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全国英语等级考试教材第4级听力 unit 08

Unit 8: Cities

Conversations

1. Tom has just returned to Chicago after a vacation on the west coast. He is now, telling his friend, Mary, about his trip, and especially about Los Angeles and San Francisco.

Mary: Hi. Tom. Welcome back. How was the west coast?

Tom: Great I had a wonderful time. It was really nice to get away from the city fora while.

Mary: What did you think of Los Angeles?

Tom: It was OK. I liked it better than I thought I would. It’s very clean and spacious,and it has got lots of trees. The problem is transportation. The bus serviceis terrible, and, of course, they don’t have a subway, so it’s a little difficultto get around. We had to rent a car.

Mary: What did you see?

Tom: The usual thing. We took a drive aroundHollywood and looked at thestars’ homes, and then we went to UniversalStudios and Disneyland.

Mary: How did youlike Disneyland?

Tom: It was terrific! We really enjoyed it. We took all the rides, some of themtwice, and had lots of fun. I felt just like a kid again.

Mary: Was the weather good?

Tom: Oh, yeah. It was nice and. warm in Los Angeles and cool but comfortable in

San Francisco.

Mary: Cool in San Francisco? That is surprising.

Tom: Yeah, it surprised us a bit too. We didn't take any sweaters or anything. Butthey say it's always like that in August. Anyway, I just loved it. It’s probablythe most beautiful town in the US-all those hills, and the bay, and thosecharming old Victorian houses.

Mary: So, you liked it better than Los Angeles?

Tom: Oh, yes. There is much more to see and do. And because it's smaller than LosAngeles, it's a lot easier to get around. There are a lot of buses and streetcars,and of course, the cable cars.

Mary: What did you like best?

Tom: I don't know. It is hard to say. But I guess, most of all, I like the cable carride-that I s the most fun.

Q

1. What did Tom think about Los Angles?

2. How did he like Disneyland?

3. What was the weather like in the two cities?

2. Tom is travelling in Japan with Mary,a friend of his.

Tom: What a beautiful site! Surrounded by mountains. I saw those nice buildings over there. Are they the tombs?

Mary: No. They are an ancient king’s palace.

Tom: What a magnificent hall! When was it built?

Mary: It was built almost 600 years ago.

Tom: It's still in excellent condition. I’ll take a few pictures of it. I’m verymuch interested in picture collecting.

Mary: There is a big lake behind the buildings.

Tom: Itis nice there. Look! A lot of peopleare boating on the lake.

Mary: All of the flowers are in full bloomand the reflection of the pagoda in thelake looks very nice. What a charmingplace! Perhaps, it’s the best known scenic spot in the city.

Tom: Let’s climb up the hill. Wecan get a fine view of the city from the hill top.

Mary: Oh, the views from the hill top are magnificent. There is a beautiful gardenover the hill.

Tom: Let’s go there.

Mary: How do you like this garden?

Tom: It’s a bit tiny as a garden, but it has a charm of its own.

Mary: It’s a pity that we’re too early for the cherry blossom.

Tom: I can quite imagine how lovely the place must be with all the cherry blossomsin full bloom.

Mary: I feel rather relaxed when sitting here, enjoying the beauty of the scenery inthe shade of the ancient trees.

Q

1. When was the ancient king’spalace built?

2. What is Tom very much interested in?

3.Did theysee all the cherryblossoms in full bloom?

Passage

Tokyo Goes Underground

In Japan’s capital city Tokyo earthquake danger limits the heightof buildings. The cityhas spread out so far and' the traffic has become so heavy that it is very difficult to get from oneplace to another. The price of land, too, has skyrocketed. All this explains why a group of Japaneseland developers came to the conclusion that there was nowhere to go but down. So far, theyhave dug out space underground for fifteen major shopping centers, and the underground constructionhas only begun.

What are some of the advantages of shopping and eatingunderground? Clean, filtered air is one of them. The city of Tokyo has one of the most serious smog problemsin the world. Another advantage is that you escape theever-present threat of traffic accidents on the city’s busystreets. Still another is the convenience of getting around.You’re usually right next to, or even in a subway station.And you can even spend the night underground if you like.

All sorts of surprise can be found in the underground world. At the enormous Shinjuku subwaystation, you drive down a winding road lined with water fountains to arrive at a scarce item in Tokyo -- a parking lot-and you find stores and shops a few steps away. In the second basement of theToshiba Building is a “Fisherman’s Wharf” crowded with pleasant little seafood places. A tunnelthat connects the Hibiya and Sanshin Buildings has a number of art galleries, as well as medical anddental clinics. In between are little coffee shops where you can relax and get refreshments.

Probably the most versatile of the underground wonders, and certainly the most complicatedto build, is the Yaesu Subcenter at the heart of the city, where four subway lines link up. Its shoppingarea, which is the size of three football fields, contains 350 stores. In Yaesu you can eat in adifferent place every day for three months. You can draw money out of a bank and invest it at astockbroker’s office. There are tailors, watch repairers, furriers, florists and booksellers.

Under all the commercial activity is a parking lot for 520 cars. And under that is a controlcenter where TV monitors watch the devices that watch the air --its temperature, moisture and purity.There is no alarm for earthquakes, which are common in Tokyo, but the experts feel that therewould be fewer problems underground than on the surface in case of an earthquake. Yaesu alsohas emergency generators for power and a chemical system for fighting fire.

Underground construction can be complex and expensive.At times, the Yaesu crews could work only 3hours a day because their activities interfered with therunning of the subway. Then there was the problemcaused by finding unidentified water and gas pipes.

Since many of the municipal blueprints of pipe systemswere destroyed during World War II, strange pipeskept turning up; and work had to be stopped while theywere identified and taken care of by detour or replacement.

There was also some resistance from the people above ground. A good many neighborhoodshopkeepers began to stop the project saying," Underground is for moles. "They reasoned thatthey would lose a lot of their business to the underground competition. The Yaesu people werecountered by offering them a chance to buy stock in the project. Therewere a lot of takers, andthis had the effect of quieting the complainers.

The Yaesu builders wanted to go deeper, but after they had spent 31 million dollars, they ranout of money: Still, there seems to be little doubt that there will be further development down under.In a city like Tokyo, almost the only space is left underground.

Questions

1. Why does Tokyo go underground according to the text?

2. What are the advantages of shopping and eating underground?

3. Why did the underground construction meet resistance from the people above ground?

4. Why was the underground construction complex and expensive?

5. Why did the Yaesu builders stop going deeper?

Words and Expressions



spacious

transportation

studio

terrific

reflection

blossom

shade

skyrocket

come to the conclusion

construction

filter

convenience

basement

gallery

clinic

refreshment

versatile

stockbroker

repairer

furrier

florist

commercial

moisture

purity

emergency

generator

crew

interfere

municipal

blueprint

identify

detour

mole

counter

Exercises

Section I Listening Comprehension

Part A

For Questions 1 -5,you will hear a passage about Horse Shoeing. While you listen,fill out the table with theinformation you have heard. Some of the information has been given to you’ll in the table. Write only J word in eachnumbered box.

Information about Horse Shoeing

How many horses do the New York police have that they use in certain parts of the city? (1. )

The horses must walk on the streets,so they need special (2. )

The blacksmith shapes a shoe from a piece of plain metal and then fits it to the horse’s (3. )

Before the blacksmith can begin his work, he has to get the horse to lift its (4. )

Where did James Corbin come from? (5. )

Part A

New York is one of the last large Americancities to have some of its policemen on horseback.The New York police have 170 horses thatthey use in certain parts of the city.

The horses are expensive to feed, but it is evenmore expensive to take care of them. Becausethe horses must walk on the streets, theyneed special horseshoes. In fact, they need morethan 8,000 of them each year. Every police horsein New York gets new shoes every month. Keepingthese shoes in good repair is the job of sixblacksmiths. There are only about thirty-five ofthese blacksmiths in the whole United States.The cost of shoeing a horse is between twentydollars and thirty-five dollars, and it takes askilled blacksmith two to three hours to do thejob.

A blacksmith's job is not an easy one. Hemust be able to shape a shoe from a piece of plainmetal and then fit it to the horse's hoof. Theblacksmith must bend over all the time he is fittingthe shoe and must hold the weight of the horse'sleg while he works. Clearly, a blacksmith must bevery strong. But even more important,he must beable to deal with horses-for before the blacksmithcan begin his work, he has to get the horseto lift its leg.

One of the blacksmiths in New York is JamesCorbin,who came to this country from Ireland in1948. He not only shoes horses for the police, healso works for a race track and for a group ofhorse owners who live near the city. Corbin becameinterested in blacksmithing because his fatherdid it, and, as he puts it, "It's a good way tomake a living ...

PartB

For Questions 6 -10, you will hear a monologue about Aerial Cable Cars in New York. While you listen, completethe sentences and answer the questions. Use not more than 3 words for each answer.

The trainway fare is (6 )

The number of the passengers in a cable car is limited to (7 )

The new town refers to (8 )

The speed of the car is 26 kilometers (9 )

When the cable car runs, it should rise to the height of (10 )

Part B

New York now gets the only aerial cable carsin the United States that are part of an urban masstransit system.

The new "streetcars" in the sky connectManhattan with Roseville Island, a former littleusedchunk of land in the middle of the East Riverthat is now the site of an attractive residentialcomplex.

About 1,ODD people already live in the“Newtown”on the island,and they welcomed the openingof the tramway-an aerial link 945 meterslong. Red and White cars carry them aloft and depositthem just three and a half minutes later inManhattan, where they can proceed to their jobsby bus or subway. The tramway fare is 50 cents.Once aboard, the passenger door slides shutand the cable car gently rises to its cruising heightof 41 meters above ground for the journey at aspeed of 26 kilometers an hour. Streets and shopsbegin to slip past underneath. At Roseville Island, the car slows to settle into the station.

Each car carries 125 passengers. The tramwayoperates from 6 am to 2 am daily with carsrunning continuously in the morning and eveningrush hours,and every 15 minutes at other times.Roseville Islanders would appear to have thebest of city living-a pleasant, well-planned communitywith a sense of its own space around it,with magnificent views of Manhattan’s famousskylines, yet just minutes from the city's busyingstreets.

PartC

You will hear two passages. Listen and complete the sentences by choosing A, B, C or D. You will hear eachpiece ONLY ONCE.

11. Australia is __ _

[A] a big island

[B]a small island

[C] the largest one of the islands in the world

[D] the largest one of the continents in the world

12. Mt. Kosciusko is __ _

[A] in the east

[B]plateau

[C]in the west

[D] in the southeast

13. China is __ _

[A]about 2 million sq. km

[B] about 0.7 million sq. km

[C]about 9.7 million sq. km

[D] about 7.7 million sq. km

14. Most of the western half of Australia is __ _

[A] flat land [B]plateau [C] mountain[D] very high

15. Why is the highland in the east sometimes called the Diving Range?

[A] Because it divides the east coast from the rest of the country.

[B] Because the land between the Great Dividing Range and the Western Australian Plateau is low.

[C] Because the east coast is called the Central Lowlands.

[D] Because it divides the southeast sea from the country.

A

Australia is an island and it is a continent. It isthe largest island in the world but it is the smallestcontinent. It is almost 7.7 million square kilometres.Compared with China, China is about 2 millionsquare kilometres larger.

Australia is in the south of the world. It liesbetween the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Oceanin the east.

Most of the western half of Australia is highland.But it is not very high, and the land is ratherflat. High flat land is not called mountains. It iscalled plateau. The west of Australia is called theWestern-Australian Plateau. It is about 300 mileshigh.There is highland in the east of Australia, too.

Some of it is plateau and some of it is mountains.The highest mountain is in the southeast. It iscalled Mt. Kosciusko. It is 2.228 miles high. Thishighland in the east is sometimes called the GreatDividing Range. It has this name because it dividesthe east coast from the rest of the country. Betweenthe Great Dividing Range and the WesternAustralian Plateau land is low. This part of thecountry is called the Central Lowlands.The only big river in Australia is the RiverMurray. It begins in the mountains in the southeastof the country and it runs westward into theIndian Ocean.

16. A traditional American belief is that __ _

[A] few people live on farms

[B] the United States is a nation of big cities

[C] the nation consists mainly of small towns and wide open spaces

[D]the population is the largest in the world

17. The selection describes the growth of metropolitan areas as __ _

[A] gradual [B] explosive [C] erratic [D] leisurely

18. Nearly half the increase in metropolitan population is accounted for by the __ _

[A] expansion of existing urban areas

[B] growth of the suburbs

[C] migration of farm areas

[D] growth of small towns

19. Decentralization is best defined as a __ _

[A] shrinking of metropolitan areas

[B] disorderly expansion of the central city

[C] movement from the central city to the suburbs

[D] movement from the central city to rural areas

20. As the suburbs have expanded metropolitan areas have __ _

[A] become indistinguishable from the suburbs

[B] been shrinking steadily

[C] undergone no change

[D] increased in size

B

Although the United States cherishes the traditionthat it is a nation of small towns and wideopen spaces, only one in every eight Americansnow lives on a farm. The recent population trendhas been a double one, toward both urbanizationand suburbanization. Metropolitan areas havegrown explosively in the past decade, and nearlyhalf this increase has been in the suburbs. Withthe rapid growth of cities has come equally rapiddecentralization. The flight of Americans from thecentral city to the suburbs constitutes one of thegreatest migrations of modern times; quiet residentialsections outside cities have become conglomerationsof streets, split-level houses, andshopping centers.

This spurt of suburban expansion, however, does not alter the basic fact that the United Stateshas become one of the most urban nations on theface of the earth. Census Bureau figures showthat the rural population has been shrinking steadilysince 1830. When the United States became anation it had no large cities at all; today some fiftycities have populations of more than 258,000.Manmoth complexes of cities are developing inthe area of the East Coast and the northeast centralstates, on the Pacific and Gulf coasts,and nearthe shores of the Great Lakes. Some sociologistsnow regard the entire 600-mile stretch betweenBoston and Washington, D. C. -an area holding afifth of the country's population-as one vast city,or, as they call it,megalopolis.

Supplementary Reading

Sydney

Sydney is aharbor city of wonders, a city that sizzles with excitement while it is cooled bybalmy sea breezes.Located on one of the world’s finest natural harbors,Sydney is Australia’s largestand oldest city. Its unique charm is bath sophisticated and friendly, bustling yet poised. The Sydney harboris considered one of the three most beautiful harbors in the world,and the beautiful Sydney skyline is recognized the world over.

Sydney, the largest city In Australia with a population of 3.6 million, is strategically positioned to becomea services and telecommunications hub for the Asia-Pacific region; Sydney is the most popularcorporate headquarters location in Australia. This fact is the result of the Australian government’s tenyearplan to make Sydney into the finance and business center of the Asia-Pacific region. Sydney is definitelythe obvious choice for such development plans. Its population Is 1.5 million larger than that of anyother Australian city; it has the highest GNP In the nation; and it is home to Australia’s most dynamic finance and business sectors. Sydney has alsobenefited the most from Australia’s growing level of internationaltrade.

Sydney sits like a gem on a crown, located on the east coast of the state of New South Wales,itcontrasts with the gently rolling green hills of Victoria and the desert and rock formations of the NorthernTerritory. Natural wonders contrast and yet blend into a perfect harmony with Sydney's uniquelyclassic urban charm, which consisted of many boutiques, eateries and examples of fine architecture.And Australians do indeed seem to know how to enjoy such an asset.

No other cities hold so many different ways to have fun. The Sydney Opera House offers informative dailytours,apart from its array of world-class musical and drama performances and exquisite displays of the finest artcollection. Sydney also has many attractions other than theSydney Opera. Sydney’s many beaches will set you apartfrom the city’s bustling downtown and reveal the charm ofthe great Australian Outdoors. Although Sydney is a modernmetropolis, itis only a short drive from notional parks, wildlife reserves, rugged mountains and ruralcountrysides.

Gourmets can choose from a bounty of shellfish, quality local beef lamb,oysters and fruit. A wealth offood, both farm and marine produce, have created a wide mix of Eastern, Western and “down under”tastes, that are all available at affordable prices. Sydney is also wel1-known for its legendary seafood that canbe savored in the many clean and fresh open-air restaurants.

A connoisseur of wine will be happy to know that some of the world’s best award-winning wines canbe tasted at a place not too far away from Sydney, a place called Hunter Volleywhich is about a two-hourdrive(l80km)away from the city. Hungerford Hill Wine Village and Brandon Manor are the places to look up inHunter Valley.

Australia is also a fine place for self-drive holidays, thanks to its good network of well-maintainedroads and highways. Rental cars are available, at major air and rail terminals and from central city locations,suburbs and resorts,throughout Australia. Camping tours and safaris are other options availablefor those willing to enjoy Australia’s spectacular natural scenery and excellent outdoor life. There areno age restrictions,and you don’t need to be an experienced-camper. You can travel in a comfortableair-conditioned coach, specially designed for country roads, or join a safari in a smaller four-wheel drivevehicle. Safaris can also be combined with overnight stops at hotels, and inns. The Aussie way of life isso closely linked with nature and the outdoors. It is quite surprising to know that the bulk of theAustralian population -- seven out of eight people arecity dwellers.

One doesn’t have to be a grandiose planner in order to enjoy the charm of Sydney. Sydney is aninspiration in itself that not only stands alone as one of the world’s most attractive cities but also as aperfect introduction to the queer land we all know as Australia. Just being there is enough to savor thecharm and flavor ofthe Aussie spirit Sydney’s brilliant beauty and excitement will surely bring back lifeto any stressed out, fatigued soul.
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