Switzerland(瑞士)(二)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-11-19 09:30:04  【打印

Education System  


The education system is very diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons. The Swiss constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools and that the confederacy can run or support universities. The Swiss maintain a high standard for education that is world renowned. Because of its diversity, there are many private international schools that encourage respect for all cultures.


The obligatory school system usually includes the primary education and secondary education I (lower secondary). Before that, children usually go to kindergarten. The minimum age for primary school is about six years in all cantons. At the end of primary school (or at the beginning of secondary school), pupils are separated according to their capacities in several (often three) sections. The best students are taught advanced classes to be prepared for further studies while students who assimilate a little bit more slowly receive an education more adapted to their needs. Secondary II is facultative, and is spread among many schools, depending of the Student"s interest. The more important in term of enrollment are the Gymnasium/Lycées which prepare the students for university. They are often separated in several schools, specializing in science and literature or business. Tertiary education depends on the education chosen in secondary education. For students with a high school degree, university is the most common one. Apprentices who did a vocational high school will often add a Fachhochschule (something similar to polytechnics) to their curriculum.


Population   


Switzerland has an estimated population around 7.4 million. It is a small country. With an area of 41,000 km², it has a population density of 184 people per km². The ethnic groups include German (65%), French (18%), Italian (10%), Romansch (1%), and other (6%).


Capital       Bern


Languages   


Switzerland has three nationwide official languages (German (64%) in the north and centre, French (19%) to the west, and Italian (8%) in the south), plus a fourth national language that is considered official locally (Romansh, a Romance language spoken by a small minority (<1%) in the southeastern canton of Graubünden and in parts of Ticino). The federal government is obliged to communicate in the three official languages.


Religions    


The most popular religion in Switzerland is Roman Catholicism (43%). There are various Protestant denominations (35%), while immigration has brought Islam (4%) and Eastern Orthodoxy (2%) as sizeable minority religions.


Economy  


Switzerland has stable modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita GDP larger than that of the big Western European economies. The Swiss in recent years have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU"s to enhance their international competitiveness. Switzerland remains a safe haven for investors, because it has maintained a degree of bank secrecy and has kept up the franc"s long-term external value. Reflecting the anemic economic conditions of Europe, GDP growth dropped in 2001 to about 0.8%, to 0.2% in 2002, and to -0.3% in 2003, with a small rise to 1.8% in 2004. Even so, unemployment has remained at less than half the EU average.


教育体系  


瑞典的教育制度多样化。这是因为瑞士的宪法将学校的权力委派给各个州。 瑞士宪法规定了教育基础,规定每所小学校应该提供初等教育于每个孩子, 而公立学校所提供的教育是免费的。 联邦管理和支持大学的操作。瑞士所持有的高教育标准是闻名世界。瑞士也设有很多私立的国际性学校来鼓励其多元文化。


义务学校体系包括初级教育和中级教育I(较低的中级教育)。在此之间,孩子一般都会去幼儿园。各州接受初级教育的最低年龄大约是6岁,在初级教育结束阶段(或者在中级教育的开始阶段),学生们根据他们的能力被分在各个领域(通常是三个)。 最杰出的学生被分在高级班为更进一步的学习做准备,同时,吸收较慢的学生接收更适应他们需要的教育。中级教育II是特许的,主要是根据学生的兴趣而存在于许多学校中。 最主要的是为学生进入大学做好准备的大学预备学校 (Gymnasium/Lycées)。 他们通常在各种不同学校被区分开来,专读科学、文学或商学。 三重教育取决于中等教育中的选择教育。对于高中学历的学生来说,大学是最普通的选择。 职业高中的学生将进入Fachhochschule(类似于工艺学校)来进行课程学习。


人口   


瑞士拥有大约七百四十万人口,是个小国。它的国土面积有四万一千平方公里,人口密度是每平方公里184个人。多个民族群居在一起,它们包括德国人(占65%),法国人(占18%),意大利人(占10%),罗曼什人(占1%),还有其他一些民族(占6%)。


首都       伯尔尼


语言      瑞士有三种官方语言:北部和中部是德语(占64%),西部是法语(占19%),南部是意大利语(占8%),第四种全国范围内使用的语言,同时也被看成一种地区性官方语言(罗曼语,这种罗曼语只有在Graubünden的东南部的州和Ticino的部分地区的很少一部分人使用(小于1%)。联邦政府有义务使用三种官方语言。


宗教信仰  


瑞士最主要的宗教组织是罗马天主教(43%)。这里有很多不同派系的新教徒(35%),移民政策又带来了可观得伊斯兰教(4%)和东正教(2%)为少数民族的宗教信仰。


经济   


瑞士有着稳定的现代市场经济体制和较低的失业率、成熟的劳动力市场和超过西欧的GDP。 瑞士最近为了加强其国际竞争力,投入了大量资金与欧元区交易,由于其高度银行保密性和保持法郎的长期持久性,瑞士至今仍然是一个投资者的乐园。GDP连续下跌,从2001年到2003年,分别达到了0.8%-2001年, 0.2%-2002年和-0.3%-2003年,但是到了2004年有了回升的气息,GDP上升了1.8%。 失业率仍然远远低于欧洲的平均水平。


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