one million animals and plant species living in the rainforests.

n. the state of being completely controlled by a person or group, and accepting you have to obey them 屈服,投降

survive *
v. continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to dying or being destroyed or after being in a difficult or threatening situation 幸存
e.g. These plants cannot survive in very cold conditions.

territory *
n. 领土,领地

adj. 领土的,领地的

tiger *
n. 老虎

undoubtedly *
adv. 毫无疑问地
e.g. It's undoubtedly the best French film this year.

unusually *
adv. 特别地
e.g. He was unusually polite.

violent *
adj. using force to hurt or attack 暴力的,暴力引起的
e.g. Don't be so violent to your brother.

adj. 非暴力的

wander *
v. walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction 漫游,闲逛
e.g. We spent the morning wandering around the old part of the city.

n. a continuous struggle between groups, countries, etc. 战争

n. 动物学家

Aggression in Humans and Animals

1 Man must be the most aggressive and cruel of all living creatures. We may say a violent man is behaving "like a beast", but, in fact, no beast behaves as violently as man. When a territorial animal or bird intrudes on the territory of another creature of the same species, the latter will only perform some hostile gestures to warn off the intruder. Nevertheless, should a fight follow, neither creature will be badly hurt, for the loser will save himself by making a gesture of submission. Normally one animal will only kill another for food, and rarely does an animal kill a member of its own species.
2 If, however, an animal finds itself in abnormal conditions, it may show abnormal aggressiveness. A tiger that once came out of the jungle into a village and attacked a man was later found to have an injured paw that had evidently prevented it from hunting its usual prey. If it had not had this disability it would have undoubtedly stayed in the jungle and hunted for food in the customary way. Animals in zoos are kept in cages and often become more aggressive than they would be in the wild. If the caged lion, for example, were free to wander on the grassy plains of Africa, it would be continually active, ranging over long distances, hunting in family groups. In the zoo it is probably better fed and cared for, but it is evidently bored and frustrated for lack of company.
3 Some zoologists and psychologists compare modern man to a caged lion. Living conditions in crowded cities, they say, are similar to those of animals in a zoo and make the inhabitants unusually aggressive. If the human population had not increased so rapidly, people would have had more space and freedom. In prehistoric times a group of about 60 people had many kilometres of empty land to wander and search for food in. If conditions had remained thus, man might have been no more aggressive than his fellow creatures. As it is, it is possible for as many as 30,000 people to be working in a single office-building. It is not surprising if in these conditions people behave aggressively towards each other. In fact, it is almost impossible for them to behave otherwise. Man must have become more aggressive over the years as the world population has increased.
4 However, aggression in itself is not necessarily a bad thing. Some psychologists believe that aggression is a basic human instinct that must be satisfied. If constructive means are not available to satisfy this instinct, man will turn to destructive means. The impulse to assert himself has enabled him to survive in a dangerous world, but, ironically, he is now likely to destroy his own species unless alternative, non-violent ways of expressing aggression can be found. In fact, it is growing more and more difficult for people to assert themselves as individuals, as towns, nations and organizations become steadily bigger, with authority increasingly centralized and remote. A man who may once have been a self-employed craftsman, master of his own trade, might now have a boring job in a factory. A small firm that once worked as a team to produce high-quality goods is likely to be absorbed into a vast organization where their work is mechanical and there is no possibility for personal expression. Unable in these conditions to channel their aggression into creative work, people will probably express it through resentment and anger. At the international level an accumulation of hostile emotions finally finds expression in large-scale impersonal warfare. A man who would hesitate to hit another person in front of his eyes may kill thousands of people by dropping a bomb from a plane; to him they are too remote to be human beings, but are merely figures on a chart of his routine job.
5 Nevertheless, it might be possible at least to improve the situation. The encouragement of competition in all possible fields should tend to diminish the likelihood of war rather than increase it. In his book Human Aggression, Anthony Storr suggested that the United Nations should organize international competitions in sports and also for the best designed house or hospital, or the safest car. Even the enormous amount of money and energy devoted to the space race is, he says, to be welcomed, for this kind of competition can be regarded as similar to the ritual conflicts of animals. Only if hostility and aggression can be expressed in constructive activity and non-violent competition, will the human race be able to survive. (761 words)

Time taken: _____ minutes

Phrases and Expressions

as it is
according to the situation that actually exists, especially when that situation is different from what you expected or need 实际上
e.g. They hoped to finish the kitchen by Friday, but as it is they'll probably have to come back next week.

assert oneself 显示自己的权威,坚持自己的权利
e.g. Women assert themselves more nowadays and do not tolerate unfair treatment from men like they once did.

care for 关心,照顾
e.g. Who will care for the children when she is in the hospital?

compare ...to 把......比作
e.g. Shakespeare (莎士比亚) compared the world to a stage.

find expression in something
find the way in which feelings and ideas are shown in particular events 在......中表达出来
e.g. Her concern has now found expression in the new environmental protection act (法令).

in itself 本身
e.g. The talk was all right in itself but it went on too long.

regard ... as 把......看作
e.g. He was regarded as the most successful businessman.

turn to
ask for help or support 求助于,借助于
e.g. Her family lived a long way away, and she had no one to turn to.

warn off
tell someone to go away or to stop doing something because of possible danger or punishment 告戒......离开
e.g. They warned him off, but he kept going back to the dangerous river.
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