【大耳朵双语最游记】波斯尼亚(二)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-05-11 16:29:06  【打印

Political System  
   The Chair of the Presidency of BH rotates among three members (Bosniak, Serb, Croat), each elected as the Chair for a 8-month term within their 4-year term as a member. The three members of the Presidency are elected directly by the people (Federation votes for the Bosniak/Croat, Republika Srpska for the Serb). The Chair of the Council of Ministers is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives. He or she is then responsible for appointing a Foreign Minister, Minister of Foreign Trade, and others as appropriate.
   The Parliamentary Assembly is the lawmaking body in BH. It consists of two houses: the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The House of Peoples includes 15 delegates, two-thirds of which come from the Federation (5 Croat and 5 Bosniaks) and one-third from the Republika Srpska (5 Serbs). The House of Representatives is composed of 42 Members, two-thirds elected from the Federation and one-third elected from the Republika Srpska.



Education System  
   BH’s primary education lasts for eight years. Secondary education is provided by general and technical secondary schools where studies last for four years. All forms of secondary schooling include an element of vocational training. Pupils graduating from general secondary schools obtain the Matura and can enrol in any faculty or academy by passing a qualification examination prescribed by the institution.
Population   
   BH had an estimated population of 4.4 million. Ethnically, based on 2000 census, 48% were Muslims (now almost all them declare as Bosniaks), 37.1% Serbs, 14.3% Croats, with 0.6% being others. Large population migrations during the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s have caused a large demographic shift. No census was held since 1991 and is not planned for the near future due to political disagreements.  
Capital   
   The capital of the country is Sarajevo, which is also its largest city.
Languages  
   Today the official language of the government of Bosnia is Bosnian, just as the official language of Serbia is Serbian, and the official language of Croatia is Croatian.
政治体系  
   波黑的总统主席的任期是在三个成员之间轮转的(波斯尼亚、塞黑和克罗地亚),每个成员会在四年间各自当主席8个月。总统的三个人选是由人民直接选举出来的(联邦为波斯尼亚/克罗地亚投票,塞尔维亚为Republika Srpska投票),国会大臣的人选主要是由总统提名,经议院代表同意。他或者她随后负责委任外交部长,外经贸部长以及适当的其他职位。
   国会是波黑的立法主体。它由两个议院组成:众议院和参议院。人民议院包括15个代表,三分之二来自于联邦(5个克罗地亚人和5个波斯尼亚人)三分之一来自于Republika Srpska(5个塞尔维亚人)。代表议会由42位成员组成,三分之二是由联邦选举产生,三分之一是由Republika Srpska选举产生。
教育体系   
   波黑的初级教育要持续8年的时间。普通的和技术性的中等院校主要提供是中等教育,这些教育要持续4年的时间。中等教育的所有形式包括职业化的专门培训。从普通的中等院校毕业的学生获得结业证书并且在通过了教育部授权的资格考试之后可以填报任何的高等院校和专业。
人口  
   波黑拥有大约4 百40万人口。从人种上看,根据2000年的人口普查的结果,48%的是穆斯林(现在他们几乎都称自己是波斯尼亚人),37.1%是塞尔维亚人,14.3%是克罗地亚人,0.6%是其他种族的人口。90年代初的南斯拉夫战争中的大量移民人口造成统计学上人口数量变迁。自从1991年就没有进行过人口普查,由于政治分歧,短期内也没有要进行人口普查的计划。
首都    
   国家的首都是萨拉热窝,它也是该国最大的城市。
语言   
   今天波斯尼亚政府的官方语言是波斯尼亚语,就像塞尔维亚的官方语言是塞尔维亚语一样,克罗地亚的官方语言是克罗地亚语。

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