【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆吉尔吉斯斯坦(三)
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-02-18 15:30:38  【打印



Economy  
  Kyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, and natural gas and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been fairly progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Kyrgyzstan was the first CIS country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. With fits and starts, inflation has been lowered to an estimated 7% in 2001, 2.1% in 2002, 4% in 2003, and 3.2% in 2004. Much of the government"s stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to increase. Kyrgyzstan has distinguished itself by adopting relatively liberal economic policies. The government and the international financial institutions have been engaged in a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. Further restructuring of domestic industry and success in attracting foreign investment are keys to future growth.
Currency C Som   
  The Kyrgyzstani Som (currency code KGS, sometimes transliterated "Sum" or "Soum") is the currency of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. The word Som means "pure" in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uigur, Uzbek and many other Turkic languages. The word implies pure gold. The Soviet ruble was called Som in Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uzbek which are written on the back of the notes. The exchange rate is around 41 soms to the US dollar, and 49 soms to the euro. This makes the som the second highest-valued currency unit in Central Asia.
Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics  
  The popular sports in the country are boxing, cycling and athletics. The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta was the first time that the nation had competed in the Summer Olympics independently of the other republics of the Soviet Union. The country won its first ever Olympic medal, a Bronze medal from Aidyn Smagulov in the judo competition (Men extra lightweight cat) during the 2000 Sydney Olympics.
Culture   
  The Kyrgyz have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in yurts (bozui in Kyrgyz) and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally as herding families return to high mountain pastures or jailoos in the summer.
Some of the unique characteristics of Kyrgyz culture could be found from the art pieces and poems. Tush kyiz are large, elaborately embroidered wall hangings, traditionally made in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by elder women to commemorate the marriage of a son or daughter. Colors and designs are chosen to symbolize Kyrgyz traditions and rural life. Flowers, plants, animals, stylized horns, national designs and emblems of Kyrgyz life are often found in these ornate and colorful embroideries. Designs are sometimes dated and signed by the artist upon completion of the work, which may take years to finish. The Tush kyiz is hung in the yurt over the marriage bed of the couple, and symbolize their pride in their Kyrgyz tradition.
Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people and the name of the epic"s eponymous hero. The poem, with close to half a million lines, is twenty times longer than Homer"s Odyssey and one of the longest epics in the world. It is a patriotic work recounting the exploits of Manas and his descendants and followers, who fought against the Uyghurs in the ninth century to preserve Kyrgyz independence.
经济   
  吉尔吉斯斯坦是一个贫穷的多山国家,农业经济占主导地位。棉花,烟草,羊毛和肉制品是主要的农产品,尽管只有烟草和棉花是没有配额的出口商品。 工业出口包括黄金,汞,铀,天然气和电力。吉尔吉斯斯坦在推行市场改革方面取得了相当不错的进步,例如改良了的体制,土地改革等等。吉尔吉斯斯坦是第一个被世界贸易组织接受的独联体国家。通过改革的阵痛和领先的地位,通货膨胀已经降低到了可估计的2001年的7%,2002年的2.1%,2003年的4%和2004年的3.2%。很多在国有企业的股权都已经被出售了。在1991年12月前苏联解体后,生产能力下跌的形势是十分严峻的。 到了1995年中期,生产能力开始恢复,出口也在增长。吉尔吉斯斯坦通过接受相关的市场经济政策重新定位。政府和国际金融组织已经开始制订全面的中期贫困减少计划和经济增长战略。更长远的是,调整国内工业和有效吸引外资对于未来经济增长是关键的因素。
货币-索姆   
  吉尔吉斯坦货币单位是索姆(Som)(货币代码是KGS,有时候音译成“Sum”或者Soum) 是吉尔吉斯斯坦的流通货币。在吉尔吉斯语,哈萨克语,维吾尔语,乌兹别克语和很多其他的土耳其系语言中,Som的意思是“纯的”,这个单词意味着纯金。苏联的卢布被称作索姆,用哈萨克语,吉尔吉斯语和乌兹别克语写在货币的背面。汇率是1美元兑大约41索姆,1欧元兑大约49索姆。索姆在中亚地区是价值第二高的流通货币。
主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就   
  在这个国家受欢迎的项目是拳击,自行车运动和田径比赛。1996年的亚特兰大夏季奥运会是这个国家独立于其他的苏联共和国第一次参加比赛。这个国家取得历史上第一枚奥运会奖牌,是埃丁・斯马古洛夫(Aidyn Smagulov)在2000年悉尼奥运会上柔道(男子轻量级)竞赛上获得的铜牌。
文化  
  吉尔吉斯斯坦历史上是一个半游牧民族,居住在圆顶帐篷中,放牧羊群,马群和牦牛。作为牧民家庭,游牧的传统使他们的活动是季节性的。他们在夏季游牧到高原草场或jailoo。
吉尔吉斯文化中一些特征可以从艺术品残片和诗歌中发现。Tush kyiz是大的,镶有精巧刺绣的,在墙上悬挂的饰物。传统上,主要是吉尔吉斯和哈萨克的年老妇女们为了纪念儿子或者女儿的婚礼而制作的。颜色和图案都具有吉尔吉斯斯坦传统文化和乡村生活的色彩。鲜花,植物,动物,有特征的号角,民族特征的图案和吉尔吉斯斯坦生活的特征都能在这些华丽的,色彩艳丽的刺绣饰品中发现。 图案有时候是陈旧的和有个人艺术风格特征,完成它也许需要几年的时间。 Tush kyiz被悬挂在新婚夫妇的床头,用吉尔吉斯斯坦的民族传统祝福他们婚姻。
Manas 是吉尔吉斯人的传统的英雄诗歌,也是以伟大英雄的名字来命名的。这首诗歌,接近50万行,是荷马的《奥德赛》(Homer"s Odyssey)诗歌的20倍,也是世界上最长的英雄史诗之一。它是一个爱国主义巨著,叙述了Manas,他的后裔以及他的追随者的事迹,他们在九世纪反对维吾尔族入侵,从而捍卫了吉尔吉斯斯坦的独立。

欢迎来大耳朵论坛分享更多: http://bbs.ebigear.com/forum-153-1.html

                                                       大耳朵编辑:anmy°


文章来源:大耳朵英语--免费实用 http://www.bigear.cn