What makes a person a scientist？Does he have ways or tools of learning that are different from those of others？The answer is “NO”．It is not what the tools that a scientist uses but how he uses these tools that makes him a scientist.You will probably agree that knowing how to use the power is important to a carpenter (木匠)．You will probably agree，too，that knowing how to investigate (调查)，how to discover information，is important to everyone.The scientist，however，goes one step further，he must be sure that he has a reasonable answer to his questions and that his answer can be confirmed (确认) by other persons.He also works to fit the answers he gets to many questions into a large set of ideas about how the world works.
The scientist’s knowledge must be exact.There is no room for half right or right just half the time.He must be as nearly right as the conditions permit.What works under one set of conditions sometimes must work under the same conditions at other times.If the conditions are different，any changes the scientist observes in a demonstration (演示) must be explained by the changes in the conditions.This is one reason that investigations are important in science.Albert Einstein，who developed the theory of relativity，arrived at this theory through mathematics.The accuracy of his mathematics was later tested through investigations.Einstein’s ideas were shown to be correct.A scientist uses many tools for measurements.Then the measurements are used to make mathematical calculations that may test his investigations.
1．What makes a scientist according to the passage?
A．The tools he uses.
B．His ways of learning.
C．The ways he uses his tools.
D．The different tools.
2．What can we learn from the passage?
A．The scientist’s knowledge is always right under all conditions.
B．When the condition changes，the result of the observation may also change.
C．Condition makes no difference to scientists.
D．There’s no point for ordinary people knowing how to investigate.
3．“The scientist，however，goes one step further，...”the author says this to show ________.
A．the importance of information
B．the importance of thinking
C．the difference between scientists and ordinary people
D．the difference between carpenters and people with other jobs
4．A scientific theory should be one that________.
A．not only works under one set of conditions sometimes，but also works under the same conditions at other times
B．leaves no room for improvement
C．does not allow any change even under different conditions
D．can be used for many purposes
5．What is the main idea of the passage?
A．Scientists are different from ordinary people.
B．The theory of relativity.
C．Exactness is the center of science.
D．Exactness and way of using tools are the keys to the making of a scientist.
1. C 由第一段“It is not what the tools that a scientist uses but how he uses these tools that makes him a scientist.”可知。
2. B 细节理解题。由第二段“If the conditions are different，any changes the scientist observes in a demonstration (演示) must be explained by the changes in the conditions.”可知。
3. C 句意理解题。上文提到了如何调查，如何发现信息对每个人来说都很重要，下文用however引起转折，说明科学家们应该更进一步，他必须确保问题有合理的答案。故此处的the scientist，however，goes one step further，...用来说明科学家和普通人的不同之处。
4. A 细节理解题。由“What works under one set of conditions sometimes must work under the same conditions at other times.”可知答案。
5. D 主旨大意题。本文第一句“What makes a person a scientist？”提出了文章的主题，第一段论述“how a scientist uses these tools makes him a scientist”，第二段论述“The scientist’s knowledge must be exact”，故D正确。其余各项只是文章中的细节。
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