Up into the 11th century the Danes were known as Vikings, together with Norwegians and Swedes, colonising, raiding and trading in all parts of Europe. At various times the King of De
Up into the 11th century the Danes were known as Vikings, together with Norwegians and Swedes, colonising, raiding and trading in all parts of Europe. At various times the King of Denmark has ruled parts of England and Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, France especially Normandy and parts of the Virgin Islands, Tranquebar in India, parts of the Baltic coast and what is now northern Germany. Scania, Blekinge and Halland were part of Denmark for most of its early history, but were lost to Sweden in 1658. The union with Norway was dissolved in 1814, when Norway entered a new union with Sweden (until 1905). The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European revolutions of 1848 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849.
After the Second War of Schleswig in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia. After this point Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality and it stayed neutral in World War I. Following the defeat of Germany, Denmark was offered by the Versailles powers the return of Schleswig-Holstein. Fearing German irredentism Denmark refused to consider the return of Holstein and insisted on a plebiscite concerning the return of Schleswig. In 1920, following the plebiscite, Northern Schleswig was recovered by Denmark.
Denmark was invaded by Germany on 9 April 1940. Though at first accorded self-rule (which ended in 1943 due to a mounting resistance movement), Denmark remained militarily occupied throughout World War II. After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of NATO.
Denmark is the smallest and southernmost Nordic country. Denmark lies north of Germany (its only land neighbour), southwest of Sweden, and south of Norway.
Denmark borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and consists of a peninsula attached to Northern Germany named Jutland (Jylland), and 405 named islands. Of these, 82 are inhabited, with the largest being Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The island of Bornholm is located further east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. The water surrounding these islands is often referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden, the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand, and the Small Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries connect one to the smaller islands.
The country is mostly flat with little elevation; the highest natural point is Møllehøj, at 170.86 metres. The climate is temperate, with mild winters and cool summers.
In 1849 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy with the adoption of a new constitution. The monarch is formally head of state, a role which is mainly ceremonial, since executive power is exercised by the cabinet ministers, with the prime minister acting as the first among equals (primus inter pares). Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Danish parliament, known as the Folketing, which consists of (no more than) 179 members. The Danish Judiciary is functionally and administratively independent of the executive and the legislature.
Elections for parliament must be held at least every four years; but the prime minister can call for an earlier election, if he so decides. Should parliament succeed in a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister, the entire government has to resign.
Denmark is often run by minority governments.
Basic education comprises primary and lower secondary education and lasts for nine or ten years (the 10th year is optional). Upon completion of the compulsory basic education, pupils may go on to upper secondary school. The 3-year general upper secondary school and the more vocationally-oriented programmes qualify students for higher education. They also prepare for employment in trade and industry - usually in training positions. Education is largely the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. It is responsible for setting up the framework for curricula at primary and secondary education level. However, the contents of the courses are established by the schools (with their boards) and finalized by the teachers with their pupils.
Higher education comprises a university sector and a college sector to cater for professionally-oriented higher education sector. The university sector offers courses at three levels: Bachelor"s Degree (normally 3-year of study), the Candidatus Degree (i.e. Master"s Degree, normally 2-year following upon the Bachelor"s Degree) and the Ph.D. Degree (normally 3 years" study after the Candidatus Degree). The universities also award the traditional higher Doctoral Degree after a minimum of 5-8 years" of individual and original research. Study programmes of the university sector are research-based. The college sector comprises more than 150 specialized institutions of higher education.
丹麦濒临波罗的海和北海，由德国北方的日德兰（Jylland）半岛以及405个有名的岛屿组成。这些岛屿中，82个岛屿有人居住，其中最大的是西兰岛 (Sjælland)和菲英岛 (Fyn)。波恩荷尔姆岛是这个国家最东面的岛屿，位于波罗的海上。这些岛屿附近的水域通常被认为属于丹麦群岛的范围。许多大的岛屿是靠桥梁连接的，Øresund Bridge桥连接了西兰岛和瑞典，大Belt桥连接了菲英岛和西兰岛，小 Belt桥连接了日德兰半岛和菲英岛。摆渡船是连接这些岛屿和各个小岛的交通工具。
1849年丹麦颁布新的宪法，建立君主立宪政体。君主是国家正式的元首，其角色主要在礼仪上代表国家，因为行政权是由内阁部长行使的，在同等情况下由总理作为首席执行官（primus inter pares）。宪法规定政府和丹麦议会共同拥有立法权，议会被称为Folketing，由（不超过）179名议员组成。丹麦的司法权从职责上和行政管理上是独立于行政权和立法权的。议会选举至少每四年举行一次，但是如果总理认为有必要，他可以要求早一些举行选举。 如果当选的议会投票表决认为总理不胜任，那么整个政府成员都要辞职。