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实用英语综合教程第一册4

UNIT 4
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before you read the passage, choose the answers that may best suit you.

1. When you first meet someone, what usually makes you like or dislike that person?
A. The way they look.
B. The way they speak.
C. The way they treat you.
2. What is the most important thing that you think can make others be friendly to you when you first meet with them?
A. Being honest.
B. Being polite
C. Being kind.
3. What do you think of the first few minutes when you meet others?
A. Very important.
B. Not so important.
C. Not important at all.

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

The First Four Minutes

1. When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book, Contact: The First Four Minutes, he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendships: "Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that."
2. You may have noticed that the average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he has just met. He keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of the room. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did not like him very much.
3. When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, "People like people who like themselves."
4. On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to appear interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other person has his own needs, fears, and hopes.
5. Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I'm not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to act that way."
6. In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. "It's like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar at first, but it goes much better than the old one."
7. But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honesty" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, and a certain amount of playacting may be best for the first minutes of contact with a stranger. That is not the time to complain about one's health or to mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
8. Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends. For a husband and wife or a parent and child, problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed, they should be dealt with later.
9. The author declares that interpersonal relations should be taught as a required course in every school, along with reading, writing, and mathematics. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people. That is at least as important as how much we know.

New Words

contact
n. 交际,交往

social
a. 1. 社交的
2. 社会的

undivided
a. 专心的,专一的

author
n. the writer of a book, newspaper article, play, etc. 作者

self-confident
a. 自信的

confident
a. 有信心的,自信的

sympathetic
a. 1. showing favour or approval 赞同的
2. 同情的,有同情心的

claim
v. to declare to be true 声称,主张

accustomed
a. 1. 习惯的,适应了的
2. 惯常的

personality
n. the whole nature of a certain person 人格,品格

appearance
n. outward qualities; the way a person or thing looks to others; look 外表,样子

self-confidence
n. 自信心

confidence
n. 信心

play-acting
n. 装扮,假装

complain
v. 抱怨,诉苦

mention
v. to tell about in a few words, spoken or written 提及,说起

impression
n. 印象

arise
v. to come into being; happen 出现,呈现

interpersonal
a. 人与人之间的,人与人之间关系的

require
v. to demand; order 要求,命令

required
a. 必须的,规定的

Phrases and Expressions

according to
根据

(be) interested in
对...感兴趣

give one's attention to
注意

as if
好像,似乎

in general
总的来说

be sure of
对...有把握,确信

in reply
答复,回答

become / be accustomed to
习惯于,适应于

get / be / become used to
习惯于,适应于

at first
起先,开始时

complain about
抱怨

deal with
对付,处理

along with
和...一起,和...同时

in one's opinion
据...来看,按...的意见

get along with
和...相处

Proper Name

Leonard Zunin
伦纳德.祖宁(人名)


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, say if you agree with the statements.

1. Different countries have different table manners.
2. Using fingers while eating has been considered one of the worst table manners throughout history.
3. Table manners have changed with time.

Now read the passage to check your answers.

Table Manners and Customs

1. In Great Britain today good manners at table include eating with the mouth closed; not letting any of the food fall off the plate; using the knife only for cutting; and not trying to take food across the table. In other parts of the world there are also rules for people to follow when they are eating, but they are not the same as those of Britain. Indeed, what are considered good table manners in some other countries are what British people try hardest to avoid. In Arabia, for instance, the people at a feast take pieces of food with their fingers and belch loudly to show that they have appreciated it.
2. The richer and more educated people in the East have, however, to a great extent taken up the table manners and customs of western people. Tables and chairs have replaced the cushions of the past, and the lady of the house presides at one end of the table in the same way that Western women do. Many Japanese, however, still feel it would be wrong to eat unless they were sitting on a cushion before a low table with a tray of food on it. In many parts of the world both traditional and Western styles of eating exist side by side.
3. In the West there are differences between table manners in various countries, although they are not so marked. In North America it is polite to cut up meat and then put the knife down, take the fork in the right hand and eat with it. Most European people, like the British, keep the fork in the left hand and the knife in the right all the time when they are eating food that has to be cut. In the British Isles and Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland) special knives and forks are used for eating fish. In France, Belgium and Italy, however, it is correct to keep the same knife for every course, wiping it on a piece of bread.
4. Drinking customs at table also vary in different countries. In Europe, water, wine or beer is drunk with meals and coffee or tea is taken afterwards. In North America a beverage such as coffee, tea or milk is drunk with meals.
5. Table manners of course have changed with time. The earliest meals were also the simplest. They were eaten sitting on the ground round a fire, and everyone took his food from a pot on the fire or cut bits from the animal or bird that had been cooked. The women waited on the warriors and afterwards ate what they left.
6. Fingers were used to eat food throughout the middle ages. Food was eaten off wooden dishes with the noblemen sitting above a large salt cellar called simply "the salt". The ordinary people sat below the salt. In the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547), people were still eating with their hands after cutting the food with a clasp knife which was always carried at the belt. Forks were not used in England until the 17th century.
7. Table manners did not always include quiet behavior. Quarrels often took place at table, and in the 17th century King Louis XIV of France ordered that all knives should have rounded ends to prevent people from stabbing each other while they were eating.

New Words

manner
n. 1. (pl.)礼貌,礼仪
2. 方式,方法

custom
n. 习惯,风俗

avoid
v. to miss or keep away from, esp. on purpose 避开,躲开

instance
n. an example 例子,实例

feast
n. 1. a specially good or grand meal 盛宴,筵席
2. 节日,节期

belch
v. 打嗝

appreciate
v. to understand and enjoy the good qualities of 欣赏,赏识

educated
a. 受过教育的

educate
v. 1. 教育
2. 培养,训练

extent
n. a stated degree 程度,限度

western
a. of the west part of the world or of a country 西方的,西部的

replace
v. 1. to take the place of 取代,以...代替
2. to put (sth.) back in the right place 把...放回(原处)

cushion
n. 垫子,坐垫

preside
v. to be in charge; lead 主持

tray
n. 盘,碟

style
n. 风格,作风,方式

vary
v. 1. to be different 不同
2. to change 变化

beer
n. 啤酒

afterwards
ad. later; after that 以后,过后
beverage
n. 饮料(如汽水、茶、酒)

warrior
n. 勇士,武士

nobleman
n. 贵族

cellar
n. 1. (=salt cellar)(餐桌上用的)盐瓶,盐碟
2. an underground room, usu. used for storing goods 地窖,地下室

reign
n. (君主)统治时期,(君主)在位时期

clasp
n. 扣子,钩子

belt
n. 腰带,带状物

behavior
n. way of behaving 举止,行为

stab
v. 刺,刺伤

Phrases and Expressions

fall off
(从...)掉下

the same as
和...一样

for instance
例如

to a great extent
在很大程度上

take up
采取,开始采用

side by side
一起

cut up
切碎

wait on
侍候

Proper Names

Great Britain
大不列颠,英国(国名)

Arabia
阿拉伯半岛

France
法国(国名)

Italy
意大利(国名)

the British Isles
不列颠诸岛

Scandinavia
斯堪的纳维亚(北欧一地区)

Norway
挪威(国名)

Sweden
瑞典(国名)

Denmark
丹麦(国名)

Iceland
冰岛(国名)

Henry VII
亨利七世(1457-1509)

England
英格兰,英国

Louis XIV
路易十四(1638-1715)
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