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新编大学英语阅读部分第一册Unit06-2

Unit 6
Shopping

After-Class Reading


PASSAGE I About Buying Things

New Words

catalogue *
n. a list (of names, places, goods, etc.) in a special order 目录,一览表

compensation
n. 赔偿

contract *
n. 合同
e.g. He has agreed on the salary terms and is ready to sign a new contract.

delivery *
n. the act or process of bringing goods, letters etc. to the person or place they have been sent to (货物或邮件的)投递,送交
e.g. Your order is ready for delivery.

recorded delivery
记录式邮递

display *
n. an attractive arrangement of objects for people to look at or buy 陈列,展览
e.g. There is an Egyptian art collection on display at the museum at the moment.

faulty
adj. 有缺点的,有过失的

glue *
n. a sticky substance used for joining things together 胶水

handy *
adj. near and easy to reach 手边的,方便的
e.g. I ) A remote control for the TV would be very handy.
II) The house is quite handy for the school.

ignore *
v. intentionally not listen or give attention to 忽视
e.g. How can the government ignore the wishes of the majority?

illegal *
adj. not allowed by the law 违法的
e.g. It is illegal to drive a car that is not taxed and insured .

jot
v. make a quick short note 记简短的笔记

leather *
n. 皮革

marketable
adj. 可卖的,适于出售的

photocopy
n. 影印件

proof *
n. facts, information, documents, etc. that prove something is true 证据
e.g. Keep your receipt as proof of purchase.

quality *
n. the degree to which something is good or bad 质量
e.g. He is not interested in quality. All he cares about is making money.

receipt *
n. 收据,收条

reference *
n. 书信等的编号
e.g. Please quote our reference when replying. 回信时请注明我方函件编号。

refund
n. a sum of money that is given back to you 退还款

reject *
v. 抛弃,摒弃
e.g. Imperfect articles are rejected by our quality control.

responsibility *
n. 责任
e.g. It's my responsibility to lock the doors.

shirtsleeves * (plural)
n. 衬衣袖子

strictly *
adv. exactly and completely 严格地
e.g. Smoking is strictly prohibited.

trader *
n. 商人

tricky *
adj. 复杂的,棘手的,微妙的
e.g. a tricky situation/problem/decision

wriggle
v. 扭动,蠕动


About Buying Things

What the Law Says about Buying Things

When you buy something, you and the seller make a contract. Even if all you do is talk! The seller—not the manufacturer—must sort out your complaint.
The law has three rules:
i) Goods must be of marketable quality. This means that they must be reasonably fit for their normal purpose. Bear in mind the price and how the item was described. A new item must not be broken or damaged. It must work properly. But if it is cheap, second-hand or a "second[1]" you cannot expect top quality.
ii) Goods must be as described—on the package, a display sign or by the seller. Shirtsleeves must not be long if marked "short" on the box. Plastic shoes should not be called leather.
iii) Goods must be fit for any particular purpose made known to the seller.[2] If the shop says a glue will mend china, then it should.
All goods—including those bought in sales—are covered[3] (food too) if bought from a trader—for example, from shops, in street markets, through mail order catalogues or from door-to-door sellers.

Please Note

If you are entitled to reject something, take it back yourself if you can. It is quicker and you can discuss it face to face. Strictly speaking, the seller should accept it. You may be able to claim extra compensation if you suffer loss from a faulty buy, for example, when a faulty iron[4] ruins clothes.

Making Your Complaint

To make a complaint:
stop using the item and tell the shop at once;
take it back (if you can);
take a receipt or proof of purchase (if you can);
ask for the manager or owner;
keep calm.
If it is a tricky problem it may be better to write. To be on the safe side it is better to use recorded delivery. Keep copies of all letters. Do not send receipts or other proofs of purchase—give reference numbers or send photocopies.
If you phone:
first make a note of what you want to say;
have receipts and useful facts handy;
get the name of the person you speak to;
jot down the date and time and what is said;
keep calm!
If you see the notice NO REFUNDS you can ignore it. Such notices are illegal, even for sales goods. A trader cannot wriggle out of his responsibility if he sells you faulty goods. (404 words)

Phrases and Expressions

bear ... in mind
remember
e.g. I think that's excellent advice to bear in mind.

be entitled to (do) something
have the right to have something or do something
e.g. If you fail three times, you are not entitled to try any more.

be on the safe side
do something especially carefully in order to avoid an unpleasant situation 为慎重起见
e.g. I'd take an umbrella, just to be on the safe side.

even if 尽管
e.g. Even if I have to walk all the way I'll get there.

face to face
(of two people) in front of each other 面对面
e.g. I've never met her face to face. We've only talked on the phone.

jot ... down
write something quickly
e.g. Let me jot down your number and I'll call you tomorrow.

sort out to deal with (problems) 解决(问题)
e.g. There has been a mistake. I'll try to sort things out and call you back.

strictly speaking
being completely accurate 严格说来
e.g. Strictly speaking, spiders (蜘蛛) are not insects, although most people think they are.

wriggle out of
avoid doing something by using clever excuses 靠耍滑或找借口避免
e.g. She managed to wriggle out of answering all the questions.


PASSAGE II The Older Subculture

Proper Names

Gallup poll
盖洛普民意测验


New Words

attractive *
adj. 有吸引力的
e.g. I don't find him at all attractive.

cereal *
n. 谷类食物 (尤指加工包装好的即食早餐食品)

comprise *
v. be made up of 构成,组成
e.g. Italian students comprise 60% of the class.

considerably *
adv. much, a great deal
e.g. It's considerably colder this morning.

covering
n. something that covers or hides something else 遮盖物

current *
adj. of the present time 当前的,现今的
e.g. current issues/problems/price/girlfriend

disabled *
adj. 残疾的
e.g. The accident left him severely disabled.

executive *
n. 经理,董事

faculty *
n. 能力
e.g. Computers may one day be able to compensate for some of the missing faculties of disabled people.

impaired *
adj. not as good as before or not as good as it should be 受损害的
e.g. She suffers from impaired hearing.

impairment
n. 损害,损伤

intelligence *
n. the ability to learn, understand and think about things 智力,理解力

myth *
n. 神话

neglect *
1) v. pay too little attention to something that you should do 疏忽,忽略
e.g. neglect one's studies/children/health
2) n. 疏忽,忽略
e.g. She was severely criticized for neglect of duty.

numerous *
adj. very many
e.g. She is the author of three novels and numerous articles.

opportunity *
n. a favorable or good occasion or time 机会
e.g. I had no opportunity to discuss it with her.

percentage *
n. 百分比
e.g. The figure is expressed as a percentage.

plus *
adj. more than a particular amount, number, or level 比......多的
e.g. The work will cost $ 10,000 plus.

poll *
n. a survey of public opinions, done by questioning a large number of people 民意测验

range *
n. a number of things which are all different but of the same general type 一系列
e.g. We teach the full range of ballroom (舞厅) dances.

refrigerator *
n. 冰箱

retail *
v. sell goods in a shop 零售
e.g. This model of computer is retailing at/for $ 700.

socially *
adv. 在社交方面,善于交际地

stereotype *
n. 模式化的思想,老一套
e.g. The characters in this book are just stereotypes.

subculture
n. 亚文化群

typically *
adv. in a way that a particular type of thing usually happens 典型地

volunteer *
n. someone who does something without being paid, or who is willing to offer to help someone 志愿者

whereas *
conj.but in contrast; while on the other hand 反之,而在另一方面
e.g. He must be about sixty, whereas his wife looks about thirty.


Phrases and Expressions

account for
make up a particular amount or part of something 占
e.g. Imports from Japan accounted for 40% of the total.

be comprised of
be made up of
e.g. The city's population is largely comprised of Asians and Europeans.

lose touch with
no longer speak or write to someone because they do not live with you, work with you, etc. 与......失去联系
e.g. I've lost touch with most of my friends from college.

take on
agree to do some work or be responsible for something 承担
e.g. He's taking on too much work. He looks awful.

The Older Subculture

Although business people have a very high opinion of the opportunities in the youth market, elderly people have been largely neglected by marketers and frequently by society itself. Many people feel that American marketers have gone too far in attempting to please the youth market and particularly those aged 18 to 34. A recent survey found that over 40 percent of the nation's leading advertisers said the 50-plus [1] market has little impact on their current marketing strategies. An advertising executive observed that markets have long concentrated only on consumers below the age of 49. He noted that "it is as if the world ceases to exist once you are beyond 49[2]". One of the problems with retailing in America is that merchants have lost touch with older customers—their customer has changed, but they have not.
Why the neglect[3]? Many marketers consider the youth market to be attractive and exciting, whereas older consumers are thought to be dull and uninteresting. Although this situation may be understandable psychologically, it may make poor economic sense[4], because middle-aged consumers hold considerably more promise for a wide range of consumer goods and services than do the young[5].
Nevertheless, many Americans—even many marketers—hold negative stereotypes about the 50-plus market that are not based on fact. The following eight myths about this group can limit a company's success in attracting older customers:
i. Older consumers are all the same. (Actually this market is comprised of numerous groups.)
ii. They think of themselves as old. ("Old age" is typically 15 years older than they are, and doesn't begin until well past 70.)
iii. They aren't an important percentage of consumers. (Those 50 and over often have a lot of spending money and they account for almost one-third of spending on refrigerators, floor coverings, new cars, jewelry, and groceries.)
iv. They won't try something new. (A survey for one company found that in one year, 45 percent had tried a new brand of cereal, and 30 percent had tried a new canned soup and soft drink brand.)
v. They have impaired mental faculties. (Only about 5 percent have serious mental impairment. Moreover, intelligence tests reveal little change from age 17 to 80.)
vi. They are in poor health. (Most are not disabled and will remain healthy until their last years.)
vii. They keep to themselves.[6] (Many are socially active, are involved as volunteers, and are taking on new responsibilities.)
viii. They aren't physically active. (A recent Gallup poll revealed almost half of those 65 and over regularly engage in exercise.) (428 words)


PASSAGE III Bargains

Proper Names

Hungary
匈牙利

New Zealand
新西兰

pengo
彭戈(1925-1946年匈牙利货币单位,嗣后改为forint)

Persian
adj. 波斯的

shilling
先令(原英国货币单位)


New Words

accuse *
v. 指挥
e.g. He's been accused of murder.

advantageous
adj. beneficial 有利的
e.g. The lower tax rate is particularly advantageous to poorer families.

bargain *
n. something bought cheaply for less than its usual price 廉价商品
e.g. It's a well-known fact that there is nothng the consumer loves more than a real bargain.

breathtaking
adj. 令人吃惊的

bulk *
n. a big mass of something 大量,大块
e.g. A great bulk of her time is taken up with answering the phone.

charming
adj. very pleasing and attractive; nice 迷人的

chop *
n. 羊排,猪排

circular *
adj. shaped like a circle 圆形的

decent *
adj. acceptable and good enough 合适的
e.g. We must provide decent housing for the poor.

definition *
n. 定义

equivalent *
n. something that is the same as something else 等价物

extort
v. illegally force someone to give you money by threatening them 勒索,强取

extravagant *
adj. spending a lot of money on things that are not necessary 奢侈的

fade *
v. disappear gradually 消失
e.g. All memory of her childhood had faded from her mind.

freezer
n. 冰箱,冷藏箱

grandchild
n. 孙子,孙女,外孙,外孙女

greedy *
adj. always wanting more than you need 贪婪的
e.g. He's greedy for power.

guilty *
adj. having done something that is a crime 有罪的
e.g. She must have done something wrong, because she's looking so guilty.

impertinence
n. 无理,鲁莽

innocent *
adj. not having much experience of life 不谙世故的
e.g. as innocent as a new-born baby

loo
n. 洗手间

lucky *
adj. having good luck 幸运的
e.g. John was lucky enough to be selected for the team.

murderer *
n. 谋杀犯,凶手

novelty *
n. the quality of being new, usual, and interesting 新奇
e.g. Cars were still something of a novelty at the beginning of the century.

orthodox *
adj. that is considered by most people to be normal, correct and acceptable 正统的,传统的
e.g. We would prefer a more orthodox approach to this problem.

outraged *
adj. very angry and shocked 震惊的,义愤填膺的
e.g. People were outraged at the idea of the murderer Hindley being released.

pea *
n. 豌豆

pensioner *
n. someone who is receiving a pension 领养老金的人

plead *
v. 承认,认罪
e.g. They made him plead madness. 他们要他承认精神错乱。

prohibit *
v. stop officially an activity by making it illegal or against the rules 禁止
e.g. Motor vehicles are prohibited from driving in the town center.

reduction *
n. reducing or being reduced 降低,减少
e.g. There are huge price reductions in many shops during the summer sales.

resist *
v. 经得住
e.g. Jill couldn't resist making jokes about his baldness (秃顶).

roller-skate
n. 四轮溜冰鞋

sake *
n. 目的,理由

for the sake of 为了
e.g. He moved to the seaside for the sake of his health.

sane
adj. able to think in a normal and reasonable way 清醒的,明智的

saw *
n. 锯子

seemingly *
adv. appearing to be something when this is not actually true 似乎
e.g. The road was dusty and seemingly endless.

spacious *
adj. large; with plenty of space to move around in 宽敞的
e.g. a very spacious kitchen

sticky *
adj. 粘的,粘性的
e.g. The floor was very sticky near the cooker.

tastily
adv. 美味地

toothpaste
n. 牙膏

tremendous *
adj. excellent 极好的,不平常的
e.g. a tremendous film/pianist/experience

utterly *
adv. completely, absolutely 完全地
e.g. We failed utterly to convince him.

vaguely *
adv. not clearly or distinctly 模糊地
e.g. Her face is vaguely familiar.

whereupon
conj.after which; and then 然后,于是
e.g. She laughed at him, whereupon he walked out.

1. Directions: Read the following passage carefully and chooose the right word or phrase for each blank.

Bargains

Let us take the orthodox definition of the word bargain. It is something offered at a low and __________ (advantageous/disadvantageous) price. It is an opportunity to buy something at a lower price than it is really worth. A more recent definition is: a bargain is a dirty trick to extort money from the pockets of silly and innocent people.
I have never attended a large company's board [1] meeting in my life, but I feel certain that the discussion often takes the following lines[2]. The _______ (money/cost) of producing a new toothpaste, for example, would make 80p[3] the decent price for it, so we will market it at £1.20. It is not a bad toothpaste (not especially good either, but not bad), and as people like to try new things it will sell well to _________ (start/start with); but the attraction of novelty soon fades, so sales will fall. When that starts to happen we will reduce the price to £1.15. And we will turn it into a bargain by printing 5p OFF all over it, whereupon people will ________ (run/rush) to buy it even though it still costs about forty-three percent more than its fair price.
Sometimes it is not 5p OFF but 1p OFF. What breathtaking impertinence to advertise 1p OFF your soap or washing powder or dog food or whatever. Even the poorest old-age pensioner ought to regard this ________ (as/(empty)) an insult, but he doesn't. A bargain must not be missed. To be offered a "gift" of one penny is like being invited to dinner and offered one single pea (tastily cooked), and nothing else. Even if it represented a real reduction it would be an insult. _________ (Still/Moreover), people say, one has to have washing powder (or whatever) and one might as well buy it a penny cheaper. When I was a boy in Hungary a man was accused of murdering someone for the sake of one pengo, the equivalent of a shilling, and pleaded guilty[4]. The judge was outraged: "To kill a man for a shilling!... What can you say in your ________ (offense/defense)?" The murderer replied:"A shilling here... a shilling there..." And that's what today's shopper says, too:"A penny here... a penny there..."
The real danger starts when ___________ (fully/utterly) unnecessary things become "bargains". There is a huge number of people who just cannot resist bargains and sales. Provided they think they are getting a bargain they will buy clothes they will never wear, furniture they have _________ (no/(empty)) space for. Old ladies will buy roller-skates and _______ (smokers/nonsmokers) will buy pipe-cleaners[5]. And I once heard of a man who bought an electric circular saw as a bargain and cut off two of his fingers the next day. But he had no regrets: the saw had been really cheap.
Quite a few people actually believe that they __________ (make/waste) money on such bargains. A lady I know, ___________ (likewise/otherwise) a charming and seemingly sane woman,[6] sometimes tells me stories such as this:"I've had a lucky day today. I bought a dress for £120, reduced from £400; I bought a suitcase for £40, reduced from £120 and I bought a beautiful Persian carpet for £600, reduced from £900." Perhaps she may add vaguely that she has been a trifle extravagant, but it will never________ (happen/occur) to her that she has actually wasted £760. She feels as though she has made £660. She also feels, I am sure, that if she had more time for shopping, she could make a living _______ (with/out of) it.
Some people buy in bulk because it is cheaper. At certain moments New Zealand lamb chops[7] may be 3p cheaper if you buy half a ton of them, so people rush to buy a freezer __________ (to/just to) find out later that it is too small to hold half a ton of New Zealand lamb. I once knew a couple who could not resist ____________ (to buy/buying) sugar in bulk. They thought it a tremendous bargain, not to be _______( missed/lost), so they bought enough sugar for their lifetime and the lifetime of their children and grandchildren. When the sugar arrived they didn't know where to store it—____________ (when/until) they realized that their loo was a very spacious one. So that was where they piled up their sugar. Not only ________ (their guests felt/did their guests feel) rather strange whenever they were offered sugar to put into their coffee, but the loo became extremely sticky.
To offer bargains is a commercial trick to make the poor poorer. When greedy fools fall for this trick, it serves them right [8]. All the same, if bargains were prohibited by law our _________ (level/standard) of living would immediately rise by 7.39 per cent. (770 words)


Phrases and Expressions

accuse ... of
say someone to be guilty of a crime or of doing something bad 指控
e.g. He's accused of murder.

all the same
in spite of; anyway 尽管如此,仍然
e.g. He gives us a lot of trouble--but I like him all the same.

cut off
separate something by cutting it from the main part 割去
e.g. She cut off a small piece of bread and gave it to me.

fall for something
be tricked into believing something that is not true 相信某事
e.g. I did not fall for Joe's story about being a jet pilot.

in bulk
in large amounts 大量
e.g. Buying in bulk is more economical than shopping for small quantities.

might (just) as well 倒不如,(满)可以
e.g. It's no good waiting for the bus. We might as well walk.
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