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自考高级英语下册 Lesson 10 How Market Leaders Keep Their Edge

Lesson ten

How Market Leaders Keep their Edge

 by Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema

 

课文翻译 (Translation of the text)

 

领先市场的公司怎样保持竞争优势

 

米歇尔?特雷西 & 弗雷德?沃西马

Our research shows that no company can succeed today by trying to be all things to all people .

我们的调查表明,没有一家公司能够做到面面俱到,满足所有人的需求而成

功。

It must instead find the unique value that it alone can deliver to a chosen market .

相反,它必须找到一种特定的价值观为其所选定的市场服务。

We have identified three distinct value disciplines , so called because each discipline produces a different kind of customer value .

我们归纳三种不同的价值类型,这么说是因为每种类型都提供一种不同的顾客价值观。

Choosing one discipline to master does not mean that a company abandons (放棄)the other two , only that it picks a dimension of value(價值類型) on which to stake its market reputation (声誉)over the long term .

选择一种价值类型去做并不意味着一家公司放弃了另外两种,这只意味着它选择了价值观的一个方面,并以此建立自己长期的市场声誉。

The first value discipline we call operational excellence

第一种价值类型我们称之为运作卓越型。

Companies that pursue (追求)this are not primarily product or service innovators(革新者), nor do they cultivate (培養)deep , one –to-one relationships with customers .

追求这种价值的公司既不是产品和服务的革新者,也不培养和顾客一对一的密切关系。

Instead , operationally excellent companies provide middle-of –the-market products at the best price with the least inconvenience(麻煩) . Their proposition(主張) to customers is simple : low price or hassle –free (無麻煩的)service , or both .

运作卓越型的公司以最优惠的价格、最大的便利给顾客提供中档产品。他们为顾客服务的宗旨很简单:低价位或无麻烦的服务,或两者兼而有之。

The second value discipline we call product leadership .

第二种价值类型我们称之为产品领先型。

Its practitioners concentrate on offering products that push performance boundaries

产品领先型公司倾全力提供性能最好的产品。

Their proposition to customers is an offer of the best product , period .

他们为顾客服务的宗旨是:提供最好的产品。

Moreover , product leaders do not build their positions with just one innovation (革新);

此外,产品领先者并不止步于只是一种革新,

they continue to innovate year after year , product cycle after product cycle .

他们年复一年地创新,一个产品周期接一个产品周期不断创新。

Johnson&Johnson , for instance , is a product leader in the medical equipment field .

比如说,强生公司是医疗器材领域的产品先锋。

With Nike , the superior(優越的) value does not reside(體現) just in its athletic(動動的) footwear, but also in the comfort customers can take from knowing that whatever product they buy from Nike will represent the hottest style and technology on the market .

“耐克”这个品牌的优越价值不仅仅体现在运动鞋袜上,而且体现在顾客从这个品牌中得到的舒适感上。 顾客知道他们从“耐克”买的任何产品都代表市场上最抢手的款式和技术。

For these product leaders , competition is not about price or customer service ( though those can’t be ignored ) , it’s about product performance(性能) .

对于这些产品领先者来说,他们要竞争的不是产品价格或对顾客的服务(虽然这两条不能忽视),而是产品的性能。

The third value discipline we have named customer intimacy(親密的).

第三种价值类型我们称之为亲密顾客型。

Its adherents (信念)focus on delivering not what the market wants but what specific customers want .

这类公司着重提供的不是市场的需求,而是特定顾客群体需求。

Customer-intimate companies do not pursue one-time transactions(交易) ; they cultivate relationships .

与顾客关系密切的公司追求的不是一次性的交易, 他们培养与顾客之间的关系。

They specialize in satisfying unique needs , which often only they recognize , through a close relationship with ---and intimate knowledge of ----the customer .

他们满足顾客的特殊需求,而这些需求,只有靠他们和顾客建立密切关系,深入了解才能获知。

Their proposition (宗旨)to the customer: We have the best solution for you , and we provide all the support you need to achieve optimum(最適宜的) results , or value , or both , from whatever products you buy .

他们为顾客服务的宗旨是:我们为你提供最佳解决办法,提供你所需的一切支持以达到你所购买的任何产品的最佳效果或价值,或两者兼顾。

Long distance telephone carrier Cable& Wireless , , for example , practices customer intimacy with a vengeance(極度) , achieving success in a highly competitive market by consistently going the extra mile (額外的服務)for its selectively chosen , small-business customers .

比如,长途电话公司Cable & Wireless彻底实行密切联系顾客的策略,通过始终如一地设法为它所选定的生意规模小的客户提供额外 服务,从而在激烈竞争的市场中获得成功。

Winning through Cost

以价格取胜

Operationally excellent companies deliver a combination of quality , price , and ease of purchase(購買便利) that no one else in their market can match .

运作卓越型公司提供一种质量、价格、购物便利的组合,这是市场上其他公

司无法与之相比的。

They are not product or service innovators , nor do they cultivate one-to-one relationships with customers.

他们不是产品或服务的革新者,也不发展与顾客一对一的密切关系。

They execute extraordinarily(額外) well , and their proposition to customers is guaranteed(確保) low price or hassle –free(無麻煩) service , or both .

他们把公司经营得非常出色,他们对顾客的服务宗旨是确保低价位,或无麻烦的服务,或两者兼有。

Price/Costco, the chain of warehouse club stores仓储式连锁商店,, doesn’t provide a particularly rich selection of merchandise(商品)----only 3,500 items , vs. 50,000 or more in competing stores .

普莱斯/考斯托克是家仓储式连锁商店,它并不提 供有极大挑选余地的商品。同与之竞争的商店中 5万种,或更多种的商品相比,它只提供3500种。

But as a customer, you don’t have to spend much time deliberating over(考慮)what brand (商標)of coffee or home appliance to select .

但作为一名顾客,你没必要花太多的时间考虑选择哪种品牌的咖啡或家庭用具。

Price/Costco saves you that hassle by choosing for you .

普莱斯/考斯托克公司帮你做出选择从而省去你的麻烦。

Then company’s Consumer Reports mentality leads to rigorous(精確的) evaluation of leading brands and shrewd (精明地)purchasing of just the one brand in each category that represents the best value .

公司的“消费者反馈报告”对主要品牌做出精确的评估,使公司精明地购买每种商品

中代表最优价值的品牌。

To add excitement(刺激) to the shopping experience ----that is , to get the customer to come again and again ----new items are constantly sprinkled into the assortment(分類) to build anticipation(期望值) and a value-of-the –week atmosphere .

为了增加顾客购物的兴奋感,也就是说为了让顾客经常光顾,商店不断地在已有的各式货品中添加新品种来增加顾客的期望值,而且还营造了购买本周最有价值商品的氛围。

Behind the scenes (暗地裡), Price/ Costco follows an operating model in which it buys larger quantities and negotiates better prices than competing stores .

普莱斯/考斯托克公司暗地里实施一种操作模式。 它大量进货,从而获得比

竞争对手更低的价格。

It carries only items that sell well . The company ‘s information systems track product movement ---and move it does .

它只进好卖的商品。公司的信息系统跟踪记载商品的销售情况——这些商品确实流动。

These data drive stocking decisions that optimize優化 floor space usage .

这些数据引导进货决策,以便使地面空间的利用最优化。

The place hums .It runs like a well-oiled machine , and customers love it .

这里生意兴隆,就像一台上好的机器运转顺利,深受顾客欢迎。

Winning with Great Products

以优质产品取胜

Companies pursuing product leadership continually push products into the realm (領域)of the unknown , the untried , or the highly desirable (極且吸引力).

追求产品先领先地位的公司不断努力生产出别人未知的,未尝试过的,或极

具吸引人的产品。

Reaching that goal requires that they challenge themselves in three ways .

要想达到这个目标要求,他们必须在三个方面挑战自我。

First , they must be creative . More than anything else , being creative means recognizing and embracing ideas that may originate anywhere ----inside the company or out .

首先, 他们必须富有创造性。富有创造性最主要的是能认别并容纳来源不同的主意,无论是公司那还是公司外。

Second , they must commercialize their ideas quickly . To do so , all their business and management processes are engineered for speed .

其次,他们必须迅速地使自己的想法商品化。要做到这一点,其所有的业务和管理进程都要加快速度。

Third and most important ,they must relentlessly(無情地) pursue超越 ways to leapfrog (躍過)their own latest product or service .

第三点也是最重要的一点,他们必须坚持不懈地寻找超越自己最新产品和服务的途径。

If anyone is going to render their technology obsolete , 使他们的技术过时,they prefer to do it themselves .

如果有人要使他们的技术过时,他们宁愿自己来做。

Product leaders do not stop for self-congratulation . They are too busy raising the bar .

产品领先型公司不会满足于已取得的成绩,他们忙于追求更高的目标。

Johnson & Johnson meets all three of these challenges . It brings in new ideas , develops them quickly , and then looks for ways to improve them .

强生公司迎接所有这三种挑战。它引进新点子,迅速使其得以发展,再寻找

改进的途径。

The president of J& J’s Vistakon , a maker of specialty contact lenses ,

强生的卫康公司是专门生产隐形眼镜的公司,

heard in 1983 about a Copenhagen ophthalmologist who had conceived a way of manufacturing disposable contact lenses inexpensively .

公司总裁于1983年听 说一位哥本哈根的眼科医生想出了廉价生产一次型隐形眼镜的办法。

He got his tip by telephone from a J&J’s employee who worked for Janssen Pharmaceutical (制藥公司), a Belgian drug subsidiary .

他是从强生公司的一位雇员的电话中得知这件事的。而这位雇员所工作的琼森制药公司是强 生公司在比利时的一家子公司。

Instead of dismissing the ophthalmologist as a mere thinkerer, these two executives speedily bought the rights to the technology , assembled a management team to oversee development , and built a state-of-the –art facility in Florida to manufacture disposable contact lenses called Acuvue .

这两位负责人没有把这位眼科医生当成门外汉而拒绝考虑他的想法。相反,迅速买下技术专利,调集了一支管理队伍监督进展状况,还在佛罗里达州建造了最先进的设备生产叫做Acuvue的隐形眼镜。

By the summer of 1987 , Acuvue was ready for test-marketing .

到1987年的夏天,Acuvue准备试销。`

In less than a year , Vistakon rolled out the product across the U.S. with a high –visibility and campaign .

在不到一年的时间里,卫康公司以显见 的广告运动在全美推广其产品。

Vistakon ---and its parent , J& J ---were willing to incur high manufacturing and inventory costs before a single lens was sold .

卫康公司和母公司强生公司在一副隐形眼镜尚未賣出之前甘愿承受高额生产和库存费用。

Vistakon ‘s high-speed production facility helped give the company a six-month head start over would –be rivals .

卫康公司的高速生产设备有助于强生公司领先于它的未来竞争对手六个月的时间。

Caught off guard , the competition never caught up .

其竞争对手在未加提防情况下遭受重击,因而永远无法赶超。

J&J, like other product leaders , works hard at developing open-mindedness to new ideas .

和其他产品领先公司一样,强生公司努力虚心接受新的观点,

Vistakon continues to investigate new materials that would extend the wearability of the contact lensens and even some technologies that would make the lenses obsolete .

卫康公司继续研究新材料以延长隐形眼镜的耐用性,甚至研究能使眼镜过时的技术

product leaders create and maintain an environment that encourages employees to bring ideas into the company and , just as important , to listen to and consider these ideas , however unconventional .

产品领先公司创建和保持一种环境,鼓励员工把新想法带入公司,不管这些想法多么不合 常规也要倾听和考虑。

Where others see glitches(小故障) in their marketing plans or threats to their product lines , companies that focus on product leadership see opportunity and rush to capitalize on it .

其他公司看作是市场计划中的小缺陷或对产品种类构成威胁的地方, 产品领先型公司看到的则是机遇并迅速利用。

Companies excelling in product leadership do not plan for every possible contingency , nor do they spend much time on detailed analysis .

以产品领先而著称的公司不为每一个可能发生的意外事件做计划,也不花太

多的时间做详细的分析。`

Their strength lies in reacting to situations as they occur . Fast reaction times are an advantage when dealing with the unknown .

他们的力量体现在对所发生的情况做出反应。当处理未 知的事情时,快速反应是优势。

Vistakon’s managers , for example , responded quickly when competitors challenged the safety of the lenses .

比如,卫康公司的经理在对手对隐形眼镜的安全性提出异议时,他们做出迅速反应。

They distributed data combating the charges , via Federal Express , to some 17,000 eye-care professionals .

他们通过联邦快件递送公司把反对指责的数据分发给一万七千名护眼专业人士,

Vistakon’s speedy response engendered goodwill in the marketplace .

卫康公司的迅速反应使其在销售市场建立了良好的商业信誉。

Product leaders have a vested interest in protecting the entrepreneurial environment that they have created .

产品领先公司对保护他们所建造的企业环境拥有既得的利益。

To that end , they hire , recruit , and train employees in their own mold .

为了达到那个目的,他们以自己的模式雇用、招收、培训员工。

When it is time for Vistakon to hire new salespeople , for example , its managers do not look for people experienced in selling contact lenses ; they look for people who will fit in with j&J ‘s culture .

比如说,当卫康公司要聘用新销售员时,其经理所要聘用的不是有销售隐形眼镜经验的人,而是将能适应强生公司文化的人。

That means their first question isn’t about a candidate’s related experience ; it’s more likely to be , “ Could you work cooperatively in teams ?” or “ How open are you to criticism ?”也就是说,他们所问的第一个问题不是关于应聘者的相关经验,

而很可能是:“你能与团队合作工作吗?”或者是“你能怎样虚心接受批评?”

Product leaders are their own fiercest competitors .

产品领先公司最激烈的竞争对手就是自己。

They no sooner cross a frontier than they are scouting the next .

他们刚刚跨越一个新领域就开始 探索下一个更新的领域。

They must be adept at rendering obsolete the products and services they have created ,

他们必须善于使自己的产品和服务淘汰。

They realize that if they don’t develop a successor , another company will .

他们知道如果自己不开发更新换代的产品,其他公司也会这样做的

J& J , Nike , and other innovators are willing to take the long view of profitability ,

强生、耐克 和其他革新公司愿意以长远的眼光考虑利润问题,

recognizing that extracting the full profit potential from an existing product or service is less important than maintaining product leadership and momentum .

意识到保持产品的领先地位和冲力,要比从现有的产品和服务中获取全部的潜在利润更重要。

These companies are never blinded by their own success .

这些公司从来不会被胜利冲昏头脑。

Winning through Customer Intimacy

以顾客密切关系取胜

A company that delivers value via customer intimacy builds bonds with customers like those between good neighbors .

一个通过与顾客建立密切关系而实现其价值的公司与顾客建立友邻一样的联 系。

Customer-intimate companies don’t deliver what the market wants but what a specific customer wants .

顾客亲密型公司并不提供市场所需的,而是提供某特定的顾客所需的东西。

The customer-intimate company makes a business of knowing the people it sells to and the products and services they need .

顾客亲密型公司认为了解其顾客以及顾客所需的产品和服务至关重要。

It continually tailors its products and services and does so at reasonable prices .

它不断地使其产品和服务迎合顾客要求,而且价格合理。

Its proposition is : “ We get you the best total solution .

它的服务宗旨是:“我们使你得到最佳解决方案。”

“ The customer –intimate company’s greatest asset is its customers’ loyalty .

顾客亲密型公司的最大的资产是其顾客对它的忠诚。

Customers don’t have to be resold through expensive advertising and promotion.

顾客亲密型公司不靠昂贵的广告和产品促销来把商品转卖给顾客,

Customer-intimate companies don’t pursue transactions ; They cultivate relationships .

他们追求的不是交易,而是培养与客户之间的关系。

They are adept at giving the customer more than he or she expects .

他们善于向顾客提供超出顾客自己所期望的东西。

By constantly upgrading offerings , customer-intimate companies stay ahead of customers’ rising expectations

通过不断地提高其供应物品的质量,顾客亲密型公司总是超出顾客不断提高的期望值,

----expectations that , by the way , they themselves create .

顺便提一下,这些期望是公司自己创造出来的。`

Cable&Wireless , a long-distance carrier , is a good example of a company that is better than most at building relationships that pay off in repeat sales from loyal customers .

Cable & Wireless公司是个很好的范例。在建立与顾客关系方面它比大多数公司做得更好。这样做的回报是忠实的顾客继续购买它的产品,接受它的服务。

Cable& Wireless Communications , based in Vienna , Virginia , has worked for years to become a customer-intimate organization .

设在弗吉尼亚州的维也纳Cable & Wireless通讯公司发展多年才成为一个顾客亲密型的组织。

It is a subsidiary of Britain’s Cable& Wireless , and focused principally on business clients .

作为英国Cable & Wireless公司的子公司,它重点发展与商业 客户的关系。

The company attributes its 20% annual growth rate in number of long-distance customer minutes to its striving continuously to serve customers better than bigger competitors .

公司把每年增长20%的长途话时,归因于自己比其他强大竞争对手 更加不懈地努力为顾客服务。

Company executives knew long ago that their long-distance operation couldn’t compete on price with the Big Three , At&T, MCI, and Sprint .

公司的董事们很久以前就知道他们的长途业务在价格上无法同AT&T、 MCI和

斯普林特三大公司抗衡。`

So they sought to differentiate themselves by providing the best customer support in the industry , along with direct sales consultation that gives salespeople intimate knowledge of what makes its customers successful .

所以他们向客户提供这一行业中最好的支持,并通过直接销售咨询,为销售人员提供能使顾客获得成功的个人信息,这使他们与其他公司不同。

The result is that Cable &Wireless has turned itself from a mundane commodity business (普通的)peddling long-distance service into a sophisticated telemanager(老練的電信公司) a partner with its customers .

结果是Cable & Wireless通讯公司,这个曾经是小规模经营长途电话业

务的普通企业,发展成了一个老练的电信公司,一个与顾客合作的伙伴。

Cable& Wireless pins its success on choosing the customers it can serve best ---small to medium-size business with monthly billing of $500 to $15,000.

Cable & Wireless公司的成功归因于它选择了自己能够提供最佳服务的客户 群体——每月电信费为500至15,000美元的中小型企业。

In such small businesses , Cable&Wireless ‘s 500U.S. salespeople , working out of 36 regional offices , can act like telecommunications managers .

Cable & Wireless公司在36个地区办事处的500名美国销售员可以充当电信经理。

Corporations too small to hire their own telecom gurus(權威) value the advice and expertise Cable & Wireless people can offer .

规模小的公司不足以雇用自己的电信权威,他们看着Cable & Wireless公司提

供的建议和专业知识。

The Key is to segment the market vertically . This enables the company to pitch specific customers with specialized services that no other company can begin to provide .

垂直分割市场至关重要。这样做可以使公司选定特定的客户群并提供给他们

其他公司无法提供的特殊服务

Example: One customer segment is the legal profession .

比如: 一个划分的客户群体是法律专业人士。

cable& Wireless is developing features and function that have tremendous appeal to lawyers .

Cable & Wireless公司研究开发出对律师们有极大吸引力的具有独特功能的特色

服务。

Next Cable &Wireless fine-tunes(微調)its services to each customer.

其次,Cable & Wireless公司对每个顾客的服务进行微调。

The company wants customers to feel they’re getting the support of not just the sales force but of the entire company .

公司要顾客感到 他们得到的支持不仅来自公司的销售人员而且来自整个公司

Top management empowers all employees who work with customers to make sophisticated decisions .

高级管理层授权所 有与顾客打交道的员工以做出老练的决定。

Pricing was once the domain of corporate pricing gurus . No longer .

定价权曾经只掌握在公司定价权威人 士手中,而现在再也不是这样了。

Now it ‘s in the hands of the 50 local managers .

现在50名地方经理手中都握着定价权`

The same thing goes for promotional(產品宣傳), advertising , and trade-show (展銷會)money .

同样, 地方经理还有权调拨宣传产品费用、广告费以及展销会的费用。

Local managers allocate it as they see fit , preparing budgets and sending them up the corporate ladder to keep supervisors informed .

地方经理把钱用在他们认为合适的地方,准备经费预算,并把一切开销通报上级主管部门。

All these practices help Cable & Wireless people build tight relationships with customers .

所有这些措施帮助Cable & Wireless公司全体员工和顾客建立了密切关系,

The result is extremely high customer-retention rates : Cable & Wireless loses only 2% of long-distance minutes billed each month , vs. an industry standard of 3% to 5%.

其结果是极高的顾客回头率。Cable & Wireless公司每月只损失 2%长途话费,

而行业标准是3%至5%。

Despite the specialization required of market leaders , we regularly come across managers who don’t buy the idea of having to narrow their operational focus . “ What you’re saying about making hard choices doesn’t apply to us , “ They say . “ We’re good at all three disciplines . “

尽管市场领先公司需要专门化经营,我们常遇上一些公司经理,他们不接受

必须缩小公司经营重点的观点。他们说:“你所说的要做出艰难的选择对于我们

不适用,我们对这三种类型都很擅长。”

Yet when we look at these managers’ businesses , we invariably find companies that don’t excel but are merely mediocre in the three disciplines .

然而当我们观察这些经理的企业时,总是发现他们在这三方面做得并不出色,

只是一般化而已。

Sure , as the ante has risen in their markets , they’ve improved their cost structure and become more aware of their customers .

无疑,随着市场风险越来越大,他们改进了成本结构,越来越 重视顾客,

They’ve added new products and line extensions over the years .

这些年来也增添了新产品,扩大了生产线。

They’ve kept up with rising parity levels to stay in the game .

为了不被竞争出局,他们 也保持商品趋于价格

What they haven’t done is create a breakthrough in any one dimension to reach new heights of performance .

但他们没能做到的是在任何一方面有所突破而达到新的高 度

They have not traveled past competence to reach excellence .

他们没能发挥过去的能力以达到优异的程度

To these managers we say that if you decide to play an average game , to dabble in all areas , don’t expect to become a market leader .

。对于这些企业经理我们要说, 如果你决定玩一场平庸的游戏

Choosing a discipline is the choice of winners .

选择一种类型是获胜者的抉择。
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