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科学美国人(翻译):COVID第19集 强制设置路障、所有人的助推器和动物园中的疾病 2021.11.20

COVID Quickly, Episode 19: Mandate Roadblocks, Boosters for All, and Sickness in the Zoo

COVID第19集:强制设置路障、所有人的助推器和动物园中的疾病

Tanya Lewis: Hi, and welcome to COVID, Quickly, a Scientific American podcast series.

Josh Fischman: This is your fast-track update on the COVID pandemic. We bring you up to speed on the science behind the most urgent questions about the virus and the disease. We demystify the research and help you understand what it really means.

Tanya Lewis:嗨,欢迎来到美国科学播客系列 COVID,Quickly。

Josh Fischman:这是您关于 COVID 大流行的快速更新。 我们带您快速了解有关病毒和疾病的最紧迫问题背后的科学。 我们揭开研究的神秘面纱,帮助您了解它的真正含义。

Lewis: I’m Tanya Lewis.

刘易斯:我们是《科学美国人》的高级健康编辑。

Fischman: I’m Josh Fischman.

刘易斯:我是坦尼娅·刘易斯。

Lewis: And we’re Scientific American’s senior health editors.

Lewis: And we’re Scientific American’s senior health editors. On the docket today, a court imperils Biden’s big workplace vaccination mandate... 

Fischman: ...booster shot eligibility expands, as does evidence the shots help...

Lewis: ...and zoo tigers and leopards get COVID and their own vaccine.

刘易斯:我们是《科学美国人》的高级健康编辑。 在今天的案卷中,法院危及拜登在工作场所的大型疫苗接种任务......

Fischman:......助推器的资格扩大了,证据也有帮助......

刘易斯:……动物园的老虎和豹子也感染了 COVID 和它们自己的疫苗。

Lewis: In early November, the Biden administration laid out a rule to get most American workers vaccinated, because unvaccinated people were filling up hospitals. You’ve been tracking the backlash, so what’s the latest? 

刘易斯:11 月初,拜登政府制定了一项规则,让大多数美国工人接种疫苗,因为未接种疫苗的人挤满了医院。 你一直在追踪反弹,那么最新的情况是什么?

Fischman: This hasn’t been a good seven days for the White House plan to get millions more Americans vaccinated by January. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, at President Biden’s direction, had announced an emergency rule: companies with more than 100 employees need those workers either to be vaccinated by January 4th or get weekly COVID tests. 

Fischman:对于白宫计划在 1 月之前让数百万美国人接种疫苗的计划来说,这 7 天并不好。 在拜登总统的指示下,职业安全与健康管理局宣布了一项紧急规定:拥有 100 名以上员工的公司需要这些员工在 1 月 4 日之前接种疫苗或每周进行一次 COVID 检测。

That prompted a number of states and companies to sue the administration in the 5th US Circuit Court of Appeals, one of the most conservative courts in the country. Conservative courts generally do not favor government interventions. And the 5th Circuit held true to that philosophy last Friday, ordering OSHA to stop the rule pending resolution of these cases in a full court hearing.

这促使许多州和公司在美国第五巡回上诉法院起诉政府,该法院是美国最保守的法院之一。 保守派法院一般不赞成政府干预。 第五巡回法院上周五坚持这一理念,命令职业安全与健康管理局在全面法庭听证会中停止这些案件的解决规则。

The court gave a lot of weight to economic issues, noting mandates could cause disruptions if workers quit instead of getting vaccinated. And it scolded the administration for infringing on the rights of individuals to make personal medical decisions.

法院非常重视经济问题,并指出如果工人辞职而不是接种疫苗,强制执行可能会造成中断。 并斥责政府侵犯了个人做出个人医疗决定的权利。

It also noted that while OSHA has authority to issue emergency rules based on the physical safety of the workplace, such as demanding the removal of asbestos, an airborne virus is not confined to the workplace and therefore may not fall under OSHA authority. 

 它还指出,虽然 OSHA 有权根据工作场所的人身安全发布紧急规则,例如要求清除石棉,但空气传播的病毒并不局限于工作场所,因此可能不受 OSHA 的管辖。

Mostly absent from the court decision was a consideration of health concerns, which is what prompted the emergency rule in the first place. The administration had argued the virus is spread in group settings such as workplaces. Data show the spreaders have almost all been unvaccinated people. And vaccinations in the workforce would save thousands of lives. 

法院判决中大多没有考虑健康问题,这首先促使紧急规则。 政府辩称,该病毒是在工作场所等群体环境中传播的。 数据显示,传播者几乎都是未接种疫苗的人。 劳动力中的疫苗接种将挽救数千人的生命。

This is not an idle notion. Remember the COVID outbreaks at meat processing plants? An analysis published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences at the end of 2020 found that, in the first six months of that year, meat plant outbreaks caused between 4300 and 5200 deaths, and the fatalities started in the plants and spread thru surrounding communities.

这不是一个空洞的想法。 还记得肉类加工厂爆发的 COVID 吗? 2020 年底发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一项分析发现,当年前六个月,肉类工厂爆发导致 4300 至 5200 人死亡,死亡始于工厂,并蔓延到周围地区。 社区。

As for economic consequences and quitting workers, United Airlines and Tyson Foods, which started vaccine mandates for employees months ago, report that fewer than five percent have quit. Major business groups such as the US Chamber of Commerce endorsed mandates, because they keep businesses open. Three big labor unions brought suits against the administration asking for stronger mandates. And Gartner, a business consulting firm, did a survey of 300 companies this week and reported that 60 percent plan to keep moving forward with vaccine mandates.

至于经济后果和离职员工,几个月前开始为员工接种疫苗的联合航空公司和泰森食品公司报告称,只有不到 5% 的员工离职。 美国商会等主要商业团体支持授权,因为它们使企业保持开放。 三大工会对政府提起诉讼,要求加强授权。 商业咨询公司 Gartner 本周对 300 家公司进行了一项调查,报告称,60% 的公司计划继续推进疫苗规定。

That’s because the 5th Circuit decision was just a temporary stay. The federal courts have consolidated all the lawsuits and, after a random lottery, sent the whole bunch to the 6th appellate circuit, another court that has a lot of conservative judges. That ideology could spell trouble for the OSHA rule again. The 6th circuit will hear a full case and issue a ruling. 

那是因为第五巡回赛的决定只是暂时的。 联邦法院已经合并了所有诉讼,并在随机抽签后将整个诉讼发送到第六上诉巡回法院,这是另一个拥有很多保守派法官的法院。 这种意识形态可能再次给 OSHA 规则带来麻烦。 第六巡回法院将审理完整案件并作出裁决。

But that won’t be the end of things, either. Whichever side loses will appeal. And the case will end up in the Supreme Court, perhaps in three or four months. The high court has supported several vaccine mandates recently. Several legal scholars have argued that a vaccine mandate in the workplace is within OSHA’s statutory authority. But the court does have a conservative majority, so we really won’t know what happens until they actually get a case and make a decision.

但这也不会是事情的结束。 哪一方输了就上诉。 这个案子可能会在三四个月内最终进入最高法院。 高等法院最近支持了几项疫苗授权。 几位法律学者认为,工作场所的疫苗规定属于 OSHA 的法定权限。 但法院确实有保守的多数,所以我们真的不知道会发生什么,直到他们真正接到案件并做出决定。

Fischman: We talk a lot about boosters on this podcast, but it seems there’s always more to say. What’s the latest on who’s eligible for a booster, and should you get one?

Fischman:我们在这个播客上谈论了很多关于助推器的话题,但似乎总有更多的话要说。 谁有资格获得助推器的最新消息是什么,你应该得到一个吗?

Lewis: The science of booster shots is a moving target. President Biden announced plans in August for all Americans to be eligible for boosters. But at first, many experts pushed back and said they weren’t needed for most people. Then, they said they were needed for older adults and people with underlying health conditions or work exposures that could put them at greater risk of getting severe COVID. And now, the FDA just authorized Pfizer and Moderna boosters for anyone 18 and over who is at least six months out from their second shot. Anyone who had the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is already eligible for a booster at least two months after their shot. The CDC’s advisory panel is set to meet Friday to discuss whether to recommend boosters for all adults.

刘易斯:助推器射击的科学是一个移动的目标。 拜登总统在 8 月宣布了所有美国人都有资格获得助推器的计划。 但起初,许多专家反驳说,大多数人不需要它们。 然后,他们说老年人和有潜在健康状况或工作暴露的人需要它们,这可能会使他们面临更大的感染严重 COVID 的风险。 现在,FDA 刚刚授权辉瑞(Pfizer)和 Moderna 助推器用于任何 18 岁及以上且距离第二次注射至少六个月的人。 任何接种过强生疫苗的人至少在注射后两个月就已经有资格接种加强疫苗。 CDC 的顾问小组定于周五开会,讨论是否向所有成年人推荐助推器。

But some states and cities have not waited. California, Colorado, New Mexico, and New York City have already opened up boosters to any adult who wants one.

但一些州和城市并没有等待。 加利福尼亚州、科罗拉多州、新墨西哥州和纽约市已经向任何想要的成年人开放了助推器。

Evidence has been building that the vaccines’ effectiveness wanes over time, and not just in older people. Data from Israel showed the Pfizer vaccine was just 41% effective at preventing symptomatic disease as of July. A study in England found the Pfizer vaccine was 70% effective after five months. And a study of veterans in the U.S. found that from February to October, vaccine effectiveness declined to 58% for Moderna, 43% for Pfizer, and Johnson and Johnson was the lowest, at just 13%. The vaccines still protect well against hospitalization and death, but that protection is starting to decline among the elderly.

越来越多的证据表明疫苗的有效性会随着时间的推移而减弱,而不仅仅是在老年人中。 来自以色列的数据显示,截至 7 月,辉瑞疫苗在预防有症状的疾病方面的有效性仅为 41%。 英国的一项研究发现,辉瑞疫苗在五个月后有 70% 的效果。 而一项针对美国退伍军人的研究发现,从 2 月到 10 月,Moderna 的疫苗有效性下降到 58%,辉瑞 (Pfizer) 为 43%,而强生 (Johnson and Johnson) 最低,仅为 13%。 疫苗仍然可以很好地防止住院和死亡,但这种保护在老年人中开始下降。

The good news is, boosters appear to be very effective at increasing immunity: a study in the U.K. of people over 50 and those with underlying health conditions found that those who got the Pfizer vaccine saw their protection increase from about 63% to 94%, and people who got the AstraZeneca vaccine saw theirs increase from 44% to 93%.

好消息是,增强剂似乎对提高免疫力非常有效:在英国进行的一项针对 50 岁以上和有潜在健康问题的人的研究发现,接种辉瑞疫苗的人的保护率从约 63% 增加到 94%, 接种阿斯利康疫苗的人从 44% 增加到 93%。

Even though the original vaccine series provides good protection against disease, boosters can extend that—and keep you from getting  long COVID. So, even if you’re not older or high risk, getting a booster is probably a good idea, especially ahead of the winter holidays as more people gather indoors.

尽管最初的疫苗系列提供了良好的疾病保护,但加强剂可以扩展这一点,并防止您长期感染 COVID。 因此,即使您年纪不大或风险不高,接种助推器也可能是个好主意,尤其是在寒假之前,因为越来越多的人聚集在室内。

Fischman: Does it matter which booster you get?

Lewis: That’s a good question. The FDA has said you can get a booster of any vaccine, regardless of what you originally got. While all of the vaccines have been shown to boost antibody levels after vaccination, there are some differences.

Fischman:你得到哪个助推器重要吗?

刘易斯:这是个好问题。 FDA 表示,无论您最初接种的是什么疫苗,您都可以获得任何疫苗的加强剂。 虽然所有疫苗都已被证明在接种疫苗后可以提高抗体水平,但还是存在一些差异。

The NIH did a study in which they mixed and matched different vaccines and boosters, and found that people who got the Moderna vaccine and Moderna booster had the highest levels of antibodies, followed by people who had Pfizer and a Moderna booster or Moderna and a Pfizer booster. In all cases, having an mRNA booster was better than a Johnson & Johnson one. Other studies have also shown a slight edge for the Moderna shot over Pfizer. One possible explanation is that Moderna contains more than twice the amount of mRNA as the Pfizer vaccine.

NIH 进行了一项研究,他们混合并匹配了不同的疫苗和加强剂,发现接种 Moderna 疫苗和 Moderna 加强剂的人抗体水平最高,其次是接种辉瑞和 Moderna 加强剂或 Moderna 和辉瑞的人 助推器。 在所有情况下,使用 mRNA 增强剂都比使用强生更好。 其他研究也表明 Moderna 比辉瑞略有优势。 一种可能的解释是,Moderna 的 mRNA 含量是辉瑞疫苗的两倍多。

But there’s a catch: the NIH study looked at a full dose Moderna booster, whereas the currently approved Moderna booster is a half dose. So, while it’s possible a Moderna booster may be slightly better than a Pfizer one, either vaccine will likely give you strong protection against COVID. The best booster may simply be whichever one you can get. 

但有一个问题:美国国立卫生研究院的研究着眼于全剂量 Moderna 助推器,而目前批准的 Moderna 助推器是半剂量。 因此,虽然 Moderna 的助推器可能比辉瑞的稍好,但任何一种疫苗都可能为您提供针对 COVID 的强大保护。 最好的助推器可能就是你能得到的任何一个。

Lewis: Finally, the pandemic isn’t limited to human beings. It’s impacted a few animals in zoos as well. 

刘易斯:最后,大流行不仅限于人类。 它也影响了动物园中的一些动物。

Fischman: Cats--the big ones at zoos--aren’t immune from COVID. Sadly last week a children’s zoo in Lincoln, Nebraska reported that three snow leopards died from the disease, about a month after they showed symptoms.  Their names were Ranney, Everest and Makalu. Two tigers that also got infected are recovering. 

Fischman:猫——动物园里的大动物——不能免受新冠病毒的影响。 可悲的是,上周内布拉斯加州林肯市的一家儿童动物园报告说,三只雪豹在出现症状大约一个月后死于这种疾病。 他们的名字是兰尼、珠穆朗玛峰和马卡鲁。 两只也被感染的老虎正在康复。

There have been outbreaks at other zoos, too. Two lions and other big cats at the St. Louis Zoo tested positive early this month. All are getting better. 

It's a puzzle how the cats got sick, since the Lincoln zoo says keepers were masked. People can pass the virus to animals, the CDC says. 

其他动物园也爆发了疫情。 本月初,圣路易斯动物园的两只狮子和其他大型猫科动物检测呈阳性。 一切都在变好。

猫是如何生病的,这是一个谜,因为林肯动物园说饲养员都戴着面具。 疾病预防控制中心说,人们可以将病毒传染给动物。

But if you have pets, relax. Pets don’t give the virus back to people, two veterinary studies done this summer showed. And pets themselves usually have very mild symptoms. 

At zoos, animals may get their own vaccine. Zoetis, a veterinary healthcare company, has developed a shot using a modified coronavirus spike protein. Company data show it stimulates a good antibody response. So Zoetis has donated 11,000 doses to zoos all across the U.S.

但是,如果您有宠物,请放松。 今年夏天进行的两项兽医研究表明,宠物不会将病毒传染给人类。 宠物本身通常有非常轻微的症状。

在动物园,动物可能会获得自己的疫苗。 兽医保健公司 Zoetis 开发了一种使用改良冠状病毒刺突蛋白的疫苗。 公司数据显示它刺激了良好的抗体反应。 因此,硕腾已向美国各地的动物园捐赠了 11,000 剂疫苗。

Lewis: Now you’re up to speed. Thanks for joining us.

刘易斯:现在你跟上节奏了。 感谢您加入我们。

Fischman: Come back in two weeks for the next episode of COVID, Quickly! And check out SciAm.com for updated and in-depth COVID news.

Fischman:两周后回来看下一集的 COVID,快点! 并查看 SciAm.com 以获取最新和深入的 COVID 新闻。

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