【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆吉尔吉斯斯坦
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2011-02-16 10:08:18  【打印
History
  Back to 201 BC, the earliest ancestors of the Kyrgyz people, who are believed to be of Turkic-Mongoloid descent, lived in the northeastern part of what is currently Mongolia. Later, some of their tribes migrated to the region that is currently southern Siberia and settled along the Yenisei River, where they lived from the 6th until the 8th centuries. They spread across what is now the Tuva region of the Russian Federation, until the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, when the Kyrgyz began migrating south. During the 15th-16th centuries, the Kyrgyz people settled in the territory currently known as the Kyrgyz Republic. In the early 19th century, the southern territory of the Kyrgyz Republic came under the control of the Khanate of Kokand, but the territory was occupied and annexed by the Russian Empire in 1876. The suppression of the 1916 rebellion in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to flee to China. Soviet power was established in the region in 1918, and in 1924, the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. In 1926, it became the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and on 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was established as a full Union Republic of the USSR.
The early years of glasnost in the late 1980s had little effect on the political climate in the Kyrgyz Republic. The Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in parliament. In an upset victory, Askar Akayev, the president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, was elected to the presidency in October 1990. Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government comprised mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic"s name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan and subsequently achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
Nation-wide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Akayev. On 10 July 2005, former Prime Minister, Kurmanbek Bakiyev won a Presidential election in a landslide victory.
Geography   
  Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The mountainous region of Tian Shan covers the majority of the nation, with the remainder made up of its valleys and basins. Issyk Kul in north-western Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border.  
Around 75% of the country is under cover of snow and this causes problems of flooding during the spring thaw. These both claim lives (around 40 people were killed in 1998) and destroy crops (in 2005 there was a massive grain shortfall.)
The principal river is the Naryn River, flowing west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan, where it meets another of Kyrgyzstan"s major rivers, the Kara Darya. There it forms the Syr Darya, eventually flowing into the Aral Sea. The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan.
Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of rare metals including gold and also some coal, petroleum and natural gas. Less than 8% of the land is cultivated and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands.
历史  
  公元前201年,吉尔吉斯人最早的祖先,被认为是土耳其和蒙古人的后裔,原来居住在现在蒙古国的东北地区。稍后一些时候,他们部落的一些人迁徙到了现在西伯利亚的南部地区并且沿着叶尼塞河定居下来。从六世纪到八世纪一直居住在那里。他们扩展到现在俄罗斯联邦的Tuva地区,直到13世纪蒙古帝国的崛起,吉尔吉斯人开始了南迁。 在15到16世纪,吉尔吉斯人定居在现在是吉尔吉斯共和国境内。19世纪早期吉尔吉斯共和国的南部领土在浩罕可汗(Kokand)的控制下,但是这部分区域在1876年被沙皇俄国占领并成为附属地。1916年对中亚地区叛乱的镇压导致很多吉尔吉斯人逃到了中国。1918年苏联力量在这个地区建立起来。 在1924年,喀拉海-吉尔吉斯自治州 (Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast)在苏联统治下建立起来。 1926年,建立了吉尔吉斯自治苏维埃社会主义共和国。在1936年12月5日,吉尔吉斯苏维埃社会主义共和国成为苏维埃社会主义共和国的加盟共和国。
在20世纪80年代末期的自由化思想兴起的前几年对吉尔吉斯共和国的政治氛围稍微有一些影响。吉尔吉斯民主运动在议会的支持下已经发展成一股巨大的政治力量。通过一个颠覆性的胜利,阿卡耶夫(Askar Akayev),吉尔吉斯坦的科学院主席,在1990年10月,通过选举当选总统。阿卡耶夫组建了新的政府并且任命了由更年轻的人,有改革意愿的人组成了新的政府。1990年12月, 最高苏维埃投票更改国名为吉尔吉斯坦共和国,随后在1991年从苏联获得了独立。
2005年春季全国范围的运动导致了阿卡耶夫总统的下台,在2005年7月10日,前总理,库尔曼别克・巴基耶夫(Kurmanbek Bakiyev)以很大的优势赢得总统选举。
地理
  吉尔吉斯斯坦是一个中亚的内陆国家。周围的邻国是哈萨克斯坦,中国,塔吉克斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦。天山(Tian Shan)的山脉地区覆盖了这个国家的主要地区,剩余的是山谷和盆地。在天山地区西北部的伊塞克湖( Issyk Kul )全国最大的湖泊,也是仅次于Titicaca的全世界第二大的高山湖泊。最高峰在Kakshaal-Too山脉,形成了与中国的边界。
75%的国土被积雪覆盖,这就导致了在春季冰雪熔化时容易发生洪水,夺走生命(在1998年大约40人遇难)也毁坏了庄稼(在2005年,发生了大规模的粮食短缺)。
主要的河流是那灵河(Naryn),向西流过福尔加纳山谷(Fergana)进入乌兹别克斯坦,在那里它和另外一条吉尔吉斯斯坦的主要河流the Kara Darya汇合成为锡尔河(Syr Darya),最后流入咸海。 Chu河在进入哈萨克斯坦之前也是主要通过了吉尔吉斯斯坦。吉尔吉斯斯坦有大量的稀有金属,包括黄金和煤炭,石油,天然气。全国只有不足8%的陆地是可耕耘的,主要集中在北部的低地地区。

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