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十种自然界的离奇怪事

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Nature is full of wonder and mystery - and, fortunately for us, bizarre facts! This is our first bizarre facts list of 2009 and will definitely not be the last of one of our most popular topics! I hope you enjoy the facts, and if you have any more of your own to add, please feel free to do so in the comments!
大自然充满了惊奇与神秘,幸运的是,我们可以去探索这些怪异的事实!这是在2009年我们推出的第一份怪异真相列表,并在今后会相继将我们谈论最多的话题编辑推出!我希望你能喜欢,如果您有更多想添加的内容,可随时在评论中发表。

10.Miracle Mice
10.不可思议的小老鼠

Weird Fact: A mouse can fit through a hole the size of a ballpoint pen
怪异的事实: 能钻进圆珠笔洞大小的老鼠

During the summer months, mice will generally live outside and remain contended there. But as soon as the weather begins to cool, they seek the warmth of our homes. Because of their soft skulls and gnawing ability, a hole the size of a ballpoint pen (6mm - 1/4 inch) is large enough for them to enter en masse. Once inside, they will constantly gnaw at virtually anything - including concrete, lead, and plastic. This is to keep their ever-growing teeth at a convenient length. Contrary to popular belief, mice don’t generally like cheese - but will eat it on occasion. Mice can jump up to 46cm (18 inches), swim, and travel vertically or upside-down. To mouse proof your house, check all small openings with a ballpoint pen - if it fits the hole, it will let mice in.
在夏季里,老鼠一般会出来活动,四处争食。但随着天气的慢慢降温,它们就会到我们温暖的房子里来寻求栖息之地。由于它们的头骨很软与啃咬能力较强,一个圆珠笔大小的洞(六毫米- 1/4英寸长)就足够它们钻进去。一旦进入,他们就会不断地咬嚼一切东西,包括混凝土,铅,塑料等。啃咬东西是为了使它们的牙齿生长能达到合适的长度。与流行观念相反,小老鼠一般不喜欢奶酪,但在某些场合它也会吃一点。小老鼠的跳跃距离可达46cm(18英寸),它们会游泳,能直立或倒着行走。要使你的房子里没有小老鼠,用圆珠笔来检查下所有的小洞,如果圆珠笔能放进去的话,那小老鼠就可能钻进去。

9.Square Eyes
9.四角眼

Weird Fact: Unlike most creatures, goats have rectangular pupils
怪异的事实: 与许多动物不一样,山羊的瞳孔是矩形的。

We all imagine pupils to be round - as they are the type we see most often (on humans) - but goats (and most other animals with hoofs) have horizontal slits which are nearly rectangular when dilated. This gives goats vision covering 320 - 340 degrees; this means they can see virtually all around them without having to move (humans have vision covering 160 - 210 degrees). Consequently, animals with rectangular eyes can see better at night due to having larger pupils that can be closed more tightly during the day to restrict light. Interestingly, octopuses also have rectangular pupils.
我们都认为瞳孔是圆形的—它们的形状与我们所见的人类一样。但是山羊(和其他大多数有角的动物)有着水平缝隙,当它张开时就能呈现矩形的模样。这使得山羊视力范围可达320至340度,(人类的视力范围为160至210度)这意味着它们在没有移动的情景下差不多可以看到身边的任何东西。所以,长着四角眼的动物由于其巨大的瞳孔在白天能紧密的闭合在一起阻挡光线使得它们在晚上有很好的分辨力。有趣的是,章鱼同样是四角眼。

8.Blind Horses
8.盲马

Weird Fact: Horses can’t see directly in front of themselves
怪异的事实: 不能直观看到眼前事物的马

A horse has considerably wide vision (and the largest eyes of any land mammal) - being able to see a total field of up to 350 degrees. Horses have two blind spots - the first is directly in front of them and the other is directly behind their head. As far as seeing details, horses are red color blind and have vision of 20/33 (compared to a perfect human vision of 20/20)
马的视野覆盖范围相当广(它的眼睛也是陆生哺乳动物中最大的)能够看到350度开外的地方。它有两个盲点,第一个直接长在它们的前面,另一个就长在头部的正后方。至于要看细节的东西,马是红色盲,其视力为20/33(而正常人的视力为20/20)。

Weird Fact: Rats can’t vomit
怪异的事实: 老鼠不能反胃

Rats can’t vomit or burp because of a limiting wall between their two stomachs and their inability to control the diaphragm muscles needed for the action. Neither rabbits nor guinea pigs can vomit either. This makes rats particularly susceptible to poisoning (hence its popularity in controlling rat infestations). Because of this inability, rats will nibble at food to see if it makes them feel sick (they can’t vomit, but they can feel like they sure as hell want to!) If they don’t feel nausea they will scoff the lot.
老鼠不能反胃或打嗝,因为它们受到了两个胃之间隔离墙的限制和它们不能有效调节横隔膜肌肉来配合行动把吃过的东西吐出来。兔子与豚鼠也不能反胃。这使得老鼠特别容易中毒(因此这是控制鼠患的好方法)。由于它们没有这种功能,老鼠会啃咬一点食品,看是否会使它们有不适的症状,(虽然它们不能反胃,但它们能感觉到是否食用后会丧命)如果没有让它们觉得恶心,它们就会啃掉大半食物。

6.Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla
6.西部低地大猩猩

Weird Fact: The scientific name for a gorilla is “Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla”
怪异的事实: 大猩猩的科学名称是“西部低地大猩猩”。

First off, let us just be clear: this is the scientific name for a particular type of Gorilla - the Western Lowland Gorilla (this is the type you are most likely to see in a zoo - and the most common). For some reason the poor gorillas got stuck with the weird names - if you aren’t a Gorilla gorilla gorilla, you are a Gorilla gorilla diehli, Gorilla beringei beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri. The Bwindi Gorilla (a type of Gorilla beringei) has not yet been given a trinomen - for the sake of fun and to be a little different, I propose it be named Gorilla beringei ChuckNorris. If you didn’t understand this item, don’t worry - I didn’t either!
首先,我们应明确:这是对某一特定类型的大猩猩—西部低地大猩猩(这是一种在动物园你见的最多的—也是最常见的猩猩)的科学称号。由于某种原因,可怜的大猩猩被起了个怪异的名字—如果不是西部低地大猩猩,那就是克罗斯河大猩猩,山地大猩猩或东部低地大猩猩。布温迪大猩猩(山地大猩猩的一种)至今未给予正名,因为它们本身非常有趣与有点儿与众不同,我建议给它命名为查克诺里斯山地大猩猩。如果你对大猩猩了解不多,没有关系—我也一样!

5.Killer Swans
5.杀人天鹅

Weird Fact: A swan can break a man’s arm
怪异的事实: 能弄断人手臂的天鹅

Next time you are feeding the beautiful swans and want to give one a nice pat on the back - don’t do it! Swans are very protective of their young and will use their incredibly powerful wings to fend off dogs (and sometimes humans). They have a wing span of around 2.75 meters (9 feet). In 2001, a young man in Ireland had his leg broken by a swan when he was trying to provoke it. The following year another person had their arm broken.
下次你在给美丽的天鹅喂食时,如果想拍拍它们的背部开开心—请千万不要这样做!天鹅很爱护它们的幼崽,当受到攻击时,它们就会用其强有力的翅膀来把狗挡开(有时对人类也会这样)。它们翅翼展开可达二点七五米(9英尺)。2001年,爱尔兰一名年轻男子在挑逗天鹅时腿被弄成了骨折,次年又有一人的胳膊被弄断。

4.Fragile Spider
4.易碎的蜘蛛

Weird Fact: If you drop a tarantula it will shatter
怪异的事实: 如果你将狼蛛掉在地上,它就会摔成碎片。

First of all, unless you are allergic to tarantula venom, they are harmless to humans (though they pack a painful bite). Some tarantulas can also shoot the “hairs” off their legs which can pierce human skin and cause great discomfort. Now - back to the weird fact. Tarantulas have an exoskeleton (that means its skeleton is on the outside) like crayfish and crabs. They shed their exoskeleton regularly - normally by lying on their back. (When they are shedding their skeleton, it is a good idea to keep right away from them as they will attack due to their vulnerable state.) Because the exoskeleton is very fragile, if a tarantula is dropped from a low height, it will shatter and die.
除非你对狼蛛毒素过敏,要不它们对人体是无害的(尽管它们咬你一口会让你疼痛不已)。有些狼蛛还能使其腿上的“毛”脱落,但这些退掉的毛可以穿透人体的皮肤,让你有非常不舒服的感觉。现在—回到这个怪异的事实上来。狼蛛它有外骨骼(意味着其骨骼是长在外面的)这与小龙虾和螃蟹有点像。它们会定期的蜕换外骨 —蜕骨时通常呈朝天躺在地上的姿态。(在它们在蜕骨时,最好与之保持距离,由于其本身处于脆弱状态所以极易对你发动攻击。)因为它们的外骨骼非常脆弱,因此如果一支狼蛛即便从离地面较低的空中掉下,它也会支离破碎甚至死亡。

3.Scary Spice
3.可怕的香料

Weird Fact: Nutmeg is poisonous
怪异的事实: 肉豆蔻有毒

Nutmeg is a hallucinigenic drug which is regularly used to flavor such lovely things as custard tarts and fruit cakes. It is also a poison which will kill you while you suffer a variety of extremely revolting (and one or two not-so-revolting) side-effects on the way. Ingesting 2 grams of nutmeg will give you similar feelings to having taken amphetamines (the not-so-revolting side-effect) but will also cause nausea, fever, and headaches. Ingesting 7.5 grams will cause convulsions, and eating 10 grams will cause hallucinations. Eating a whole nutmeg can lead to “nutmeg psychosis” which includes feelings of impending doom, confusion, and agitation. There have been two recorded cases of death by nutmeg (one in 1908 and one in 2001).
肉豆蔻是一种致幻剂,通常被用来给蛋挞和水果蛋糕这类点心做调味品。同时它也是一种毒药,如果你患有各种严重呕吐(或许有一两种呕吐情况不那么明显)不适症想接近它的话可能会让你丧命。摄入2克的肉豆蔻会给你一种吸了安非他明(呕吐副作用不强的一种)的感觉,并会引起反胃,发热,头痛症状的出现。摄入七点五克的肉豆蔻会导致痉挛,吃10克就会引起幻觉。把整个吃下去可导致“肉豆蔻精神病” ,会给你濒临死亡,精神错乱,并心情骚动的体会。以有两粒因吃肉豆蔻而导致死亡的记录(一个在1908年,另一个在2001年)。

2.Shaking Leaves
2.会摇动的叶子

Weird Fact: The telegraph plant is capable of rapid movement - even in the absence of wind
怪异的事实: 舞草能在没有风的情况下快速摇动。

The Telegraph plant is a tropical plant usually found in Asia - but also in the South Pacific. The plant has the amazing ability to shake its leaves (which rotate on their axis and jerk up and down). There are a few other plants with rapid movement abilities (such as the venus fly trap) but this is the most bizarre and least known. It should be noted that when we refer to “rapid” in relation to plants - it is not super fast - but it is definitely visible with the naked eye. I have linked to a real-time clip of the plant in action above (apologies for the music - this is not my own clip or it would be far more awesome).
舞草是一种产于亚洲的热带植物—南太平洋也有。这种植物有着近乎神奇的能力使它的叶片摇动,(叶片围绕其茎轴旋转并上下震摇)。很少有其他植物有这种快速摇动枝叶的能力(如捕蝇草),但舞草是最神奇且不为人所知。应当指出的是,我们提到的植物枝叶“快速”摇动—它的速度不是真的很快—只是我们能用肉眼看到而已。我已对处于运动中的该种植物做了实时剪辑的链接(抱歉音乐效果不是很好—因这不是我自己的剪辑片,要不然会让你对它更肃然起敬)。

1.Burning Issue
1.紧急问题

Weird Fact: The Bombardier beetle shoots boiling liquid as a defense mechanism
怪异的事实: 放屁甲虫能释放一种沸腾的液体作为保护机能。

The incredibly complex bombardier beetle has an amazing and unique ability: when threatened it shoots boiling hot chemicals from its abdomen up to 70 times rapidly. The liquid is a combination of hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinones which join together inside the beetle causing a chemical reaction. The liquid is fatal to small insects and creatures and can be very painful to humans. You can watch the incredible reaction in the clip above.
身体结构极其复杂的放屁甲虫有着惊人和独特的能力:当它受到威胁时就会从其腹部迅速(可达70次之多)释放一种沸腾的的化学物质。此液体是过氧化氢和对苯二酚的化合物,它们贮藏在甲虫体内然后产生化学反应。这种液体对一些小的昆虫和生物是致命的,也可以对人来带来痛苦的威胁。在上面的剪辑片中你可以观赏到它令人难以置信的反应。

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