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VOA中级美国英语 Lesson 40

一.本课要点及示例

在这一课里, 我们要复习被动语态; 我们也要谈一谈美国的妇女运动, 学一学有关妇女运动的词汇.
现在我们按照惯例先听今天这一课的对话, 内容是说亨利跟小女儿琳达谈起了妇女就业的问题. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

F: Dad, did Grandma go to the university when she was young?
M: No, she wasn't encouraged to do that.
F: Why not?
M: Well, at that time it was considered improper for a woman to have a higher education.
  Grandma got married when she was eighteen and she spent all her life taking care of her
  husband and the kids.
F: You mean she never had a job?
M: No, women were told that they could not have a family and a career at the same time.
F: Mother could. She has a family and she is also a teacher. Isn't that a career?
M: Yes. Time has changed. Nowadays women are permitted to do things that they were not     allowed to do before.

下面老师用慢速度再把整段对话念一遍给你听.

F: Dad, did Grandma go to the university when she was young?
M: No, she wasn't encouraged to do that.
F: Why not?
M: Well, at that time it was considered improper for a woman to have a higher education.
  Grandma got married when she was eighteen and she spent all her life taking care of her
  husband and the kids.
F: You mean she never had a job?
M: No, women were told that they could not have a family and a career at the same time.
F: Mother could. She has a family and she is also a teacher. Isn't that a career?
M: Yes. Time has changed. Nowadays women are permitted to do things that they were not     allowed to do before.

现在我把对话里包含被动语态说法的句子挑出来, 请老师再念一遍给你听.

M: She wasn't encouraged to do that.
M: It was considered improper for a woman to have a higher education.
M: Women were told that they could not have a family and a career at the same time.
M: Women are permitted to do things that they were not allowed to do before.

二.被动语态复习

第一组练习的内容是说妇女过去不准作的事情, 比方投票, 拥有土地, 追求事业, 担任公职等等. 练习的作法是老师用 weren't permitted 作一个句子, 接着老师念一个词组, 学生就把他听到的词组代换到原来的句子里. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

M: Women weren't permitted to vote.
M: own land
F: Women weren't permitted to own land.
M: get a higher education
F: Women weren't permitted to get a higher education.
M: pursue a career
F: Women weren't permitted to pursue a career.
M: practice most professions
F: Women weren't permitted to practice most professions.
M: hold public office
F: Women weren't permitted to hold public office.
M: hold important positions
F: Women weren't permitted to hold important positions.

下面一组练习是把主动语态跟被动语态作个比较. 练习的内容还是说到妇女过去不准作的事情. 练习里的词汇都是我们刚才学过的. 练习的作法是老师用 could not 作一个句子, 学生就用 weren't allowed 把句子改成 被动语态说出来. 下面就是一个例子:

M:Women could not vote.
F: Women weren't allowed to vote.

现在我们开始作练习, 在学生作句子的时候请你也一起作.

M: Women could not vote.
F: Women weren't allowed to vote.
M: Women could not own land.
F: Women weren't allowed to own land.
M: Women could not get a higher education.
F: Women weren't allowed to get a higher education.
M: Women could not pursue a career.
F: Women weren't allowed to pursue a career.
M: Women could not practice most professions.
F: Women weren't allowed to practice most professions.
M: Women could not hold public office.
F: Women weren't allowed to hold public office.
M: Women could not hold important positions.
F: Women weren't allowed to hold important positions.

下面我们作一组综合练习, 复习不同时态的被动语态句子. 练习的作法是老师提出一个问题, 比方 过去女性受男性支配吗? Were women dominated by men? 或者 妇女一直被禁止担任公职吗? Have women been prohibited from holding public office? 接着老师提出一个表明时态的词组, 你就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 首先我们给你举一个例子,请你注意听.

M: Were women dominated by men?
M: have been
F: Have women been dominated by men?
M: are being
F: Are women being dominated by men?
M: should be
F: Should women be dominated by men?

现在我们开始作练习. 每作完一句, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

M: Have women been encouraged to pursue a career?
M: were
F: Were women encouraged to pursue a career?
M: are being
F: Are women being encouraged to pursue a career?
M: need to be
F: Do women need to be encouraged to pursue a career?

下面老师换了一个句子.

M: Have women been prohibited from holding public office?
M: are being
F: Are women being prohibited from holding public office?
M: should be
F: Should women be prohibited from holding public office?
M: can be
F: Can women be prohibited from holding public office?

下面老师又换了一个句子.

M: Was it considered improper for a woman to have a profession?
M: has been
F: Has it been considered improper for a woman to have a profession?
M: is
F: Is it considered improper for a woman to have a profession?
M: should be
F: Should it be considered improper for a woman to have a profession?

下面我们再作一组练习比较主动语态跟被动语态. 练习的作法是老师用主动语态说出一个句子,比方社会对妇女加以限制The society placed restrictions on women. 请你把句子改成被动语态, 并且用 by 指明动作执行者, 所以答案就是: Restrictions were placed on women by the society. 在这一组练习里你可以学习到美国妇女过去受到的限制跟他们多年来争取到的权利; 你也可以练习许多跟妇女运动有关系的词汇, 比方 保证 guarantee, 女权运动者feminists, 支持 support, 男女平等权修正案 the equal rights amendment,招收 admit 等等. 现在我们开始作练习. 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

M: The society placed restrictions on women.
F: Restrictions were placed on women by the society.
M: Men did not respect working women.
F: Working women were not respected by men.
M: The management paid female workers less.
F: Female workers were paid less by the management.
M: Female workers did not hold top positions.
F: Top positions were not held by female workers.
M: Some state laws guaranteed women the right to vote.
F: Women were guaranteed the right to vote by some state laws.
M: Feminists established colleges and universities for women.
F: Colleges and universities were established for women by feminists.
M: These schools admitted female students.
F: Female students were admitted by these schools.
M: Feminists reduced some social restrictions.
F: Some social restrictions were reduced by feminists.
M: A lot of politicians supported the equal rights amendment.
F: The equal rights amendment was supported by a lot of politicians.
M: Some states approved the equal rights amendment.
F: The equal rights amendment was approved by some states.

下面我们再作一组练习, 一方面复习被动语态, 一方面复习刚才学的一些词汇. 练习的作法是老师用疑问词提出一个问题, 比方 What was placed on women? 接着老师说: social restrictions, 学生就用老师提出的词组来回答问题,所以答案就是: Social restrictions were placed on women. 现在我们开始作
练习. 在学生回答问题的时候请你也一起回答.

M: What was placed on women?
M: social restrictions
F: Social restrictions were placed on women.
M: Who was paid less?
M: female workers
F: Female workers were paid less.
M: Who was guaranteed the right to vote?
M: both men and women
F: Both men and women were guaranteed the right to vote.
M: What was established for women?
M: colleges and universities
F: Colleges and universities were established for women.
M: What was supported by a lot of politicians?
M: the equal rights amendment
F: The equal rights amendment was supported by a lot of politicians.
M: What was approved by some states?
M: the equal rights amendment
F: The equal rights amendment was approved by some states.

三.听短文回答问题

今天我们要听一篇谈美国妇女运动的文章. 这篇文章里有许多被动语态句子,文章里许多词汇也是我们刚才练习过的. 现在请你注意听.

America has been called a democracy since its independence more than 200 years ago.
However, at that time, only men were permitted to vote. Only men could own land and
practice most professions. Women could not get a higher education or hold public office.
The woman's place was considered to be the home. Working women were not common.
They usually had poor jobs and little respect.
Through the history of our country, many American women have worked to reduce the
restrictions that society placed on them. They have met opposition. Slowly, however, the
opportunities for women have increased. Colleges and universities were established for
women. Later women were admitted to schools originally established only for men.
In the early part of this century, American women were finally allowed to vote. During and
since World War II American women have become a considerable part of the American
work force.
Today, many women in America hold important positions or are pursuing careers that
they could not pursue in the past. But many women are dissatisfied with the current
situation. They point out that women are often paid less than men for the same work they do. The top positions in nearly all fields are still overwhelmingly held by men. In many ways,
a woman's life is still dominated by her father or her husband.
Recently women worked to get an amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing their rights. The equal rights amendment, as it was called, was supported by most congressmen and most states. It did not get the support of two-thirds of the states which is necessary for a constitutional amendment. Nevertheless, the role and the rights of American women is an important concern in the U.S. today.

刚才那篇文章如果你没有全部听懂, 没有关系, 等一会儿你还有机会听. 现在老师先把今天测验的三个问题念一遍给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: How were American women restricted by the society?

第二个问题是:
M: What are some of the things which women are dissatisfied with?

第三个问题是:
M: Are women's rights guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution?

现在老师再用慢速度把整篇文章念一遍. 请你注意听.

America has been called a democracy since its independence more than 200 years ago.
However, at that time, only men were permitted to vote. Only men could own land and
practice most professions. Women could not get a higher education or hold public office.
The woman's place was considered to be the home. Working women were not common.
They usually had poor jobs and little respect.
Through the history of our country, many American women have worked to reduce the
restrictions that society placed on them. They have met opposition. Slowly, however, the
opportunities for women have increased. Colleges and universities were established for
women. Later women were admitted to schools originally established only for men.
In the early part of this century, American women were finally allowed to vote. During and
since World War II American women have become a considerable part of the American
work force.
Today, many women in America hold important positions or are pursuing careers that
they could not pursue in the past. But many women are dissatisfied with the current
situation. They point out that women are often paid less than men for the same work they do. The top positions in nearly all fields are still overwhelmingly held by men. In many ways,
a woman's life is still dominated by her father or her husband.
Recently women worked to get an amendment to the U.S. Constitution guaranteeing their rights. The equal rights amendment, as it was called, was supported by most congressmen and most states. It did not get the support of two-thirds of the states which is necessary for a constitutional amendment. Nevertheless, the role and the rights of American women is an important concern in the U.S. today.

现在请你回答你刚才听过的三个问题. 每回答一个问题, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

第一个问题是:
M: How were American women restricted by the society?
F: They could not vote, could not own land, could not get a higher education, practice most
  professions or hold public office.

第二个问题是:
M: What are some of the things which women are dissatisfied with?
F: Some women are paid less, very few women hold top positions, and some women are dominated   by men.

第三个问题是:
M: Are women's rights guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution?
F: No, they aren't.
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