Australia(澳大利亚)(二)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-11-30 21:44:03  【打印

Education System
Education in Australia follows a three tier model: primary, secondary and tertiary education. Education is primarily regulated by the individual state governments, not the federal government. Education is compulsory up to an age specified by legislation; this age varies but is generally 15 or 16, that is prior to completing secondary education.
Post-compulsory education is regulated within the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), a unified system of national qualifications in schools, vocational education and training (TAFEs and private providers) and the higher education sector (universities). Government grants have supported the establishment of Australia"s 38 universities, and although several private universities have been established, the majority receives government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational training colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. Approximately 58% of Australians between the ages of 25 and 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications.


Population
   The current population of around 20.4 million is concentrated mainly in the large coastal cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. Most of the estimated 20.4 million Australians are descended from 19th- and 20th-century immigrants, the majority from Britain and Ireland. Australia"s population has quadrupled since the end of World War I, spurred by an ambitious immigration program. In 2001, the five largest groups of the 27.4% of Australians who were born overseas were from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam and China.


Capital
Canberra


Languages
English is the official language, and is spoken and written in a distinct variety known as Australian English. According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%) and Greek (1.4%).


Religions
The Australian Constitution guarantees the separation of church and state; there is no state religion. The 2001 census identified that 68% of Australians call themselves Christian: 27% identifying themselves as Roman Catholic and 21% as Anglican. Five per cent of Australians identify themselves as followers of non-Christian religions, and 26% as non-religious.


Economy
Australia has an enviable Western-style capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP on par with the four dominant West European economies. Rising output in the domestic economy, robust business and consumer confidence, and rising exports of raw materials and agricultural products are fueling the economy. Australia"s emphasis on reforms, low inflation, and growing ties with China are other key factors behind the economy"s strength. The impact of drought, weak foreign demand, and strong import demand pushed the trade deficit up from $8 billion in 2002, to $18 billion in 2003, and to $13 billion in 2004. One other concern is the rapid increase in domestic housing prices, which have raised the prospect that interest rates will need to be raised to prevent a speculative bubble.

教育体系
澳大利亚的教育遵循着三层形式:初级、中等和高等教育。教育主要是由独立的州政府管理着,而不是联邦政府。 教育对于年龄合法的公民来说是必须进行的;这个年龄限制可以变动。 但一般在15或16岁,接受中等教育前。 政府同意支持建立澳大利亚38所大学,虽然几所私立大学已经成立,但多数是接收政府的资助。澳大利亚拥有以国家为基础的职业培训学院体系,例如TAFE Institutes及用以训练学徒的课程。 大约58%年龄在25-64岁间的澳大利亚人有职业的或高等教育资历。
人口
澳大利亚大约2040万的人口聚集在沿海城市,包括悉尼(Sydney)、墨尔本(Melbourne)、布里斯班(Brisbane)、珀斯(Perth)和阿德来得(Adelaide)。 预计204万人口中,大部分都是来自于19-20世纪的移民,大半来自英国和爱尔兰。 澳大利亚的人口在一战末期起,由于良好的移民计划,增加了四倍。 2001年,27.4%出生于海外的澳大利亚人来自五大组,英国、新西兰、意大利、越南和中国。
首都
堪培拉
语言
官方语言是英语,口语和书面语都与澳大利亚英语截然不同。依照2001年的人口普查,对于80%的人口,英语是唯一的口语。接下来普遍的口语就是华语(2.1%),意大利语(1.9%)和希腊语(1.4%)。
宗教信仰
   澳大利亚宪法规定教堂和政府的分离,没有国家宗教。2001年的人口普查显示68%的澳大利亚人称自己为基督徒;27%是天主教会,21%是圣公会教徒。 5%认为自己不是非基督徒的教徒,26%没有宗教信仰。
经济
   澳大利亚拥有让人羡慕的西式资本主义经济,其个人平均GDP等同于西欧四大经济强国。国内经济出口的增加,商业的茁壮成长、消费者的信心,原材料和农产品出口的增长都使经济繁荣昌盛。澳大利亚重视改革、低通货膨胀,与中国关系的稳固增长均是其经济繁荣背后的关键因素。干旱的影响、微薄的外需,强有力的进口需要将贸易赤字从2002年的80亿推向到2003年的180亿,而2004年则增加至130亿。另外值得关注的则是国内的住房价格的提升,利率也需要被提高用以预防泡沫经济的产生。

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