密码:
注册找密码我的浏览
设首页加收藏加书签 ______

首页每天学英语新概念六级音标词汇语法四级研究生大学高中初中小学少儿演讲有声圣经VOA商务雅思

您所在的位置: 大耳朵首页 > 听力资料 > 在线视听资料 >...> 21世纪大学英语 > 第四册 > 正文

站内搜索:

小提示:学单词背单词请到大耳朵免费在线背单词系统
prodigy/['prɔdidʒi]/ n. 惊人的事物, 奇迹, 不凡的人, 奇才, 神童, 预兆...

21世纪大学英语读写教程第四册01

Unit 1

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.

genetics
遗传学

psychiatry
精神病学

persistent
坚持不懈的

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again and then answer the following questions.

1.What question did professor Simonton's research project seek to answer?
2.What three personality traits of great people are mentioned?
a) __________________________________________________________.
b) __________________________________________________________.
c) __________________________________________________________.
3.What negative trait of "great" people is mentioned?
4. Does professor Simonton believe that great people are more often mentally ill than other people?

Who Is Great?

Michael Ryan

As a young boy, Albert Einstein did so poorly in school that teachers thought he was slow. The young Napoleon Bonaparte was just one of hundreds of artillery lieutenants in the French Army. And the teenage George Washington, with little formal education, was being trained not as a soldier but as a land surveyor.
Despite their unspectacular beginnings, each would go on to carve a place for himself in history. What was it that enabled them to become great? Were they born with something special? Or did their greatness have more to do with timing, devotion and, perhaps, an uncompromising personality?
For decades, scientists have been asking such questions. And, in the past few years, they have found evidence to help explain why some people rise above, while others—similarly talented, perhaps—are left behind. Their findings could have implications for us all.
Who is great? Defining who is great depends on how one measures success. But there are some criteria. "Someone who has made a lasting contribution to human civilization is great," said Dean Keith Simonton, a professor of psychology at the University of California at Davis and author of the 1994 book Greatness: Who Makes History and Why. But he added a word of caution: "Sometimes great people don't make it into the history books. A lot of women achieved great things or were influential but went unrecognized."
In writing his book, Simonton combined historical knowledge about great figures with recent findings in genetics, psychiatry and the social sciences. The great figures he focused on include men and women who have won Nobel Prizes, led great nations or won wars, composed symphonies that have endured for centuries, or revolutionized science, philosophy, politics or the arts. Though he doesn't have a formula to define how or why certain people rise above (too many factors are involved), he has come up with a few common characteristics.
A "never surrender" attitude. If great achievers share anything, said Simonton, it is an unrelenting drive to succeed. "There's a tendency to think that they are endowed with something super-normal," he explained. "But what comes out of the research is that there are great people who have no amazing intellectual processes. It's a difference in degree. Greatness is built upon tremendous amounts of study, practice and devotion."
He cited Winston Churchill, Britain's prime minister during World War II, as an example of a risk-taker who would never give up. Thrust into office when his country's morale was at its lowest, Churchill rose brilliantly to lead the British people. In a speech following the Allied evacuation at Dunkirk in 1940, he inspired the nation when he said, "We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall never surrender."
Can you be born great? In looking at Churchill's role in history—as well as the roles of other political and military leaders—Simonton discovered a striking pattern: "Firstborns and only children tend to make good leaders in time of crisis: They're used to taking charge. But middle-borns are better as peacetime leaders: They listen to different interest groups better and make the necessary compromises. Churchill, an only child, was typical. He was great in a crisis, but in peacetime he was not effective—not even popular."
Timing is another factor. "If you took George Washington and put him in the 20th century he would go nowhere as a politician," Simonton declared. "He was not an effective public speaker, and he didn't like shaking hands with the public. On the other hand, I'm not sure Franklin Roosevelt would have done well in Washington's time. He wouldn't have had the radio to do his fireside chats."
Can you be too smart? One surprise among Simonton's findings is that many political and military leaders have been bright but not overly so. Beyond a certain point, he explained, other factors, like the ability to communicate effectively, become more important than innate intelligence as measured by an IQ test. The most intelligent U.S. Presidents, for example—Thomas Jefferson, Woodrow Wilson and John F. Kennedy—had a hard time getting elected, Simonton said, while others with IQs closer to the average (such as Warren G. Harding) won by landslides. While political and economic factors also are involved, having a genius IQ is not necessary to be a great leader.
In the sciences, those with "genius level" IQs do have a better chance at achieving recognition, added Simonton. Yet evidence also indicates that overcoming traditional ways of thinking may be just as important.
He pointed to one recent study where college students were given a set of data and were asked to see if they could come up with a mathematical relation. Almost a third did. What they did not know was that they had just solved one of the most famous scientific equations in history: the Third Law of Planetary Motion, an equation that Johannes Kepler came up with in 1618.
Kepler's genius, Simonton said, was not so much in solving a mathematical challenge. It was in thinking about the numbers in a unique way—applying his mathematical knowledge to his observations of planetary motion. It was his boldness that set him apart.
Love your work. As a child, Einstein became fascinated with the way magnets are drawn to metal. "He couldn't stop thinking about this stuff," Simonton pointed out. "He became obsessed with problems in physics by the time he was 16, and he never stopped working on them. It's not surprising that he made major contributions by the time he was 26."
"For most of us, it's not that we don't have the ability," Simonton added, "it's that we don't devote the time. You have to put in the effort and put up with all the frustrations and obstacles."
Like other creative geniuses, Einstein was not motivated by a desire for fame, said Simonton. Instead, his obsession with his work was what set him apart.
Where such drive comes from remains a mystery. But it is found in nearly all creative geniuses—whether or not their genius is acknowledged by contemporaries.
"Emily Dickinson was not recognized for her poetry until after her death," said Simonton. "But she was not writing for fame. The same can be said of James Joyce, who didn't spend a lot of time worrying about how many people would read Finnegans Wake."
Today, researchers have evidence that an intrinsic passion for one's work is a key to rising above. In a 1985 study at Brandeis University conducted by Teresa Amabile, now a professor of business administration at Harvard University, a group of professional writers—none famous—were asked to write a short poem. Each writer was then randomly placed in one of three groups: One group was asked to keep in mind the idea of writing for money; another was told to think about writing just for pleasure; and a third group was given no instruction at all.
The poems then were submitted anonymously to a panel of professional writers for evaluation. The poetry written by people who thought about writing for money ranked lowest. Those who thought about writing just for pleasure did the best. "Motivation that comes from enjoying the work makes a significant difference, "Amabile said.
(1 214 words)

New Words

artillery
n. heavy guns, often mounted on wheels, used in fighting on land, branch of an army that uses these 火炮;大炮;炮兵(部队)

surveyor
n. a person whose job is to examine and record the area and features of a piece of land by measuring and calculating (土地)测量员;勘测员

unspectacular
a. ordinary; not exciting or special 不引人注意的;不惊人的

spectacular
a. (attracting attention because) impressive or extraordinary 引人注目的;出色的;与众不同的

carve
vt. 1. form (sth.) by cutting away material from wood or stone 雕刻;雕刻成
2. build (one's career, reputation, etc.)by hard work 靠勤奋创(业),靠勤奋树(名声)

uncompromising
a. not ready to make any compromise; firm or unyielding. 不妥协的,坚定的;不让步的

influential
a. having a lot of influence on sb./sth. 有影响的;有权势的

genetics
n. the scientific study of the ways in which different characteristics are passed from each generation of living things to the next 遗传学

psychiatry
n. the study and treatment of mental illness 精神病学;精神病治疗

compose
vt. write (music, opera, poetry, etc.) 创作(音乐、歌剧、诗等)

symphony
n. a long complex musical composition for a large orchestra, usu. in three or four parts 交响乐

characteristic
n. a typical feature or quality 特点

unrelenting
a. not becoming less strong or severe; continuous 不松懈的,不放慢的;持续的

endow
vt. provide (sb./sth.) with a good quality, ability, feature, etc. 给予,赋予

super-normal
a. 超出一般的;超常的;非凡的

amazing
a. extremely good; esp. in a surprising and unexpected way 惊人的,令人吃惊的

cite
vt. mention (sb./sth.) as an example or to support an argument; refer to 引用,引证;举出

risk-taker
n. a person who dares to take risks 敢于冒险的人

thrust
vt. push (sth./sb./oneself) suddenly or violently (用力)推;强使

morale
n. state of confidence, enthusiasm, determination, etc. that a person or group has at a particular time 士气,精神状态

brilliantly
ad. in an outstanding manner 杰出地;才华横溢地

Allied
a. of the Allies (a group of countries fighting on the same side in a war, esp. those which fought with Britain in World Wars I and II) (第一次世界大战时期)协约国的;(第二次世界大战时期)同盟国的

ally
n. person, country, etc. joined with another in order to give help and support 同盟者;同盟国

evacuation
n. leaving a place of danger for a safer place 撤离;撤退

evacuate
v. 1. remove (sb.) from a place of danger to a safer place 撤退,撤出
2. leave or withdraw from (a place) 撤离(某处)

flag
vi. become tired or weak; begin to lose enthusiasm or energy 疲乏;变弱;(热情、精力等)衰退,低落

striking
a. attracting attention; unusual or interesting enough to be noticed 引人注目的;显著的,突出的

firstborn
n. a child born before other children 长子(或长女)

peacetime
n. a period when a country is not at war 和平时期

fireside
n. part of a room beside the fireplace, esp. considered as a warm comfortable place 壁炉旁

chat
n. a friendly informal conversation 闲谈,聊天

fireside chat
炉边亲切闲谈;(政治领袖在无线电或电视广播中)不拘形式的讲话

innate
a. (of a quality, feeling, etc.) in one's nature; possessed from birth 天生的

landslide
n. (竞选中)压倒多数的选票;一面倒的胜利

equation
n. 等式;方程(式)

boldness
n. the state or quality of being confident and brave 勇敢,无畏

bold
a. confident and brave; daring 勇敢的,无畏的;敢作敢为的

magnet
n. a piece of iron or other material that can attract iron, either naturally or because of an electric current passed through it 磁铁

obsession
n. the state of being obsessed 着迷

contemporary
n. a person who lives or lived at the same time as another, usu. being roughly the same age 同代人;(几乎)同年龄的人
a. belong to the same time; of the present time; modern 属于同一时代的;当代的;现代的

poetry
n. poems collectively or in general [总称]诗

intrinsic
a. (of a value or quality) belonging naturally to sb./sth.; existing within sb./sth., rather than coming from outside 固有的;本质的;内在的

randomly
ad. without method or conscious choice 任意地,胡乱地

submit
vt. give (sth.) to sb./sth. so that it may be formally considered or so that a decision about it may be made 提交,呈递

anonymously
ad. without revealing one's name 用匿名的方式

evaluation
n. the act of assessing or forming an idea of the amount, quality or value of sb./sth. 评价,评估

Phrases and Expressions

have (sth., nothing, a lot, etc.) to do with sb./sth.
be connected or concerned with sb./sth. to the extent specified 与某人 / 某事有(一些、毫无、很大)关系

make history
be or do sth. so important or unusual that it will be recorded in history 创造历史,影响历史的进程;做出值得纪念(或载入史册的)事情

rise above
become successful or outstanding 取得成功;出类拔萃

leave behind
cause to lag behind; surpass 把…丢在后面;超过

focus on
concentrate on 集中于;着重于

be endowed with
naturally have a good quality, ability, feature, etc. 天生具有

come out of
originate in or develop from 从…中获得;从…中发展而来

build...upon
base ... on; use (sth.) as a foundation for further progress 把…建立在…上

take charge
take control (of sth.); be responsible (for sth.) 掌管;负责

go /get nowhere
achieve no success or make no progress 不能成功;无进展

set ... apart
make (sb./sth.) different from or superior to others 使显得突出,使显得与众不同

put up with
tolerate or bear (sb./sth.) 忍受,容忍

Proper Names

Michael Ryan
迈克尔·赖恩

Napoleon Bonaparte
拿破仑·波拿巴 (1769 — 1821, 法兰西第一帝国和百日王朝皇帝)

George Washington
乔治·华盛顿 (1732 — 1799, 美国第一任总统)

Keith Simonton
基思·西蒙顿

Dunkirk
敦刻尔克(法国北部港市)

Franklin Roosevelt
富兰克林·罗斯福 (1882 — 1945, 美国第三十二任总统)

Thomas Jefferson
托马斯·杰斐逊 (1743 — 1826, 美国第三任总统,《独立宣言》主要起草人)

Woodrow Wilson
伍德罗·威尔逊 (1856 — 1924, 美国第二十八任总统)

Warren G. Harding
沃伦·G·哈定 (1865 — 1923, 美国第二十九任总统)

Johannes Kepler
开普勒 (1571 — 1630, 德国天文学家和占星家)

Emily Dickinson
艾米莉·迪金森 (1830 — 1886, 美国女诗人,美国现代诗先驱者之一)

James Joyce
詹姆斯·乔伊斯 (1882 — 1941, 爱尔兰小说家,多用“意识流”手法,代表作《尤利西斯》)

Finnegans Wake
《为芬尼根守灵》(乔伊斯于 1939 年出版的最后一部小说)

Brandeis
布兰代斯大学 (马萨诸塞州)

Teresa Amabile
特蕾莎·阿玛贝尔
您是否对这篇资料想说点什么?欢迎评论或者纠错,或者提交填空题答案! 您也可以立即
共有2人向本资料提供了听力原文,其中被采用了0篇,当前有0篇待审批,有2篇未被采用! 查看明细>>
如果您有更好的听力原文,欢迎提供给大耳朵,如果被采用,您将获得20到100金币的奖励!
第四册
高瞻远瞩
放眼全球
推荐资源
最新社区精华帖子更多>>
  • 走遍美国教学版
    走遍美国教学版
  • 哈利学前班[英语儿歌]
    哈利学前班[英语儿歌]
  • 海绵宝宝 英文版
    海绵宝宝 英文版
  • 风中的女王第1季
    风中的女王第1季
经典学习方法更多>>

听力排行

试题

视听

歌曲

电影

初中英语情景反应
大学四级听力模拟五07
高考听力模拟3906-07
00年6月四级听力10
2003年北京西城区中考听力15
03 A Popular Pastime of the English People
初中英语情景反应
03年9月六级听力10
大学四级听力模拟五11-20
高考听力模拟3910-12
澳洲旅游英语lesson 11and 12
新概念英语第二册70-02
法律英语基础听说900句Part16-17
英语故事lesson 45:Odol's Talent (1)
英语励志美文精华 3
VOA慢速 Explorations-Travel Industry, Fisheries Depend on Threatened Coral Reefs(2012-02-15)
4+1听力口语MP3-句型 03
跟赖世雄学语法 第八章副词05
BBC News新闻 20111118
BBC News 超强气旋登陆印度 当地居民被迫撤离 20141015
Matt Redman - 10,000 Reasons (Bless the Lord)(最佳福音、当代基督教音乐演绎)
Ma Philosophie - Amel Bent
下雪《爱你不是两三天》韩文版
Kakuna Matata(狮子王1)插曲
Backstreet boysas long as you love me
Angels Watching Over Me 英文FLASH儿歌
匈牙利歌曲 Zséda Mnyg -- Ajtok mogott
我相信我能飞【太空也入樽】
WIND BENEATH MY WINGS(BETTE MIDLER)
纯音乐Daisy-Hey电影《雏菊》插曲
小熊维尼与跳跳虎英文版 第一季 第1集
巴布工程师英文版 第1集 小猫阿皮不见了
小伙伴英语儿歌 第1集 小星星
酷艾英语系列之光棍节
看电影学英语系列之冒牌家庭
海绵宝宝全集 第1集
小马宝莉 第1集
幼儿双语儿歌系列之ABC字母歌
Bingo教你说美语之如何用英语叙旧
Hello Teddy洪恩幼儿英语1
听力资料目录导航
听力测试 英语词汇 英语口语 考试英语 品牌英语 大学教材 其他教材 商务英语 广播英语 儿童英语
历年中考听力
初中中考模拟
历年高考听力
高考听力模拟
历年四级听力
历年六级听力
四级听力模拟
小学  初中
高中  四级
六级  考研
托福  GRE
星火记忆单词
用Mp3背单词
刘毅词汇记忆
情景英语口语
4+1听力口语
出国实用会话
英语口语8000句
新东方900句
美语听力与发音
ABC到流利口语
口译考试
剑桥考试
中高考考试
大学四六级考试
研究生考试
公共英语考试
英语专业考试
新概念 六人行
赖世雄 许国璋
走遍美国 越狱
疯狂英语 沛沛
语法讲座 动感
大山英语 探索
千万别学英语
大学英语听力
大学英语精读
全新版 21世纪
新视野 实用综
大学体验 新编
成人自考 step
Listen this way
广州版小学英语
广州版初中英语
剑桥少儿英语
朗文3L看听学
Goforit新目标
高中英语课本
进阶听说教程
商务英语300句
VOA商务英语
商业英语视频
中级商务英语
初级剑桥证书
新编剑桥英语
剑桥英语精华版
2007年VOA慢速
VOA中级美语
美国习惯用语
VOA流行美语
澳广播英语讲座
在线大学课堂
VOA视频节目
宝宝ABC
棒棒英语
哈哈美语
LittleFox儿歌
英语儿童故事
380英语小故事
1035个英语单词

免责声明:本站只提供资源播放平台,如果站内部分资源侵犯您的权益,请您告知,我们会立即处理。
Copyright © 2010-2017 大耳朵英语  京ICP备10010568号 | 京公网安备 11010802020324号

微信扫一扫手机学英语 关闭
微博扫一扫手机学英语 关闭
QQ扫一扫手机学英语 关闭
0.186981s