【大耳朵双语最游记】塞浦路斯
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-05-21 12:02:23  【打印
History  
   Cyprus became part of the Byzantine Empire after the partitioning of the Roman Empire in 395, and remained so for almost 900 years. The Arabs pillaged the island in 646, followed by a second devastating invasion in 654.   The island negotiated a relatively secure independence, but paid tribute to the Ummayads. After the rule of an independent Emperor (Isaac Comnenus), King Richard I of England captured the island in 1191 during the Crusades. Guy of Lusignan purchased the island from Richard in 1192. The Republic of Venice took control in 1489 before the island was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1570. Cyprus was placed under British control on 4 June 1878 as a result of the Cyprus Convention, which granted control of the island to Britain in return for British support of the Ottoman Empire in the Russian-Turkish War.
   Cyprus was annexed by the United Kingdom in 1913 in the run-up to the First World War. During the 1940s and 1950s, some Cypriots began to demand union with Greece. The Greek community held referenda in support of annexation, while the British sought to quell any movement which could threaten their possession of the island. In 1955 the struggle erupted into guerrilla activity with the foundation of EOKA (National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) and in the closing years of the 1950s the political and inter-communal atmosphere on the island became increasingly fraught.
   Independence was attained in 1960 after exhaustive negotiations between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey, the cultural "motherlands" for the two communities on Cyprus. The constitution produced by the negotiations was a finely-balanced document allocating government posts and public offices by ethnic quota. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic inter-communal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island.
   In 1974, a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the government was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," but it is recognized only by Turkey. The latest two-year round of UN-brokered direct talks - between the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reach an agreement to reunite the divided island - ended when the Greek Cypriots rejected the UN settlement plan in an April 2004 referendum. Only the Greek Cypriot-controlled Republic of Cyprus is recognized internationally. Nicosia continues to oppose EU efforts to establish direct trade and economic links to north Cyprus as a way of encouraging the Turkish Cypriot community to continue to support reunification.
Geography    
   Cyprus is an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. It has a central plain (Mesaoria) with the Kyrenia/Girne and Pentadactylos/Besparmak mountains to the north and the Troodos mountain range to the south and west. There are also scattered but significant plains along the southern coast. The climate is temperate and Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, variably rainy winters.
   The capital city, Nicosia, is located to the north-east of the centre of the island. All the other major cities are situated on the coast: Paphos to the south-west, Limassol to the south, Larnaca to the south-east, Famagusta to the east and Kyrenia to the north.
历史   
   罗马帝国在395年分裂之后,塞浦路斯成为拜占庭帝国的一部分,时间长达900年之久。在646年阿拉伯掠夺了这个岛屿, 随后在654年进行了第二次破坏性侵略。这个岛屿获得了相对安全的独立,但是仍听命于Ummayads. 在被一个独立的帝国(艾萨克 Comnenus)统治之后,英国国王瑞查德一世在1191年十字军东证期间占领了该岛。1192年,吕西尼昂(Guy of Lusignan)从瑞查德一世手中购买了该岛。 威尼斯共和国在1489年接管该岛,直到奥托曼帝国在1570年占领该岛。1878年6月4日,根据塞浦路斯协议,塞浦路斯被交由英国掌控,以此作为在俄罗斯―土耳其战争中,英国支持奥托曼帝国的回报。
一战前夕,塞浦路斯在1913年被并入大英帝国。在20世纪40-50年代,一些塞浦路斯人要求和希腊建立联盟。希腊社区举行票选支持独立,而英国试图镇压任何可能威胁其对该岛的控制的运动。1955年,随着EOKA(塞浦路斯国家保卫组织)的成立,塞浦路斯爆发了游击战争。 20世纪50年代后半期,关于该岛的政治和各民族间的气氛变得越来越复杂。
经过英国、希腊和土耳其― 塞浦路斯两个种群的“文化发源地”竭力协商后,1960年,塞浦路斯获得独立。由协商产生的协议文件按照民族的准则分配政府职位和公共办事处。多数的希腊籍塞浦路斯人和少数的土耳其籍塞浦路斯人之间的冲突在1963年12月首次爆发,在首都尼科西亚发生了多起暴力事件。 尽管联合国和平部队在1964年被派到塞浦路斯,族群间的暴力经常发生,致使多数土耳其籍塞浦路斯人在岛上的多处地方设立保护区。
   1974年,希腊资助试图控制政府,但遭遇到土耳其军事的干预,土耳其军队不久控制了该岛领土的三分之一。1983年, 该岛的土耳其人居住区宣布成立“北塞浦路斯土耳其共和国”,但只有土耳其承认其合法。最近两年希腊籍塞浦路斯和土耳其籍塞浦路斯双方领导人举行会谈,希望达成一致协议,重新统一分离的两岛,但希腊籍塞浦路斯人拒绝联合国2004年四月的移民计划。只有希腊籍塞浦路斯人控制的共和国才得到国际上的认可。 尼科西亚坚持反对欧盟努力建立同北塞普鲁斯的直接贸易和经济联系,以此鼓励土耳其籍塞浦路斯族群持续支持重新统一。
地理
   塞浦路斯是位于东地中海地区的一个岛国,在土耳其南部113公里(70里),叙利亚西部120公里。由一个中心平原(Mesaoria)、北部的基乐尼亚/吉尔尼(Kyrenia/Girne)和Pentadactylos/Besparmak山以及西北部的特罗多斯(Troodos)山脉构成。 沿着南海岸同样也分布着很多重要的平原。其气候为温和的地中海气候,夏季炎热、干燥,冬季寒冷、多雨。
其首都尼科西亚,位于该岛中心地区东北部。其他各大主要城市分布在海岸线上:帕福斯(Paphos)位于西南海岸,利马索(Limassol)位于南海岸,纳莱卡(Larnaca)位于东南海岸,法马古斯塔(Famagusta)位于东海岸,基乐尼亚(Kyrenia)位于北海岸。

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