第一卷 一个正直的人 第02章 米里哀先生改称卞福汝主教
大耳朵英语  http://www.bigear.cn  2007-06-28 00:15:54  【打印
CHAPTER II M. MYRIEL BECOMES M. WELCOME





The episcopal palace of D---- adjoins the hospital.



The episcopal palace was a huge and beautiful house, built of stone at the beginning of the last century by M. Henri Puget, Doctor of Theology of the Faculty of Paris, Abbe of Simore, who had been Bishop of D---- in 1712. This palace was a genuine seignorial residence.



Everything about it had a grand air,--the apartments of the Bishop, the drawing-rooms, the chambers, the principal courtyard, which was very large, with walks encircling it under arcades in the old Florentine fashion, and gardens planted with magnificent trees.



In the dining-room, a long and superb gallery which was situated on the ground-floor and opened on the gardens, M. Henri Puget had entertained in state, on July 29, 1714, My Lords Charles Brulart de Genlis, archbishop; Prince d'Embrun; Antoine de Mesgrigny, the capuchin, Bishop of Grasse; Philippe de Vendome, Grand Prior of France, Abbe of Saint Honore de Lerins; Francois de Berton de Crillon, bishop, Baron de Vence; Cesar de Sabran de Forcalquier, bishop, Seignor of Glandeve; and Jean Soanen, Priest of the Oratory, preacher in ordinary to the king, bishop, Seignor of Senez.



The portraits of these seven reverend personages decorated this apartment; and this memorable date, the 29th of July, 1714, was there engraved in letters of gold on a table of white marble.



The hospital was a low and narrow building of a single story, with a small garden.



Three days after his arrival, the Bishop visited the hospital.



The visit ended, he had the director requested to be so good as to come to his house.



"Monsieur the director of the hospital," said he to him, "how many sick people have you at the present moment?"



"Twenty-six, Monseigneur."



"That was the number which I counted," said the Bishop.



"The beds," pursued the director, "are very much crowded against each other."



"That is what I observed."



"The halls are nothing but rooms, and it is with difficulty that the air can be changed in them."



"So it seems to me."



"And then, when there is a ray of sun, the garden is very small for the convalescents."



"That was what I said to myself."



"In case of epidemics,--we have had the typhus fever this year; we had the sweating sickness two years ago, and a hundred patients at times,--we know not what to do."



"That is the thought which occurred to me."



"What would you have, Monseigneur?" said the director. "One must resign one's self."



This conversation took place in the gallery dining-room on the ground-floor.



The Bishop remained silent for a moment; then he turned abruptly to the director of the hospital.



"Monsieur," said he, "how many beds do you think this hall alone would hold?"



"Monseigneur's dining-room?" exclaimed the stupefied director.



The Bishop cast a glance round the apartment, and seemed to be taking measures and calculations with his eyes.



"It would hold full twenty beds," said he, as though speaking to himself. Then, raising his voice:--



"Hold, Monsieur the director of the hospital, I will tell you something.



There is evidently a mistake here. There are thirty-six of you, in five or six small rooms. There are three of us here, and we have room for sixty. There is some mistake, I tell you; you have my house, and I have yours. Give me back my house; you are at home here."



On the following day the thirty-six patients were installed in the Bishop's palace, and the Bishop was settled in the hospital.



M. Myriel had no property, his family having been ruined by the Revolution. His sister was in receipt of a yearly income of five hundred francs, which sufficed for her personal wants at the vicarage. M. Myriel received from the State, in his quality of bishop, a salary of fifteen thousand francs. On the very day when he took up his abode in the hospital, M. Myriel settled on the disposition of this sum once for all, in the following manner. We transcribe here a note made by his own hand:--



NOTE ON THE REGULATION OF MY HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES.



For the little seminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,500 livres



Society of the mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 "



For the Lazarists of Montdidier . . . . . . . . . . 100 "



Seminary for foreign missions in Paris . . . . . . 200 "



Congregation of the Holy Spirit . . . . . . . . . . 150 "



Religious establishments of the Holy Land . . . . . 100 "



Charitable maternity societies . . . . . . . . . . 300 "



Extra, for that of Arles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 "



Work for the amelioration of prisons . . . . . . . 400 "



Work for the relief and delivery of prisoners . . . 500 "



To liberate fathers of families incarcerated for debt 1,000 "



Addition to the salary of the poor teachers of the



diocese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,000 "



Public granary of the Hautes-Alpes . . . . . . . . 100 "



Congregation of the ladies of D----, of Manosque, and of Sisteron, for the gratuitous instruction of poor girls . . . . . . . . . . 1,500 "



For the poor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,000 "



My personal expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000 "



------



Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,000 "



M. Myriel made no change in this arrangement during the entire period that he occupied the see of D---- As has been seen, he called it regulating his household expenses.



This arrangement was accepted with absolute submission by Mademoiselle Baptistine. This holy woman regarded Monseigneur of D----as at one and the same time her brother and her bishop, her friend according to the flesh and her superior according to the Church. She simply loved and venerated him. When he spoke, she bowed; when he acted, she yielded her adherence. Their only servant, Madame Magloire, grumbled a little. It will be observed that Monsieur the Bishop had reserved for himself only one thousand livres, which, added to the pension of Mademoiselle Baptistine, made fifteen hundred francs a year. On these fifteen hundred francs these two old women and the old man subsisted.



And when a village curate came to D----, the Bishop still found means to entertain him, thanks to the severe economy of Madame Magloire, and to the intelligent administration of Mademoiselle Baptistine.



One day, after he had been in D---- about three months, the Bishop said:--



"And still I am quite cramped with it all!"



"I should think so!" exclaimed Madame Magloire. "Monseigneur has not even claimed the allowance which the department owes him for the expense of his carriage in town, and for his journeys about the diocese. It was customary for bishops in former days." "Hold!" cried the Bishop, "you are quite right, Madame Magloire."



And he made his demand.



Some time afterwards the General Council took this demand under consideration, and voted him an annual sum of three thousand francs, under this heading: Allowance to M. the Bishop for expenses of carriage, expenses of posting, and expenses of pastoral visits.



This provoked a great outcry among the local burgesses; and a senator of the Empire, a former member of the Council of the Five Hundred which favored the 18 Brumaire, and who was provided with a magnificent senatorial office in the vicinity of the town of D----, wrote to M. Bigot de Preameneu, the minister of public worship, a very angry and confidential note on the subject, from which we extract these authentic lines:-- "Expenses of carriage? What can be done with it in a town of less than four thousand inhabitants? Expenses of journeys? What is the use of these trips, in the first place? Next, how can the posting be accomplished in these mountainous parts? There are no roads. No one travels otherwise than on horseback. Even the bridge between Durance and Chateau-Arnoux can barely support ox-teams. These priests are all thus, greedy and avaricious. This man played the good priest when he first came. Now he does like the rest; he must have a carriage and a posting-chaise, he must have luxuries, like the bishops of the olden days. Oh, all this priesthood! Things will not go well, M. le Comte, until the Emperor has freed us from these black-capped rascals. Down with the Pope! [Matters were getting embroiled with Rome.] For my part, I am for Caesar alone." Etc., etc.



On the other hand, this affair afforded great delight to Madame Magloire. "Good," said she to Mademoiselle Baptistine; "Monseigneur began with other people, but he has had to wind up with himself, after all. He has regulated all his charities. Now here are three thousand francs for us! At last!"



That same evening the Bishop wrote out and handed to his sister a memorandum conceived in the following terms:--



EXPENSES OF CARRIAGE AND CIRCUIT.



For furnishing meat soup to the patients in the hospital. 1,500 livres



For the maternity charitable society of Aix . . . . . . . 250 "



For the maternity charitable society of Draguignan . . . 250 "



For foundlings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 "



For orphans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 "



-----



Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,000 "



Such was M. Myriel's budget.



As for the chance episcopal perquisites, the fees for marriage bans, dispensations, private baptisms, sermons, benedictions, of churches or chapels, marriages, etc., the Bishop levied them on the wealthy with all the more asperity, since he bestowed them on the needy.



After a time, offerings of money flowed in. Those who had and those who lacked knocked at M. Myriel's door,--the latter in search of the alms which the former came to deposit. In less than a year the Bishop had become the treasurer of all benevolence and the cashier of all those in distress. Considerable sums of money passed through his hands, but nothing could induce him to make any change whatever in his mode of life, or add anything superfluous to his bare necessities.



Far from it. As there is always more wretchedness below than there is brotherhood above, all was given away, so to speak, before it was received. It was like water on dry soil; no matter how much money he received, he never had any. Then he stripped himself.



The usage being that bishops shall announce their baptismal names at the head of their charges and their pastoral letters, the poor people of the country-side had selected, with a sort of affectionate instinct, among the names and prenomens of their bishop, that which had a meaning for them; and they never called him anything except Monseigneur Bienvenu [Welcome]. We will follow their example, and will also call him thus when we have occasion to name him. Moreover, this appellation pleased him.



"I like that name," said he. "Bienvenu makes up for the Monseigneur."



We do not claim that the portrait herewith presented is probable; we confine ourselves to stating that it resembles the original.





二 米里哀先生改称卞福汝主教



迪涅的主教院是和医院毗连的。



主教院是座广阔壮丽、石料建成的大厦,是巴黎大学神学博士,西摩尔修院院长,一七一二年的迪涅主教亨利·彼惹在前世纪初兴建的。那确是一座华贵的府第。其中一切都具有豪华的气派,主教的私邸,大小客厅,各种房间,相当宽敞的院子,具有佛罗伦萨古代风格的穹窿的回廊,树木苍翠的园子。楼下朝花园的一面,有间富丽堂皇的游廊式的长厅,一七一四年七月二十九日,主教亨利·彼惹曾在那餐厅里公宴过这些要人:



昂布伦亲王??大主教查理·勃吕拉·德·让利斯;



嘉布遣会修士??格拉斯主教安东尼·德·梅吉尼;



法兰西祈祷大师??雷兰群岛圣奥诺雷修院院长菲力浦·德·旺多姆;



梵斯男爵??主教佛朗沙·德·白东·德·格利翁;



格朗代夫贵人??主教凯撒·德·沙白朗·德·福高尔吉尔;



经堂神甫??御前普通宣道士??塞内士贵人??主教让·沙阿兰。



这七个德高望重的人物的画像一直点缀着那间长厅,“一七一四年七月二十九日”这个值得纪念的日子,也用金字刻在厅里的一张白大理石碑上。



那医院却是一所狭隘低陋的房子,只有一层楼,带个小小花园。



主教到任三天以后参观了医院。参观完毕,他恭请那位院长到他家里去。



“院长先生,”他说,“您现在有多少病人?”



“二十六个,我的主教。”



“正和我数过的一样。”主教说。



“那些病床,”院长又说,“彼此靠得太近了,一张挤着一张的。”



“那正是我注意到的。”



“那些病房都只是一些小间,里面的空气很难流通。”



“那正是我感觉到的。”



“并且,即使是在有一线阳光的时候,那园子对刚刚起床的病人们也是很小的。”



“那正是我所见到的。”



“传染病方面,今年我们有过伤寒,两年前,有过疹子,有时多到百来个病人,我们真不知道怎么办。”



“那正是我所想到的。”



“有什么办法呢,我的主教?”院长说,“我们总得将就些。”



那次谈话正是在楼下那间游廊式的餐厅里进行的。



主教沉默了一会,突然转向院长。



“先生,”他说,“您以为,就拿这个厅来说,可以容纳多少床位?”



“主教的餐厅!”惊惶失措的院长喊了起来。



主教把那间厅周围望了一遍,象是在用眼睛测算。



“此地足够容纳二十张病床!”他自言自语地说,随着又提高嗓子,“瞧,院长先生,我告诉您,这里显然有了错误。你们二十六个人住在五六间小屋子里,而我们这儿三个人,却有六十个人的地方。这里有了错误,我告诉您。您来住我的房子,我去住您的。您把我的房子还我。这儿是您的家。”



第二天,那二十六个穷人便安居在主教的府上,主教却住在医院里。



米里哀先生绝没有财产,因为他的家已在革命时期破落了。他的妹子每年领着五百法郎的养老金,正够她个人住在神甫家里的费用。米里哀先生以主教身份从政府领得一万五千法郎的薪俸。在他搬到医院的房子里去住的那天,米里哀先生就一次作出决定,把那笔款分作以下各项用途。我们把他亲手写的一张单子抄在下面。



我的家用分配单



教士培养所津贴一千五百利弗①



传教会津贴一百利弗



孟迪第圣辣匝禄会修士们津贴一百利弗



巴黎外方传教会津贴二百利弗



圣灵会津贴一百五十利弗



圣地宗教团体津贴一百利弗



各慈幼会津贴三百利弗



阿尔勒慈幼会补助费五十利弗



改善监狱用费四百利弗



囚犯抚慰及救济事业费五百利弗



赎免因债入狱的家长费一千利弗



补助本教区学校贫寒教师津贴二千利弗



捐助上阿尔卑斯省义仓一百利弗



迪涅,玛诺斯克,锡斯特龙等地妇女联合会,



贫寒女孩的义务教育费一千五百利弗



穷人救济费六千利弗



本人用费一千利弗



共计 一万五千利弗



①利弗(livre)当时的一种币制,等于一法郎。



米里哀先生在他当迪涅主教的任期中,几乎没有改变过这个分配办法。我们知道,他把这称作“分配了他的家用”。



那种分配是被巴狄斯丁姑娘以绝对服从的态度接受了的。米里哀先生对那位圣女来说,是她的阿哥,同时也是她的主教,是人世间的朋友和宗教中的上司。她爱他,并且极其单纯地敬服他。当他说话时,她俯首恭听;当他行动时,她追随伺候。只有那位女仆马格洛大娘,稍微有些噜苏。我们已经知道,主教只为自己留下一千利弗,和巴狄斯丁姑娘的养老金合并起来,每年才一千五百法郎。两个老妇人和老头儿都在那一千五百法郎里过活。



当镇上有教士来到迪涅时,主教先生还有办法招待他们。



那是由于马格洛大娘的极其节俭和巴狄斯丁姑娘的精打细算。



一天??到迪涅约三个月时,主教说:



“这样下去,我真有些维持不了!”



“当然罗!”马格洛大娘说。“主教大人连省里应给的那笔城区车马费和教区巡视费都没有要来。对从前的那几位主教,原是照例有的。”



“对!”主教说。“您说得对,马格洛大娘。”



他提出了申请。



过了些时候,省务委员会审查了那申请,通过每年给他一笔三千法郎的款子,名义是“主教先生的轿车、邮车和教务巡视津贴”。



这件事使当地的士绅们大嚷起来。有一个帝国元老院①的元老,他从前当过五百人院②的元老,曾经赞助雾月十八日政变①,住在迪涅城附近一座富丽堂皇的元老宅第里,为这件事,他写了一封怨气冲天的密函给宗教大臣皮戈·德·普雷阿麦内先生。我们现在把它的原文节录下来:



“轿车津贴?在一个人口不到四千的城里,有什么用处?邮车和巡视津贴?首先要问这种巡视有什么好处,其次,在这样的山区,怎样走邮车?路都没有。只能骑着马走。从迪朗斯到阿尔努堡的那座桥也只能够走小牛车。所有的神甫全一样,又贪又吝。这一个在到任之初,还象个善良的宗徒。现在却和其他人一样了,他非坐轿车和邮车不行了,他非享受从前那些主教所享受的奢侈品不可了。咳!这些臭神甫!伯爵先生,如果皇上不替我们肃清这些吃教的坏蛋,一切事都好不了。打倒教皇!(当时正和罗马②发生磨擦。)至于我,我只拥护恺撒……”



①指拿破仑帝国的元老院,由二十四人组成,任期是终身的。



②一七九五年十月,代表新兴资产阶级的热月党,根据自己制定的新宪法,由有产者投票选举,成立了元老院(上院)和五百人院(下院)。



①法兰西共和国八年雾月十八日(一七九九年十一月九日),拿破仑发动政变,开始了独裁统治。



②教皇庇护七世于一八○四年到巴黎为拿破仑加冕,后被拘禁在法国,直到拿破仑失败。



在另一方面,这件事却使马格洛大娘大为高兴。



“好了!”她对巴狄斯丁姑娘说。“主教在开始时只顾别人,但结果也非顾自己不可了。他已把他的慈善捐分配停当,这三千法郎总算是我们的了。”



当天晚上,主教写了这样一张单子交给他的妹子。



车马费及巡视津贴



供给住院病人肉汤的津贴一千五百利弗



艾克斯慈幼会的津贴二百五十利弗



德拉吉尼昂慈幼会的津贴二百五十利弗



救济被遗弃的孩子五百利弗



救济孤儿五百利弗



共计三千利弗



以上就是米里哀先生的预算表。



至于主教的额外开支,以及请求提早婚礼费、特许开斋费、婴孩死前洗礼费、宣教费、为教堂或私立小堂祝圣费、行结婚典礼费等等,这位主教都到有钱人身上去取来给穷人;取得紧也给得急。



没有多久,各方捐赠的钱财源源而来。富有的和贫乏的人都来敲米里哀先生的门,后者来请求前者所留下的捐赠。不到一年功夫,主教便成了一切慈善捐的保管人和苦难的援助者。大笔大笔的款项都经过他的手,但没有任何东西能稍稍改变他的生活方式,或使他在他所必需的用品以外增添一点多余的东西。



不但如此,由于社会上层的博爱总敌不过下层的穷苦,我们可以说,所有的钱都早已在收入以前付出了,正好象旱地上的水一样;他白白地收进一些钱,却永远没有余款;于是他从自己身上搜刮起来。



主教们照例把自己的教名全部写在他们的布告和公函头上。当地的穷人,由于一种本能的爱戴,在这位主教的几个名字中,挑选了对他们具有意义的一个,称他为卞福汝①主教。我们也将随时照样用那名字称呼他。并且这个称呼很中他的意。



①卞福汝(Bienvenu)是“欢迎”的意思。



“我喜欢这名称,”他说,“卞福汝赛过主教大人。”



我们并不认为在此地所刻画的形象是逼真的,我们只说它近似而已。

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