【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆蒙古
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-03-02 21:26:04  【打印
History  
  In the 13th century, Mongolia was the center of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire in world history. After more than a century of power, the Mongol Empire ended and Mongolia fell back into a state of internal struggle and feuds, which paved the way for the Manchu conquest of Inner Mongolia in 1636 and the submission of Outer Mongolia in 1691. Both Inner and Outer Mongolia declared independence in 1911, but only Outer Mongolia succeeded, with Russian help. After the October Revolution in Russia, Chinese troops re-occupied Outer Mongolia in 1919, but were driven out in 1921 when the White and Red Russian armies extended the Russian Civil War into (Outer) Mongolian territory. In 1924, the Mongolian People"s Republic was proclaimed and aligned closely with the Soviet Union. In 1928 Horloogiyn Choybalsan rose to power.
   During World War II, the USSR defended Mongolia against Japan during the Battle of Halhin Gol. Mongolian forces also took part in the Soviet offensive against Japanese forces in Inner Mongolia of August 1945. The threat of Mongolian forces seizing parts of Inner Mongolia induced the Republic of China to recognize Outer Mongolia"s independence, provided that a referendum was held. The referendum took place on 20 October 1945 and 100% of the electorate voting for independence.
After Choybalsan died in Moscow on 26 January 1952, Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal took power. Mongolia continued to closely align itself with the Soviet Union, especially after the Sino-Soviet split of the late 1950s. While Tsedenbal visited Moscow in August 1984, being very ill, the parliament announced his retirement and replaced him with Jambyn Batmonh.
In 1990, the Communist Party relinquished control over the government, paving the way for a new constitution in 1992 that abolished the People"s Republic and created a hybrid parliamentary/presidential state.
Geography  
  Mongolia is situated in central Asia. It is a landlocked nation bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world by area. However, it has very little arable land: much of its area is grassland. The Mongolian heartland consists of relatively flat steppes. The southern portion of the country is taken up by the Gobi Desert, while the northern and western portions are mountainous. Uvs Nuur Lake, shared with Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation, is a natural World Heritage Site.
Political System  
  Following the fall of the Soviet Union, Mongolia adopted electoral politics. A new constitution was created in 1992 that abolished the People"s Republic and created a hybrid parliamentary/presidential state. However, little information is available about its political system. Mongolia is split in to 21 provinces (aimag). Ulaanbaatar (the capital) is a municipality with provincial status.
历史  
  现在的蒙古在13世纪是蒙古帝国的中心,蒙古帝国是世界历史上国土连续面积最大的王国。蒙古帝国存在了一个多世纪后灭亡。现在的蒙古地区也由此变成了一个内乱纷争不断的地方,这也为满人后来在1636年征服这个地区奠定了基础。1691年外蒙古的投降也根源于此。1911年内外蒙古皆宣布要独立,但是只有外蒙古在俄国人的帮助下获得成功。俄国十月革命发生后,中国军队在1919年重新占领了外蒙古地区,但1921年俄国白红军队之间的内战战火扩展到了该地区,遂把中国军队逐出。1924年蒙古人民共和国宣告成立,同时与苏联结成紧密的联盟。1928年乔巴山(Horloogiyn Choybalsan)上台掌权。
二战期间,苏联在Halhin Gol.战役中帮助蒙古成功抵御了日本侵略者;蒙古国也在1945年参加了苏联在内蒙古境内抵抗日本的斗争。由于担心蒙古国的力量危及内蒙古地区,中国承认了外蒙古的独立地位,但是有一个附加条件就是必须举行全民投票。蒙古国随后于1945年10月20日举行了全民投票,结果100%的选民投票赞成独立。1952年乔巴山(Choybalsan)在莫斯科去世,尤睦佳・泽登巴尔(Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal)随后掌权。蒙古国继续加强与苏联的联盟关系,尤其是在1950年中苏关系破裂之后这种关系尤其紧密。1984年8月尤睦佳•泽登巴尔在身患重病访问莫斯科时,蒙古议会宣布尤睦佳•泽登巴尔退休,并决定由Jambyn Batmonh继承其职位。1990年共产党放弃对政府的控制,这为1992的新宪法的到来铺平了道路。这部新宪法宣布蒙古不再是一个人民共和国,取而代之创建了议会和总统的混合掌权制。
地理   
  蒙古国位于亚洲中部,是一个内陆国家,北部是俄罗斯,南部是中国。蒙古是18世纪世界上面积最大的国家,不过蒙古的可耕地面积非常少,大部分都是草地。蒙古国的心脏地带是相对平稳的干草原。该国南部是戈壁大沙漠,北部和西部都是高山。马布苏湖(Uvs Nuur Lake)是世界遗产,为俄罗斯联邦的图瓦共和国(Tuva Republic)和蒙古国共同拥有。
政治体系  
  蒙古国在苏联解体后实施选举政治制度。1992年全新的宪法公布实施,这部宪法废除了原来的共和国制度,创建了议会和总统的混合掌权制。然而,关于蒙古的政治体系所知甚少。蒙古国共分为21个省。首都乌兰巴托(Ulaanbaatar)是一个与省同级的直辖市。

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