大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-03-05 22:23:16  【打印
  An independent kingdom, in 1824-26, 1851-52 and 1885-86, Burma was invaded by the British Empire and became a part of India. Burmese nationalists saw the outbreak of World War II as an opportunity to extort concessions from the British in exchange for support in the war effort, but the British would have none of it, issuing an arrest warrant for Aung San, who escaped to China. The Japanese offered him support, and he returned to Burma to enlist the aid of young men who went to Japan with him to receive military training. The Japanese declared Burma independent, and when they occupied Bangkok in December 1941, Aung Sang announced the formation of the Burma Independence Army (BIA) in anticipation of Japanese liberation. The Japanese moved into Burma in 1942 and disbanded the BIA, forming the smaller Burma Defense Army in its place with Aung Sang still at the head. Ba Maw was declared head of state and his cabinet included Aung Sang.
   It became apparent that Japanese promises of independence were merely a sham and that Ba Maw was just a puppet. Aung San began negotiations with British (Lord Mountbatten) in October 1943 and officially joined the Allies with his renamed Burma National Army (BNA) in March 1945. During this period, Aung San successfully created a broad-based coalition of political parties called the Anti-Fascist Organization, renamed the Anti-Fascist People"s Freedom League (AFPFL), to govern the country. In May 1945, the Japanese were routed from Burma. After the war ended, the former civilian governor returned and Aung San was duly arrested. This nearly touched off a rebellion and the British backed off. Negotiations began for Burmese independence, which were completed successfully in January 1947.
   In 1948 the nation became sovereign as the Union of Burma. Democratic rule ended in 1962 with a military coup d"etat led by General Ne Win. The military government changed the name of the country from Burma to Myanmar in 1989. It continued the economic reforms started by the old regime and called for a Constituent Assembly to revise the 1974 constitution. This led to multiparty elections in May 1990. The first free elections held in almost 30 years. The National League for Democracy (NLD) won a landslide victory. But, the landslide victory of the NLD, the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Aung San, was voided by the military. The military did not let the assembly convene and hold the two leaders of the NLD, U Tin U and Aung San Suu Kyi, under the house arrest imposed on them the previous year.
  Myanmar is situated in southeastern Asia. It is located between Bangladesh and Thailand, with China to the north and India to the north-west, with coastline on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. The country has a total area of 678,500 km², of which almost half is forest or woodland. Topographically, the country has mountains along its borders with India and China, and in the west, which surrounds central lowland around the river Ayeyarwady, which forms a fertile delta where it flows into the sea. Most of the country"s population lives in this central lowland.
Political System  
  Myanmar has been under military rule since 1962. The current head of state is General Than Shwe who holds the title of "Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council." Almost all cabinet offices are held by military officers. US sanctions against the military government have been largely ineffective, due to loopholes in the sanctions and the willingness of mainly Asian business to continue investing in Myanmar and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction.
Education System  
  Myanmar’s Education Department reportedly had aimed at giving basic education to all citizens of Myanmar in the year 2000 and to reduce by half the adult illiteracy rate in the year 2000. Myanmar aimed at providing basic education to all school going age children and hopes that 80% of these children would complete primary level education, for formal education. The Education Department aimed at reducing the adult illiteracy rate from 22% to 11%. Under the guidance of the Myanmar Education committee, the "Education for All" project was commenced in 1996-97 in 30 townships and extended to 80 townships in 1997-98. In 1998-99 the plan implement to all104 townships by 1999-2000.
  缅甸作为一个独立的国家,先后在1824-26年,1851-52年,1855-86年三次被英国侵略,成为印度的一部分。缅甸爱国主义者想借二次大战的机会作为支持英国战争的条件而摆脱英国的控制,但英国不予理睬,并对逃到中国的昂山(Aung San)发布了逮捕令。日本给予了他支持,他回到国家招募青年人到日本接受军事训练。日本于1941年12月占领了泰王国首都曼谷并宣布缅甸独立。昂山在预料日本解放下,宣布缅甸独立军的成立。日本在1942年进驻缅甸解散了缅甸独立军(BIA),组成了昂山为首领的较小的自卫军。巴莫 (Ba Maw) 成为国家的领袖,在他的内阁中有昂山。
   很明显日本所承诺的缅甸的独立仅是一个幌子,巴莫只是一个傀儡。昂山在1943年10月开始与英国(Lord Mountbatten)谈判,并于1945年3月带着他重新命名的缅甸国家军正式加入联盟国。在此期间,昂山成功创建了一个具有更广泛基础的政党联盟来统治这个国家,叫做反法西斯组织,后来改名为反法西斯人民自由联盟(AFPFL)。1945年5月,日本在缅甸战败。战争结束后,前人民州长回国,昂山被逮捕。 这差点引起战乱,英国置之不理。 随后开始缅甸独立的谈判,1947年1月取得独立。
   1948年缅甸脱离英联邦宣布独立,建立缅甸联邦。随着纳温将军(General Ne Win)军事政变,1962年民主统治结束。军国主义政府在1989年将国家的名字从Burma改为Myanmar。 新政权实行旧政权的经济体制改革并要求国民代表大会修改1974年宪法,从而举行了1990年5月的多党选举。 这是该国近30年来的第一次选举。 国家民主联盟赢得了绝对性的胜利。但由昂山的女儿,昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi),所领导的国家民主联盟的胜利被军事政权架空。军事政权在前年囚禁联盟的两个领袖,U Tin U 和昂山素季。
  缅甸位于亚洲东南部,孟加拉国与泰国之间。北与中国为邻,西北与印度接壤,西南濒临孟加拉湾和安达曼海。总面积约为678,500平方公里, 大部分是森林。从地形学上看,在与中国和印度的边界上有山脉,在西边伊洛瓦底省(Ayeyarwady)包围着中心低地,形成一个肥沃的三角洲。 大多数人口都居住在中心低地。
  缅甸从1962年开始实行军事统治。现任国家领袖是丹瑞将军(General Than Shwe),是国家和平与发展委员会主席。几乎所有的内阁成员都由军事官员担任。由于制裁的漏洞和主要亚洲商业在缅甸继续和投入新投资,尤其在开采自然资源方面,美国对缅甸军事政府的制裁已经没有什么效用。

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