孔子:人生和哲学
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2009-02-04 10:45:30  【打印
Confucius: Life and Philosophy

In history no philosopher has ever affected more individual lives than Confucius did. For around 2000 years Confucianism was “…the most important single force in Chinese life…”. His beliefs were formed when he was a young man. Dismayed by the state China was in. He wanted people with power to adopt better morals and compassion. He thought that for peace to be reached, people needed to find li (courtesy) in there lives. Meaning that society could only reach the "ideal" if everyone was moral and responsible. Confucius never saw what his ideas did for China; dying many centuries before they were recognized. Confucius's life was to him unfulfilling but the influence he had on the world would rival most religious figures.

Confucius was born in Chou, Lu (which is now the Shandong Province). His father (Shu-Liang Ho) died when he was 3 and his mother (Yan Zhengzai) died when he was 23. Confucius was born a basted and received much distained from others. He was not allowed to get an education because he was considered a peasant; however he had a deep interest in spirituality and Chinese traditions. He found a way to educate himself though; by working for a nobleman he gained access to Chinese writings and art. He became well respected for his fairness and his knowledge of Chinese traditions. He was happy to teach any one who wanted to be taught and quickly people were lining up to see him. Duke Chao admired him so much that he game him a job as an advisor. When Chao was exiled from Lu Confucius followed him to Ch'i. In Ch'i he earned the same respect that he had in Lu but the Duke of the state wouldn't put Confucius's doctrines into practice even though he believed in them. In 511 B.C. Chao died in exile and Confucius returned to Lu where he gave up on government and started a private school. People came from far and wide to be taught by Confucius. “Confucius was changing China one student at a time”.

“To put the world in order, we must first put the nation in order; to put the nation in order, we must put the family in order; to put the family in order, we must cultivate our personal life; and to cultivate our personal life, we must first set our heart right.” To “set our heart right” according to Confucius we needed to posses five qualities. These are integrity, righteousness, loyalty, altruism and jen (to respect all living things). Confucius also believed in a code of conduct. The code says that: we should only have or experience things in moderation. We should do what is expected of us to the best of our abilities. We should know place in a relationship. We should be respectful to our elders. Confucius believed that only if each individual person did these things would we be able to reach the "ideal" society. Confucianism didn't become widely known across China until the Han Dynasty; under emperor Wu. When it finally was recognised it took off in China, it became China's main ideology. Confucianism is still respected that there are temples that have Budda Confucius all together.

Confucius was born a mere peasant who learned to teach. His teachings were not fully appreciated in his lifetime and often he was viewed with suspicion as was government fearful of his influence. However for over 20 centuries people have embraced his ideas and philosophy. This includes his code of conduct that instructs us to work harder and think of others instead of just ourselves. All though his life his aim was to make a better world.

历史上,没有哪个哲人,能有孔子对世人生活影响之大的。两千多年前的儒家思想是,“中国人生活中最重要的一支力量”。这种信仰是他在年轻时形成的。当时国家陷入在沮丧之中。他想使人们有接纳良好的道德和同情心的欲望。要想实现和平,人们需在生活中发现礼(礼貌)。就是说,只要人人都有道德、负责任,社会就能实现这种理想。孔子没见到他的思想对中国的影响;经过几个世纪的挣扎才得到公认。在孔子的有生之年没能实现,但他对世界的影响可与众多宗教人士匹敌。

孔子,出生在鲁国陬邑(今山东境内)。父亲(叔梁纥)在他三岁时去世,母亲颜氏在他23岁时也去世了。孔子出身贫穷,常受人奚落。因被认为是农民,不允许接受教育。然而,对灵性和中国传统他有浓厚的兴趣。他找到了一条自学之路。给贵族做工,能接触到中国书法和艺术。由于举止文雅和对传统的学识,他受到人们的尊敬。他乐于教那些想学习的人,很快人们都很想见到他。鲁昭公很赞赏他,让他担当谋士。当鲁昭公被逐出鲁国,孔子就跟随他到了齐国。在齐国,他也得到了同样的赏识。齐景公虽然相信他们,但并没有把孔子的学说付诸实施。公元前511年,鲁昭公在流放中去世,孔子回到了鲁国。他放弃在宫廷中做事,开设了一所私人学校。人们从远方来向孔子求教。“孔子在一个一个学生的改变着中国。”

“(古之欲明)明德于天下者;先治其国;欲治其国者,先齐其家;欲齐其家者,先修其身;欲修其身者,先正其心;……”根据孔子所说,要做到“正其心”,我们需要具备五种品质。它们分别是:正直,正义,忠诚,无私,恭敬。孔子还信奉一组行为准则。这个准则是这样的:我们应该凡事只应中庸行事;我们尽全力去做期待的事情;我们应该在关系中知道自已的身份地位;我们应该尊敬老人。孔子相信,只要每个人都做这样的事,就能实现这样的理想社会。儒家思想直到汉朝才在中国得到广泛传播。它被最终得到承认,在中国流行起来并成为主流思想。儒家思想仍然受到尊敬,各地有许多孔圣人的庙。

孔子出生在纯粹的农民家庭,自学成才。在一生中,他的学说并没受到赏识。政府担心这种学说的影响,常常带着怀疑的眼光看待。然而,20个世纪以来,人们采纳了他的观点和哲学。这包括行为准则,指导我们努力工作,和为他人着想而不仅仅为自己。他毕生的目标就是创造更加美好的世界。

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