【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆菲律宾(二)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-03-14 21:19:58  【打印
Political System  
  The government is patterned after the US government. It is organized as a representative republic, where the President functions as head of state, the head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote to a term of 6 years, during which he or she appoints and presides over the cabinet. The bicameral legislature, the Congress, consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives; members of both are elected by popular vote. There are 24 senators serving 6 years in the Senate while the House of Representatives consists of no more than 250 congressmen each serving 3-year terms. The judiciary branch of the government is headed by the Supreme Court, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, all appointed by the president.
Education System  
  In 1990 the education system offered six years of elementary instruction followed by four years of high school. Children entered primary school at the age of seven. Instruction was bilingual in Pilipino and English, although it was often claimed that English was being slighted. Before independence in 1946, all instruction was in English; since then, the national language, Filipino, has been increasingly emphasized. Until the compulsory study of Spanish was abolished in 1987, secondary and higher education students had to contend with three languages--Pilipino, English, and Spanish.
In 1991 the education system was reaching a relatively large part of the population, at least at the elementary level. Elementary education was free and, in the 1987 academic year, was provided to some 15 million schoolchildren, 96.4 percent of the age-group. High school enrollment rates were approximately 56% nationwide but were lower in Mindanao and in Eastern Visayas region. Enrollment in institutions of higher learning exceeded 1.6 million.
Population  
  Philippines is the twelfth most populous country in the world with an estimated population of 88 million. The people of the Philippines are collectively known as Filipinos. Colloquially, Filipinos may refer to themselves as Pinoy (feminine: Pinay). The vast majority of the population is descended from Austronesian-speaking migrants. There are 13 major native groups in the country, namely, the Tagalogs, Cebuanos, and the Ilocanos, together with the Ilonggos, Bicolanos, Pampangos, Pangasinenses, Karay-as, Warays, Maranaos, Maguindanaos, Tausugs and Negritos make up (94%) of the population. The Mestizos (Filipinos mixed with Spanish, Mexican, Chinese and Anglo-American blood) constituted 3%.
The largest minority of Foreign Nationality groups in the country is the ethnic Chinese who constitute (1.5%) of the population and are mostly business people. Other people living in the Philippines, includes Spaniards, Latin Americans, North Americans, Arabs and other ethnic Asian immigrants, make up the remaining (1.5%).

政治体系  
  政府模式效仿美国政府。 政府组织为代议共和制,其中总统作为国家首脑,政府的负责人和武装力量的总司令。 总统由全民投票选举产生,任期6年。在此期间总统任命和主持内阁。采用两院制的立法机构-国会,包括参议院和众议院,其成员均由公众投票选举产生。参议院由24位参议员组成,任期6年;众议院由不超过250位的国会议员组成,任期3年。政府的司法部门由最高法院领导,最高法院包括一名作为最高负责人首席法官和14名联合法官,他们全部由总统任命。
教育体系   
  1990年教育体系提供六年初等教育以及四年高中教育。 孩子在七岁上小学。尽管声称英语被忽视,教学仍然采用菲律宾语和英语的双语方式。在1946年独立之前,所有教学都用英语;独立后母语菲律宾语越来越得到重视。中级教育和高中教育学生必须学习三种语言― 菲律宾语、英语和西班牙语,直到1987年西班牙的强制教育被废除。
1991年教育系统普及相当多的人口,至少在初中水平。初中教育是免费的,同时在1987学院年提供给大约1500万名学生入学机会,占该年龄段的96.4%。高中的入学率全国约为56%,但是在棉兰老岛和西维萨亚斯群岛地区中较低。高等教育机构的入学人数超过160万。
人口   
  菲律宾是世界人口第12个大的国家,大约有8800万人口。菲律宾人民统称为菲律宾人。口头上,菲律宾人将他们自己称作Pinoy (女性: Pinay )。相当多的人是讲南岛语言(Austronesian-speaking)的移民的后裔。国家中有13个主要的本地族群,由塔加路人(Tagalogs),宿务人(Cebuanos),伊洛戈人(Ilonggos),比科尔人(Bicolanos), Pampangos人, Pangasinenses人, Karay-as人, Warays人, Maranaos人, Maguindanaos人, Tausugs人和Negrito人组成,占人口的94%。 混血儿(菲律宾人与西班牙人,墨西哥人,华人和英美的混血)

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