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大学英语精读第四册06

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Unit Six
 
 
Click the button to listen to the text
 
 
"Don't ever mark in a book!" Thousands of teach-
ers, librarians and parents have so advised. But Mor-
timer Adler disagrees. He thinks so long as you own the
book and needn't preserve its physical appearance,
marking it properly will grant you the ownership of
the book in the true sense of the word and make it a
part of yourself.
 
 
HOW TO MARK A BOOK
 

Mortimer J. Adler

You know you have to read "between the lines" to get the most out of
anything. I want to persuade you to do something equally important in the
course of your reading. I want to persuade you to "write between the
lines." Unless you do, you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of
reading.

You shouldn't mark up a book which isn't yours. Librarians (or your
friends) who lend you books expect you to keep them clean, and you should.
If you decide that I am right about the usefulness of marking books, you
will have tq buy them.

There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the
property right you establish by paying for it, just as you pay for clothes
and furniture. But this act of purchase is only the prelude to possession.
Fill ownership comes only when you have made it a part of yourself, and the
best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it. An illustration
may make the point clear. You buy a beefsteak and transfer it from the
butcher's icebox to your own. But you do not own the beefsteak in the most
important sense until you consume it and get it into your bloodstream. I am
arguing that books, too, must be absorbed in your bloodstream to do you
any good .

There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard
sets and best-sellers - unread, untouched. ( This individual owns woodpulp
and ink, not books. ) The second has a great many books - a few of them
read through, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny
as the day they were bought. ( This person would probably like to make
books his own, but is restrained by a false respect for their physical
appearance. ) The third has a few books or many - every one of them dog-
eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and
scribbled in from front to back. (This man owns books. )

Is it false respect, you may ask, to preserve intact a beautifully prin-
ted book, an elegantly bound edition? Of course not. I'd no more scribble
all over a first edition of "Paradise Lost" than I'd give my baby a set of
crayons and an original Rembrandt! I wouldn't mark up a painting or a statue.
Its soul, so to speak, is inseparable from its body. And the beauty of a
rare edition or of a richly manufactured volume is like that of a painting
or a statue. If your respect for magnificent binding or printing gets in
the way, buy yourself a cheap edition and pay your respects to the author.

Why is marking up a book indispensable to reading? First, it keeps you
awake. (And I don't mean merely conscious; I mean wide awake. ) In the
second place, reading, if it is active; is thinking, and thinking tends to
express itself in words, spoken or written. The marked book is usually the
thought-through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts
you had, or the thoughts the author expressed. Let me develop these three
points.

If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time, it must
be active. You can't let your eyes glide across the lines of a book and
come up with an understanding of what you have read. Now an ordinary piece
of light fiction, like, say, "Gone with the Wind," doesn't require the most
active kind of reading. The books you read for, pleasure can be read in a
state of relaxation, and nothing is lost. But a great book; rich in ideas and
beauty, a book that raises and tries to answer great fundamental questions,
demands the most active reading of which you are capable. You don't absorb
the ideas of John Dewey the way you absorb the crooning of Mr. Vallee. You
have to reach for them. That you cannot do while you're asleep.

If, when you've finished reading a book, the pages are filled with your
notes, you know that you read actively. The most famous active reader of
great books I know is President Hutchins, of the University of Chicago. He
also has the hardest schedule of business activities of any man I know. He
invariably reads with a pencil, and sometimes, when he picks up a book and
pencil in the evening, he finds himself, instead of making intelligent notes,
drawing what he calls "caviar factories" on the margins. When that happens,
he puts the book down. He knows he's too tired to read, and he's just
wasting time.

But, you may ask, why is writing necessary? Well, the physical act of
writing, with your own hand, brings words and sentences more sharply before
your mind and preserves them better in your memory. To set down your
reaction to important words and sentences you have read, and the questions
they have raised in your mind, is to preserve those reactions and sharpen
those questions. You can pick up the book the following week or year, and
there are all your points of agreement, disagreement, doubt and inquiry.
It's like resuming an interrupted conversation with the advantage of being
able to pick up where you left off.

And that is exactly what reading a book should be : a conversation be-
tween you and the author. Presumably he knows more about the subject than
you do; naturally you'll have the proper humility as you approach him. But
don't let anybody tell you that a reader is supposed to be solely on the
receiving end. Understanding is a two-way operation; learning doesn't con-
sist in being an empty receptacle. The learner has to question himself and
question the teacher. He even has to argue with the teacher, once he under-
stands what the teacher is saying. And marking a book is literally an ex-
pression of your differences, or agreements of opinion, with the author.

There are all kinds of devices for marking a book intelligently and
fruitfully. Here's the way I do it:

1. Underlining: of major points, of important or forceful statements.

2. Vertical lines at the margin: to emphasize a statement already under-
lined.

3. Star, asterisk, or other doo-dad at the margin: to be used sparingly, to
emphasize the ten or twenty most important statements in the book.

4 .Numbers in the margin : to indicate the sequence of points the author
makes in developing a single argument.

5 .Numbers of other pages in the margin: to indicate where else in the book
the author made points relevant to the point marked; to tie up the ideas
in a book, which, though they may be separated by many pages, belong
together:

6.Circling of key words or phrases.

7.Writing in the margin, or at the top or bottom of the page, for the sake
of: recording questions (and perhaps answers) which a passage raised in
your mind; reducing a complicated discussion to a simple statement;
recording the sequence of major points right through the book. I use the
end-papers at the back of the book to make a personal index of the
author's points in the order of their appearance.

The front end-papers are, to me, the most important. Same people re-
serve them for a fancy bookplate. I reserve them for fancy thinking. After
I have finished reading the book and making my personal index on the back
end-papers, I turn to the front and try to outline t he book, not page by
page, or point by point (I've already denoted at the back), but as an
integrated structure, with a basic unity and an order of parts. This
outline is, to me, the measure of my understanding of the work.



Click the button to listen to the pronunciations of new words

 

 

New Words
 

persuade v.
cause (sb.) to do sth. by reasoning, arguing,

 
etc. 说服, 劝服

librarian n.
图书馆管理员

property n.
(collectively) things owned; possessions

 
财产

prelude n.
action, event, etc. that serves as an

 
introduction 序幕;前奏曲

possession n.
possessing; ownership;( pl.) property 拥有;

 
所有权; 财产

ownership n.
the possessing ( of sth. ) ; right' of

 
possessing 所有(权)

illustration n.
an example which explains the meaning of

 
sth. ; an explanatory picture, diagram,

 
etc. 例;图例;插图

beefsteak n.
牛排

transfer vt.
hand over the possession of (property, etc.);

 
change officially from one position, etc.

 
to another 转移 ;调动

butcher n.
a person who kills, cuts up and sells

 
animals for food 屠夫

icebox n.
a box where food is kept cool with blocks

 
of ice; (AmE) refrigerator

bloodstream n.
the blood as it flows through the blood

 
vessels of the body 血流

absorb vt.
take or suck in ( liquids ) ; take in

 
(knowledge, ideas, etc. ) 吸收

best-seller n.
book that is sold in very large numbers

 
畅销书

individual n.
any one human being ( contrasted with

 
society) 个人

woodpulp n.
木(纸) 浆

dip v.
plunge or be plunged quickly or briefly

 
into a liquid, esp.to wet or coat 浸; 蘸

shiny a.
giving off light as if polished; bright

 
发亮的

restrain vt.
prevent; control; hold back 抑制;控制,约束

dogeared a.
(of a book) having the corners of the pages

 
bent down with use, like a dog's ears

 
(书页)卷角的

dilapidated a.
(of things) broken and old ; falling to

 
pieces 破旧的;倾坍的

loosen v.
make or become loose or looser (使) 松开

continual a.
repeated; frequent 不断的;频繁的

scribble v.
write hastily or carelessly; write meaning-

 
less marks on paper, etc. 潦草书写;乱涂

preserve vt.
keep safe from harm or danger 保护;保存

intact a.
untouched; undamaged 完整无损的

elegantly ad.
beautifully; gracefully 优美地 ; 雅致地

elegant a.

bind (bound)
tie or fasten with a rope, etc. ; fasten

 
together sheets of (a book) and enclose

 
within a cover 捆; 绑;装订(书)

edition n.
form in which a book is published; total

 
number of copies (of a book, newspaper,

 
etc.) issued from the same types (书等的)

 
版本; 版

paradise n.
the Garden of Eden; Heaven 伊甸园 ; 天堂

crayon n.
蜡笔;颜色笔

original a.
of or relating to an origin or beginning;

 
being the first instance or source from

 
which a copy can be made 最初的;原著的;

 
原创作者的

painting n.
a painted picture; pictures

statue n.
an image of a person or animal in wood, stone,

 
bronze, etc. 雕像

inseparable a.
impossible to separate from one another

manufacture vt.
make produce on a large scale by machinery

 
制造;(大量)生产

magnificent a.
splendid; remarkable 华丽的; 宏伟的

indispensable a.
absolutely essential or necessary

 
必不可少的

conscious a.
aware; able to feel and think 有意识的;

 
神志清醒的

understanding n.
knowledge of the nature of sth., based esp.

 
on learning or experience 理解

fiction n.
( branch of literature concerned with )

 
stories, novels and romances 小说

croon vi.
sing gently in a low soft voice, usu. with

 
much feeling 低声吟唱

reader n.
person who reads

invariably ad.
unchangeable; constantly 不变地;始终如一地

intelligent a.
having or showing a high degree of powers

 
of reasoning or understanding 聪明的

caviar(e) n.
鱼子酱

sharpen v.
become or make sharp(er)

disagreement n.
the fact or a case of disagreeing; lack of

 
similarity 分歧;不一致

disagree vi .

inquiry n.
question; asking 询问

resume vt.
go on after stopping for a time (中断后)重

 
新开始

naturally ad.
of course; as one could have expected

humility n.
humble condition or state of mind 谦卑

solely ad.
not including anything else or any others;

 
only

sole a.

receptacle n.
a container for keeping things in 容器

literally ad.
actually; virtually 确实地; 简直

fruitfully ad.
productively; with good results 富有成果地

fruitful a.

underline vt.
draw a line under (a word, etc. ) esp. to

 
show importance 在…下划线( 表示强调 )

forceful a.
strong; powerful

vertical a.
垂直的

emph85ize vt.
Call attention to; stress 强调

asterisk n.
a starlike mark used to call attention to

 
sth. 星号(即*)

doo-dad n.
(informal ) a fancy, trifling ornament

 
小装饰物

sparingly ad.
economically and frugally 节约地

sequence n.
succession; connected line of events, ideas,

 
etc. 顺序;连续;一连串

relevant a.
connected with what is being discussed;

 
appropriate 有关的;适宜的

phrase n.
短语

end-paper n.
(often pl. ) a piece of blank paper stuck

 
inside the cover at the beginning or end

 
of a book 衬页

index n.
索引

fancy a.
not ordinary; brightly coloured 别致的;

 
花哨的

bookplate n.
a piece of paper with the owner's name, usu.

 
pasted to the inside front cover of a

 
book 藏书票

integrate vt.
put or bring together (parts) into a whole

 
使成一整体

structure n.
way in which sth. is put together, organized,

 
etc. ; framework or essential parts of a

 
building 结构

basic a.
essential; fundamental 主要的;基本的

unity n.
an arrangement of parts to form a complete

 
whole; the state of being united 总体布局;

 
统一


 

 

Phrases & Expressions

 

read between the lines
(fig.) find more meaning than the words appear to

 
express 体会字里行间的言外之意

do (sb. ) good
help or benefit (sb. ) 帮助(某人);对(某人)有益

dip into
read or study for a short time or without much

 
attention 浏览;稍加探究

no more...than...
in no greater degree… than…

a set of
a number of (things that belong together) 一套

so to speak say
(used as an apology for an unusual use of a word

 
or phrase) as one might say; if I may use this

 
expression, etc. 可以说;容许我打个譬喻

get in the way
become a nuisance or hindrance 挡道 ; 碍事

in the second place
as the second thing in order or importance 第二,

 
其次

think through
think about until one reaches an understanding

 
or conclusion 彻底全面考虑

reach for
stretch out one's hand to grasp; make an effort

 
to grasp 伸手去抓; 努力争取

set down
write down on paper

pick up
start again after interruption 中断后重新开始

leave off
stop

consist in
lie in; be equivalent to 在于 ; 存在于

tie up
connect closely; fasten with rope, etc.系紧;捆牢

reduce…to
state in a more concise form; summarize as

 
把…归纳为



 

Phrases & Expressions

 

go on (a trip, vacation)
depart for the purpose of

at times
occasionally; now and then 间或; 有时

in one's eyes
in one' s opinion

for one's ( own ) sake
for one's own benefit 为了某人自己的利益

slip into
fall into; enter (esp. through carelessness)

 
陷入

contrary to
opposite to; despite

in the first place
firstly

in the course of
during

in the dark
uninformed; ignorant 不知情, 蒙在鼓里

bring to a close
end 结束, 终止

take leave ( of )
say goodbye ( to )

in the long run
in the end; ultimately 从长远的观点看;最终

go to great lengths
do anything possible, however dangerous, unpleasant,

 
wicked, etc. 不遗余力

refrain from
not do, stop

day after day
each day

take a /one's stand
declare one's position, loyalty, opinions, etc., and be

 
prepared to fight (for these opinions, etc. ) 表明

 
立场, 意见等


 

 

Proper Names

 

Rembrandt
伦勃朗(姓氏)

Dewey
杜威(姓氏)

Vallee
瓦利 (姓氏)

Hutchins
哈钦斯


 

 

 

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