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实用英语综合教程第一册6

UNIT 6
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Do you agree or disagree with the statements?

1. Nowadays Americans are working harder than ever before.
2. The more time we spend at work, the more we can achieve.

Now compare your view with that of the author's.

Working Hard or Hardly Working?

1. According to a recent survey, employees in many companies today work longer hours than employees did in 1979. They also take shorter vacations. It seems that Americans are working harder today than ever before. Or are they? A management consultant, Bill Meyer, decided to find out. For three days, he observed an investment banker hard at work. Meyer wrote down everything the banker did during his long workday -- the banker worked 80 hours a week. At the end of the three-day period, Meyer reviewed the banker's activities with him. What did they find out? They discovered that the man spent 80 percent of his time doing busy work. For example, he attended unnecessary meetings, made redundant telephone calls, and spent time packing and unpacking his two big briefcases.
2. Apparently, many people believe that the more time a person spends at work, the more she or he accomplishes. However, the connection between time and productivity is not always positive. In fact, many studies indicate that after a certain point, anyone's productivity and creativity begin to decrease. Furthermore, it is not always easy for individuals to realize that their performance is falling off.
3. Part of the problem is understandable. When employers evaluate employees, they often consider the amount of time on the job in addition to job performance. Employees know this. Consequently, they work longer hours and take less vacation time than they did nine years ago. Although many working people can do their job effectively during a regular 40-hour work week, they feel they have to spend more time on the job after normal working hours so that the people who can promote them see them.
4. A group of head-hunters (people who search out executive personnel for companies) were asked their opinion about a situation. They had a choice of two candidates for an executive position with an important company. The candidates had comparable qualifications for the job. For example, they were both reliable. One could do the job well in a 40-hour work week. The other would do the same job in an 80-hour week just as well. According to a head-hunting expert, the 80-hour-a-week candidate would get the job. The time this candidate spends on the job may encourage other employees to spend more time at work, too. Employers believe that if the employees stay at work later, they may actually do more work.
5. People do not work long hours only for more money. In such fields as advertising, show business, and journalism, the glamour and publicity are worth more than any monetary benefit. On the other hand, many employees are not willing to spend so much extra, unproductive time at the office. Once they finish their work satisfactorily, they want to relax and enjoy themselves. For these people, the solution is to find a company that encourages people to do both.

New Words

survey
n. an examination 调查
v. to examine the condition of (sth.) 调查

employee
n. a person who is employed 雇员

vacation
n. 假期,休假

management
n. 管理

consultant
n. 顾问

observe
v. 1. to see or notice; watch carefully 观察,注意到
2. 遵守,奉行(法律、习俗、规章等)

investment
n. 投资

unnecessary
a. 不必要的

redundant
a. not needed; more than is necessary 过多的,过剩的

briefcase
n. 公事包,公文包

apparently
ad. 1. it seems (that); as it appears 表面上
2. it is plain (that) 明显地,显而易见地

accomplish
v. 1. 完成,实现
2. 做到,做成

connection
n. relationship 联系,连接关系

productivity
n. 生产能力,生产力,生产率

positive
a. 1. 正的
2. 肯定的

indicate
v. to make a sign for; make clear 表明

creativity
n. inventiveness 创造力

decrease
v. to (cause to) become less in size, number, amount, or quality 减少,减小

furthermore
ad. also; in addition; 而且,此外

individual
n. a single being or mem1ber of a group 个人
a. single; particular 个别的,个人的

consequently
ad. as a result; therefore 因而,所以

evaluate
v. 估价,评价

addition
n. 1. 增加的人(或物)
2. 加法

effectively
ad. 有效地

head-hunter
n. 物色人材的人

executive
a. concerned with making and carrying out decisions 执行的,行政上的
n. the person or group in the executive position 执行官,执行委员会

personnel
n. people employed in a firm or a public office 人员,员工

candidate
n. 候选人

qualification
n. 资格

reliable
a. being trusted 可靠的,可信赖的

head-hunt
v. 物色

expert
n. a person with special knowledge or training 专家

advertising
n. 广告

journalism
n. 新闻业

glamour
n. 魅力

publicity
n. public notice or attention (公众的)注意,名声

monetary
a. of or connected with money 钱的,货币的

extra
a. additional; beyond what is usual or necessary 额外的

satisfactory
a. good enough for a purpose 令人满意的

satisfactorily
ad. 令人满意地

relax
v. to make or become less active and stop worrying 使松驰,放松

solution
n. (an act or way of finding) an answer to a difficulty, problem, etc. 解决方法

Phrases and Expressions

in addition to
而且,此外

so that
为的是,结果是

search out
找,查出

Proper Name

Bill Meyer
比尔.迈耶(人名)

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Answer the questions before reading the passage.

1. List things that give you stress.
2. Is stress always a bad thing? Why or why not?

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

Stress

1. Most people feel stress at some time in their lives. Some people like this pressure and work better because of it. Other people are not comfortable with any stress at all; they soon become unhappy if they feel stress. Sometimes stress can lead people to do things they wouldn't usually do, such as overeat, smoke, drink, or use drugs. Stress, however, is a very normal part of life.
2. It is important to understand that stress doesn't come from an event itself; that is, from the things that are happening in our lives. It comes from the meaning we give to what has happened. For example, a crying baby may be stressful to one person, but it may not bother another person at all; a traffic jam may be stressful to one person while another person may be able to stay calm.
3. We can experience stress any time we feel we don't have control. It can come from a feeling that we can't do anything about a situation. Basically, it is the body's way of showing anxiety or worry.
4. Stress is not just caused by our mental or emotional condition. It is also influenced by how tired we are, whether we have a balanced diet with enough vitamins and minerals, whether we get enough physical exercise, and whether we can relax.
5. The point at which stress becomes a problem changes from day to day, even for the same person. In some situations, if we are rested and feel good about ourselves, a little stress will not be a problem. In another situation, if we are tired or feel unsure about our abilities, even a small amount of stress can cause problems. For example, we might begin to worry about things that haven't happened yet instead of working on things that are happening now. Or we might not feel able to find solutions to everyday problems.
6. If we feel stressed, there are several things that we can do. First, we need to learn how to relax and breathe slowly and smoothly.
7. We can also take some time out of our worried, busy schedule to notice the small things in life. Smell the air, look at the flowers, notice the small designs in the leaves on a tree -- these activities can do much to quiet us and to give ourselves a small break in a busy schedule.
8. We need to take care of our bodies. Being tired makes it easier for us to get sick and to develop physical problems related to stress. We need to get enough rest, eat well, and do some regular exercise. Scientists have found that for our minds to think clearly, our bodies need to have certain vitamins and minerals; some of the most important vitamins are the B-complex vitamins. Doing regular exercise is also a physical way to let go of angry feelings or feelings of helplessness.
9. Finally, we need to find what is causing the stress in our lives. Once we have found it, we need to begin to change that part of our lives. If we believe that we can control stress, we can begin to control our lives. Then we can start to use stress in a positive way.

New Words

stress
n. 压力
v. to give force to; put stress on 施加压力

pressure
n. 压力

overeat
v. to eat too much 吃得太多

drug
n. 1. a medicine or material used for making medicines 药,药物
2. 成瘾性毒品

bother
v. to trouble 打扰

traffic
n. 交通

jam
n. 阻塞

basically
ad. 基本上

anxiety
n. fear, esp. as caused by uncertainty about sth. 忧虑,担心

mental
a. 1. of the mind 思想的,精神的
2. done only in or with the mind 脑力的

emotional
a. with regard to the strong feelings of the human spirit 情感的

balance
v. 使平衡
n. 平衡,均衡

diet
n. 饮食

vitamin
n. 维生素

physical
a. 1. of or concerning the body 身体的,生理的
2. 物质的

ability
n. 能力

smoothly
ad. 流畅的,顺利的

schedule
n. a timetable of things to be done 计划表,日程安排表

design
n. 1. 花纹
2. 设计,构思
v. 设计,构思

relate
v. to see or show a connection between 有关,涉及

complex
a. 1. 合成的,综合的
2. difficult to understand or explain 复杂的

Phrases and Expressions

because of
因为,由于

not at all
毫不,毫无

for example
例如

from day to day
一天一天,天天

instead of
代替,而不

work on
从事于,致力于

look at
看着,瞧着

(be) related to
和...有关

let go of
放弃,释放,不予理会
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