【大耳朵双语最游记】--- Fiji(斐济)(一)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-09-30 22:21:38  【打印

FIJI


History


The first inhabitants of Fiji arrived from South East Asia long before contact with European explorers in the 17th century. It was not until the 19th century, however, that Europeans came to the islands to settle there permanently. The islands came under British control as a colony in 1874. It was granted independence in 1970. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community.


A 1990 constitution guaranteed ethnic Fijian control of Fiji, but led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. Amendments enacted in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian. A year later, this was deposed in a coup led by George Speight, a hardline Fijian nationalist. Democracy was restored towards the end of 2000, and Laisenia Qarase, who had led an interim government in the meantime, was elected Prime Minister.


Geography


The Republic of the Fiji Islands, or Fiji, is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu.   The name Fiji is the old Tongan word for the islands, which is turn derived from the Fijian name Viti. Fiji consists of 322 islands, of which about one third are inhabited. The two most important islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. Viti Levu hosts the capital city of Suva, and is home to nearly three quarters of the population. The islands are mountainous, with peaks up to 1200 m and covered with tropical forests. Other important towns include Nadi, (location of the international airport) as well as Labasa, Lautoka, and Savusavu. Other islands and island groups include Taveuni and Kadavu (the third and fourth largest islands respectively), the Mamanuca Group (just outside Nadi) and Yasawa Group, which are popular tourist destinations.


Political System


Fiji"s Head of State is the President, who is elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term. The role of the president is largely an honorary one modelled after that of the British monarchy. The President has certain "reserve powers" that may be used only in the event of a national crisis. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Great Council of Chiefs recognizes Queen Elizabeth II as its Paramount Chief, in respect as a nation within the Commonwealth of Nations. The president formally appoints the Prime Minister, who must be able to rely on the support of a majority in the House of Representatives. In practice, that means that the leader of the largest political party or coalition normally becomes Prime Minister.


Fiji"s Parliament is bicameral. The House of Representatives has 71 members. 25 of these are elected by universal suffrage. The remaining 46 are reserved for Fiji"s ethnic communities and are elected from communal electoral rolls: 23 Fijians, 19 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman, and 3 "General electors" (Europeans, Chinese, and other minorities). The upper chamber of the parliament, the Senate, has 32 members, formally appointed by the President on the nomination of the Great Council of Chiefs (14), the Prime Minister (9), the Leader of the Opposition (8), and the Council of Rotuma (1). Less powerful than the House of Representatives, the Senate may not initiate legislation, but it may reject or amend it.


斐济


历史


第一批东南亚居民比17世纪欧洲勘测者更早来到斐济定居。 直到19世纪,欧洲人才开始在岛上永久定居。 该岛1874年开始沦为英国殖民地,并于1970年独立。1987年,由于不M政府由印度裔垄断而l生了善疖事政变。


1990年宪法保证了本族人对斐济的自治,却导致了更多印度人的移民出境;人口损失导致经济困难,但保证大多数人口为美拉尼西亚人(Melanesians)。 1997年该国校正了宪法使其更为公正。 自由而和平的竞选导致斐济政府由一个印度-斐济人(Indo-Fijian)领导。 一年后, 被强硬派的民族主义者George Speight带领的政变推翻。2000底,民主被恢复。 Laisenia Qarase代领临时政府,并当选为总理。


地理


斐济共和国是南太平洋的岛国,位于瓦努阿图(Vanuatu)东部,汤加(Tonga)西部和图瓦卢(Tuvalu)南部。斐济这个名字则是以前的汤加人称呼岛屿的,后被斐济人改为Viti。 斐济包括322个岛屿,三分之一有人居住。 两个最主要的岛屿就是Viti Levu (维提岛) 和Vanua Levu。 首都K瓦 (Suva) 位于Viti Levu 岛上。近四分之三人口住在Viti Levu 岛。 岛屿多山,最高处有1200米,并被很多热带森林覆盖。 其它重要的城镇包括Nadi(国际机场所在)、Labasa、Lautoka和Savusavu。 其它岛屿包括Taveuni 和Kadavu(分别为其第三和第四大岛),Mamanuca组 (在Nadi以外) 和Yasawa 组, 都是著名的旅游景点。


政治体系


斐济的领袖是总统,每5年由中央委员会选举产生。在英国民主下的总统角色是有名无实的。 总统的“储备能力”,也仅可能在重大危机发生时有用。 总统委任总理,但总理也必须获得众院大多数成员的支持。他能依赖于代表众议院的支持。 一般上,最大政党或联盟的领袖成为总理。


斐济实行两院制议会。众议院有71个席位,其中25个由普选产生。 其余46个则留待斐济种族社区和共同选举产生。 23名斐济本族人,19名印裔斐济人,1名罗图马和3名“普通选票” (欧洲人,华人和其与少数民族)。 上议院有32个席位,形式上由总统任命,有不同提名的途径:领袖委员会(14名),总理(9名),在野党领袖(8名)和罗图马委员会(Council of Rotuma)(1名)。 比起众议院,参议院权力较小,它不可以参与提议立法,但有权力提出反对和修正立法。


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