【大耳朵双语最游记】奥地利 AUSTRIA (三)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-04-30 22:00:15  【打印
Economy   
Austria has a well-developed social market economy and a high standard of living. Until the 1980s many of Austria"s largest industry firms were nationalised, however in recent years privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies.   Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. Slow growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world affected Austria, slowing its growth to 1.2% in 2001. Since Austria became a member state of the European Union it has gained closer ties to other European Union economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany. In addition, membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria"s access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspiring economies. Therefore estimates of growth in 2005 (up to 2%) are much more favourable than in the crippling German economy.
Currency - euro  
Austrian uses euro as its currency. Austrian euro coins have a unique design for each denomination, with a common theme for each of the three series of coins. The minor coins feature Austrian flowers, the middle coins examples of architecture from Austria"s capital, Vienna, and the two major coins famous Austrians.
Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics  
The popular sports are alpine skiing and football (soccer). Austria is one of Europe’s major destinations for winter sports, particularly skiing and snowboarding. Austria sent 101 athletes to the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. It was the 24th time the country had participated in the Summer Olympics. Austria only missed out the 1920 Olympics. In the 2004 Athens Olympics, Austria won two gold, four silver and one bronze medals. The gold medals came from sailing and Triathlon (Kate Allen). The performance was an improvement as compared to the 2000 Olympics in which it won two golds and 1 silver.
Culture    
It’s history as a world power and its unique cultural environment in the heart of Europe have generated contributions to mankind in every possible field. Austria is presumably internationally best known for its musicians. It has been the birthplace of many famous composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. or Gustav Mahler.
Austria has always been a country of great poets, writers and novelists. It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard or Robert Musil, of poets Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke or Adalbert Stifter.   Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Elfriede Jelinek and Peter Handke. Among Austrian artists and architects one can find painters Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele or Friedensreich Hundertwasser, photographer Inge Morath or architect Otto Wagner.
Austria was also the cradle of numerous scientists including physicists Ludwig Boltzmann, Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger, Ernst Mach, Wolfgang Pauli, Richard von Mises and Christian Doppler, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper, biologists Gregor Mendel and Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel. It was home to psychologists Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger, psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, economists Joseph Schumpeter, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek (Austrian School), and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche and Siegfried Marcus.
经济
奥地利的市场经济发展得很好,生活水平比较高。直到20世纪80年代,奥地利许多大型的产业实体被国有化,然而最近几年的私有化进程的推进,国家持有资产减少到了和其他欧洲国家的经济相当的水准。德国在历史上是奥地利主要的贸易伙伴,很容易受到德国经济中的快速变化的冲击。德国和世界其它各地的经济增长缓慢对奥地利的影响很大,在2001年它的经济增长率只有1.2%。自从奥地利成为欧盟的成员国,它和欧盟其他国家经济联系更加紧密,减少了对德国经济的依赖。此外,欧盟成员国的身份已经吸引了很多外来投资者的投资,这些投资者是为奥地利可以进入单一的欧洲市场以及能够接近繁荣发展的欧盟经济所吸引。因此2005年的增长估计值比依赖经济滑坡的德国时要高得多(大约2%)。
货币-欧元
奥地利将欧元作为自己的货币。奥地利的欧元硬币对于每个货币的命名有着唯一的设计,三个系列的硬币有着共同的设计主题。面值最小的货币印着象征着奥地利的国花,中间面值的硬币印着来自于奥地利首都维也纳的建筑,而两种大面额硬币印的是奥地利名人的头像。
主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就   
受欢迎的运动是高山滑雪和足球。奥地利是欧洲擅长冬季运动项目的主要国家之一,尤其是滑雪和滑板。奥地利派了101名运动员参加了2004年的希腊雅典的夏季奥运会。这是该国第24次参加夏季奥运会,奥地利只是没有参加 1920年的奥运。在2004年的雅典奥运会中,奥地利获得两枚金牌,四枚银牌和一枚铜牌。金牌来自帆船和三项体能赛(由凯特.艾伦获得)。奥地利的表现和其在2000年奥运会中获得的两金一银的成绩相比有所提高。
文化  
其作为一个世界强国的历史和其处于欧洲的中心的独特的文化环境,使它在几乎每个领域都对人类作出了贡献。奥地利估计是以其享誉国际的音乐家而闻名于世的。有许多伟大的作曲家诞生在这里,比如莫扎特、约瑟夫 海顿、Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. 和Gustav Mahler.
奥地利是一个拥有众多伟大的诗人、作家和小说家的国家。它是小说家Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Thomas Bernhard 和Robert Musil的故乡,也是诗人Georg Trakl, Franz Werfel, Franz Grillparzer, Rainer Maria Rilke 和Adalbert Stifter的故乡,伟大的同时代的剧作家和小说家是Elfriede Jelinek a和 Peter Handke。在奥地利的画家和建筑师当中,我们能够找到画家Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele 和Friedensreich Hundertwasser,摄影师有Inge Morath 和 architect Otto Wagner.
奥地利同样是众多科学家的摇篮,包括物理学家Ludwig Boltzmann, Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger, Ernst Mach, Wolfgang Pauli, Richard von Mises 和Christian Doppler,哲学家Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper, biologists Gregor Mendel 以及 Konrad Lorenz,和数学家Kurt Gödel。它也是心理学家Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Paul Watzlawick 和Hans Asperger的故乡,精神病学家Viktor Frankl,经济学家Joseph Schumpeter, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Ludwig von Mises, 和 Friedrich Hayek (奥地利学校),以及工程师Ferdinand Porsche 和Siegfried Marcus生长的地方。

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