【大耳朵双语最游记】Denmark(丹麦)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-05-25 20:31:49  【打印


DENMARK
History  
     Up into the 11th century the Danes were known as Vikings, together with Norwegians and Swedes, colonising, raiding and trading in all parts of Europe. At various times the King of De
DENMARK
History  
     Up into the 11th century the Danes were known as Vikings, together with Norwegians and Swedes, colonising, raiding and trading in all parts of Europe. At various times the King of Denmark has ruled parts of England and Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, France especially Normandy and parts of the Virgin Islands, Tranquebar in India, parts of the Baltic coast and what is now northern Germany. Scania, Blekinge and Halland were part of Denmark for most of its early history, but were lost to Sweden in 1658. The union with Norway was dissolved in 1814, when Norway entered a new union with Sweden (until 1905). The Danish liberal and national movement gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European revolutions of 1848 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849.
     After the Second War of Schleswig in 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia. After this point Denmark adopted a policy of neutrality and it stayed neutral in World War I. Following the defeat of Germany, Denmark was offered by the Versailles powers the return of Schleswig-Holstein. Fearing German irredentism Denmark refused to consider the return of Holstein and insisted on a plebiscite concerning the return of Schleswig. In 1920, following the plebiscite, Northern Schleswig was recovered by Denmark.
     Denmark was invaded by Germany on 9 April 1940. Though at first accorded self-rule (which ended in 1943 due to a mounting resistance movement), Denmark remained militarily occupied throughout World War II. After the war, Denmark became one of the founding members of NATO.
Geography   
     Denmark is the smallest and southernmost Nordic country. Denmark lies north of Germany (its only land neighbour), southwest of Sweden, and south of Norway.
     Denmark borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and consists of a peninsula attached to Northern Germany named Jutland (Jylland), and 405 named islands. Of these, 82 are inhabited, with the largest being Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The island of Bornholm is located further east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. The water surrounding these islands is often referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden, the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand, and the Small Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries connect one to the smaller islands.
     The country is mostly flat with little elevation; the highest natural point is Møllehøj, at 170.86 metres. The climate is temperate, with mild winters and cool summers.
Political System  
     In 1849 Denmark became a constitutional monarchy with the adoption of a new constitution. The monarch is formally head of state, a role which is mainly ceremonial, since executive power is exercised by the cabinet ministers, with the prime minister acting as the first among equals (primus inter pares). Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Danish parliament, known as the Folketing, which consists of (no more than) 179 members. The Danish Judiciary is functionally and administratively independent of the executive and the legislature.
     Elections for parliament must be held at least every four years; but the prime minister can call for an earlier election, if he so decides. Should parliament succeed in a vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister, the entire government has to resign.
Denmark is often run by minority governments.
Education System  
     Basic education comprises primary and lower secondary education and lasts for nine or ten years (the 10th year is optional). Upon completion of the compulsory basic education, pupils may go on to upper secondary school. The 3-year general upper secondary school and the more vocationally-oriented programmes qualify students for higher education. They also prepare for employment in trade and industry - usually in training positions. Education is largely the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. It is responsible for setting up the framework for curricula at primary and secondary education level. However, the contents of the courses are established by the schools (with their boards) and finalized by the teachers with their pupils.
     Higher education comprises a university sector and a college sector to cater for professionally-oriented higher education sector. The university sector offers courses at three levels: Bachelor"s Degree (normally 3-year of study), the Candidatus Degree (i.e. Master"s Degree, normally 2-year following upon the Bachelor"s Degree) and the Ph.D. Degree (normally 3 years" study after the Candidatus Degree). The universities also award the traditional higher Doctoral Degree after a minimum of 5-8 years" of individual and original research. Study programmes of the university sector are research-based. The college sector comprises more than 150 specialized institutions of higher education.


丹麦
历史  
     11世纪以前,丹麦人和挪威人、瑞典人一样被看作是在欧洲所有地区进行殖民统治、掠夺和贸易的海盗帝国。在不同时期,丹麦国王曾经征服过英国、爱尔兰、挪威、瑞典、芬兰、冰岛、法国的部分地区,特别是诺曼底和维尔京群岛(Virgin Islands)部分地区、印度的特兰奎巴港(Tranquebar)、波罗的海岸附近和现在德国的北方地区。斯堪尼亚(Scania),布京(Blekinge)和好兰德(Halland)最早是丹麦的领土,但在1658年被瑞典占领。1814年丹麦同挪威的联盟瓦解,挪威和瑞典结成新的联盟(直到1905年)。丹麦自由民族运动在19世纪30年代日益壮大,在1848年欧洲革命后,丹麦于1849年6月5日建立君主立宪制政体。
1864年第二次石勒苏益格(Schleswig)战争后,丹麦被迫将石勒苏益格―荷尔斯泰因(Schleswig-Holstein)割让给普鲁士王国。从那以后,丹麦采取中立的外交政策,在第一次世界大战中宣布中立。德国战败后,凡尔赛势力建议丹麦采      取行动收回石勒苏益格―荷尔斯泰因(Schleswig-Holstein)。慑于德国领土收复主义的力量,丹麦拒绝考虑收复(Holstein),而是用公民投票的方法来决定是否收复石勒苏益格(Schleswig)。1920年,通过全民公决,丹麦重新得到石勒苏益格(Schleswig)北部地区。
     1940年4月9日,丹麦被纳粹德国占领。虽然丹麦一开始按照自治原则管理(由于骑兵抵抗运动,这一规定在1943年废除),但是它在整个第二次世界大战中仍然是军事占领地。 二战后,丹麦成为北大西洋公约组织的创建国之一。
地理  
     丹麦是最小的也是最南端的北欧国家。丹麦位于德国的北面(是其唯一的接壤邻国),瑞典的西南面,挪威的南面。
     丹麦濒临波罗的海和北海,由德国北方的日德兰(Jylland)半岛以及405个有名的岛屿组成。这些岛屿中,82个岛屿有人居住,其中最大的是西兰岛 (Sjælland)和菲英岛 (Fyn)。波恩荷尔姆岛是这个国家最东面的岛屿,位于波罗的海上。这些岛屿附近的水域通常被认为属于丹麦群岛的范围。许多大的岛屿是靠桥梁连接的,Øresund Bridge桥连接了西兰岛和瑞典,大Belt桥连接了菲英岛和西兰岛,小 Belt桥连接了日德兰半岛和菲英岛。摆渡船是连接这些岛屿和各个小岛的交通工具。
     该国地势低平,最高点是Møllehøj,海拔170.86米。气候温和,冬暖夏凉。
政治体系  
     1849年丹麦颁布新的宪法,建立君主立宪政体。君主是国家正式的元首,其角色主要在礼仪上代表国家,因为行政权是由内阁部长行使的,在同等情况下由总理作为首席执行官(primus inter pares)。宪法规定政府和丹麦议会共同拥有立法权,议会被称为Folketing,由(不超过)179名议员组成。丹麦的司法权从职责上和行政管理上是独立于行政权和立法权的。议会选举至少每四年举行一次,但是如果总理认为有必要,他可以要求早一些举行选举。 如果当选的议会投票表决认为总理不胜任,那么整个政府成员都要辞职。
教育体系  
     基础教育是由小学教育和初中教育组成的,持续九或十年(第十年是选修的)。在完成义务性基础教育后,学生可以继续高中教育。三年制的普通高中教育和较职业化的教育准备学生接受高等教育。同时也为就业做准备。 教育主要是教育部的职责。教育部负责设置初级教育和初中级教育水平的课程。但是,课程的内容则是由学校(及其董事会)自行决定的,由老师和学生确定具体教案。
     高等教育由综合性大学和专业学院组成。大学部门提供三个级别的课程:学士学位(通常学习三年),Candidatus学位(如硕士学位,通常是在学士学位获得后再学习两年)和博士学位(通常是Candidatus学位获得后再学习三年)。大学也提供博士后学位,通常是在至少5到8年个人研究和创作后授予。大学学习的课程是以研究为基础的。专业学院是由提供专业化课程的至少150个高等教育专业院系组成的。

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