【大耳朵双语最游记】MALTA 马耳他(二)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-07-09 16:19:03  【打印

Education System     
     Education is compulsory between the ages of 5 to 16 years. The state provides education free of charge, while the church and the private sector run a number of schools in Malta and Gozo. Primary education lasts for six years. There are two types of secondary education schools: junior Lyceums and area secondary schools. Studies last for five years are divided into a two-year orientation cycle and a three-year cycle of specialization. At the end of this cycle, pupils sit for the Secondary Education Certificate. Upper Lyceums and sixth forms prepare pupils for the Matriculation Certificate which gives access to university. Since 1994/95, the first cycle in area secondary schools is of three instead of two years" duration, while the second cycle is of two years" duration.
     Higher education is mainly provided by the University of Malta. The governing body is the Council, which acts on the advice of the Senate but which also has responsibility for appointing faculty staff, promulgating regulations, overseeing and approving expenditures and ensuring that the University responds to the needs of the country.
Population  
     According to the last demographic survey (2003), the estimated population of the Malta at the end of that year (including non-Maltese residents) was 399,867. This makes Malta the European country with the highest population density with 1,265 persons per square km. The main ethnic group is Maltese (descendants of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians, with strong elements of Italian and other Mediterranean stock). Other includes Arabs, Italians, and the British. Most of the foreign community, predominantly active or retired British nationals and their dependents, centers around Sliema and surrounding modern suburbs.
Capital     Valletta
Languages  
Malta has two official languages in Maltese (a Semitic language) and English. Italian is widely understood.
Religions   
     Roman Catholicism is established by law as the official state religion, however, full liberty of conscience and freedom of worship is guaranteed. A number of faiths have places of worship on the island. An estimated 90% of the population are Roman Catholic.
Economy   
     Malta’s major resources are limestone, a favourable geographic location, and a productive labour force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy sources. The economy is dependent on foreign trade (serving as a freight trans-shipment point), manufacturing (especially electronics and textiles), and tourism. Malta has privatised some state-controlled firms and liberalised markets in order to prepare for membership in the European Union, which it joined on 1 May 2004.



教育体系   
     5至16岁的孩子必须接受强制性教育。 由国家提供的教育是免费。教会和私人机构管理也在马耳他岛(Malta)和戈佐岛(Gozo)开办一些学校。初级教育有六年。中级教育包括两种学校:初级学院和地区中级学校。学制五年分为两年基础教育和三年专业教育。学业结束,学生可获得中级教育证书。 高等学院和第六种教育形式为学生获取大学录取通知书进入大学学习做准备。从1994/95年开始,地区中级学院的第一阶段学习由两年改为三年制,而第二阶段则改为两年制。高等教育主要由马耳他大学提供。它的管理主体是理事会。 理事会不仅起到为参议院提议的作用,而且负责委任教职员工,发布规章制度,监督和批准教育支出以确保大学教育满足国家的需求。
人口   
     根据上一次的人口统计调查(2003),估计马耳他在当年年末的人口数(包括非马耳他居民)为399,867。 这使马耳他成为欧洲人口密度最高的国家,每平方千米1,265人。其主要种族是马耳他人(古代迦太基人和腓尼基人的后裔,有意大利和其他地中海祖先的血统),其他包括阿拉伯人、意大利人和英国人。大多数外国人社区,杰出人才或者退休的英国人和他们的亲人居住在斯利马(Sliema)和一些现代化的郊区周围。
首都   瓦莱塔
语言  
     马耳他有两种官方语言:马耳他语(一种非Z系WZ)和英语。大多数人能听懂意大利语。
宗教信仰      
罗马天主教是法律规定的官方宗教,但是无宗教信仰或者信仰其他宗教也是被允许的。岛内有许多宗教朝圣地。估计有90%的人口信仰罗马天主教。
经济
     马耳他的主要资源是石灰岩、有利的地理位置和多产的劳动力。马耳他的产出仅仅占所需食物的20%,淡水资源有限并且国内没有能源供给。它的经济依靠对外贸易(以航海运输为主)、制造业(特别是电子和纺织业)和旅游业。为了加入欧盟,马耳他把国有企业私有化并开放市场,2004年5月1日马耳他加入欧盟。



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