Part I istening Comprehension(20 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each Conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Example: You will hear:
You will read:
A) 2 hours.
B) 3 hours.
C) 4 hours.
D) 5 hours.
From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o'clock in the morning and have to finish by 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) "5 hours" is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.
Sample answer [A] [B] [C] [D]
1. A) Furnished apartments will cost more.
B) The apartment can be furnished easily.
C) The apartment is just what the man is looking for.
D) She can provide the man with the apartment he needs.
2. A) Mr. Johnson's ideas are nonsense.
B) He quite agrees with Mr. Johnson's views.
C) Mr. Johnson is good at expressing his ideas.
D) He shares the woman's views on social welfare.
3. A) Study in a quiet place.
B) Improve her grades gradually.
C) Change the conditions of her dorm.
D) Avoid distractions while studying in her dorm.
4. A) It has been put off.
B) It has been cancelled.
C) It will be held in a different place,
D) It will be rescheduled to attract more participants.
5. A) Janet loves the beautiful landscape of Australia very much.
B) Janet is very much interested in architecture.
C) Janet admires the Sydney Opera House very much.
D) Janet thinks it's a shame for anyone not to visit Australia.
6. A) It is based on a lot of research.
B) It can be finished in a few weeks' time.
C) It has drawn criticism from lots of people.
D) It falls short of her supervisor's expectations.
7.A) Karen is very forgetful.
B) He knows Karen better now.
C) Karen is sure to pass the interview.
D) The woman should have reminded Karen earlier.
8. A) Ask Joe to apologize to the professor for her.
B) Skip the class to prepare for the exam.
C) Tell the professor she's lost her voice.
D) Attend the lecture with the man.
9. A) The man will go in for business fight after high school.
B) The woman is not happy with the man's decision.
C) The man wants to be a business manager.
D) The woman is working in a kindergarten.
10. A) They stay closed until summer comes.
B) They cater chiefly to tourists.
C) They are busy all the year round.
D) They provide quality service to their customers.
Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 11 to 14 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11. A) Classmates. C) Boss and secretary.
B) Colleagues. D) PR representative and client.
12. A) He felt his assignment was tougher than Sue's.
B) His clients complained about his service.
C) He thought the boss was unfair to him.
D) His boss was always finding fault with his work.
13. A) She is unwilling to undertake them.
B) She complains about her bad luck.
C) She always accepts them cheerfully.
D) She takes them on, though reluctantly.
14. A) Sue got promoted. C) Both John and Sue got a raise.
B) John had to quit his job. D) Sue failed to complete her project.
Questions 15 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard.
15. A) By greeting each other very politely.
B) By exchanging their views on public affairs.
C) By displaying their feelings and emotions.
D) By asking each other some personal questions.
16. A) Refrain from showing his feelings. C) Argue fiercely.
B) Express his opinion frankly. D) Yell loudly.
17. A) Getting rich quickly. C) Respecting individual rights.
B) Distinguishing oneself. D) Doing credit to one's community.
Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
18. A) If they don't involve any risks.
B) If they produce predictable side effects.
C) When the urgent need for them arises.
D) When tests show that they are relatively safe.
19. A) Because they are not accustomed to it.
B) Because they are not psychologically prepared for it.
C) Because their genes differ from those who have been tested for it.
D) Because they are less sensitive to it than those who have been tested for it.
20. A) They will have to take ever larger doses.
B) They will become physically impaired.
C) They will suffer from minor discomfort.
D) They will experience a very painful process.
Part II Reading Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
I had an experience some years ago which taught me something about the ways in which people make a bad situation worse by blaming themselves. One January, I had to officiate at two funerals on successive days for two elderly women in my community. Both had died "full of years," as the Bible would say; both yielded to the normal wearing out of the body after a long and full life. Their homes happened to be near each other, so I paid condolence (吊唁) calls on the two families on the same afternoon.
At the first home, the son of the deceased (已故的) woman said to me, "If only I had sent my mother to Florida and gotten her out of this cold and snow, she would be alive today. It's my fault that she died." At the second home, the son of the other deceased woman said, "If only I hadn't insisted on my mother's going to Florida, she would be alive today. That long airplane ride, the abrupt change of climate, was more than she could take. It's my fault that she's dead."
When things don't turn out as we would like them to, it is very tempting to assume that had we done things differently, the story would have had a happier ending. Priests know that any time there is a death, the survivors will feel guilty. Because the course of action they took turned out badly, they believe that the opposite course - keeping Mother at home, postponing the operation ? would have turned out better. After all, how could it have turned out any worse?
There seem to be two elements involved in our readiness to feel guilt. The first is our pressing need to believe that the world makes sense, that there is a cause for every effect and a reason for everything that happens. That leads us to find patterns and connections both where they really exist and where they exist only in our minds.
The second element is the notion that we are the cause of what happens, especially the bad things that happen. It seems to be a short step from believing that every event has a cause to believing that every disaster is our fault. The roots of this feeling may lie in our childhood. Psychologists speak of the infantile myth of omnipotence (万能). A baby comes to think that the world exists to meet his needs, and that he makes everything happen in it. He wakes up in the morning and summons the rest of the world to its tasks. He cries, and someone comes to attend to him. When he is hungry, people feed him, and when he is wet, people change him. Very often, we do not completely outgrow that infantile notion that our wishes cause things to happen.
21. What is said about the two deceased elderly women?
A) They lived out a natural life.
B) They died of exhaustion after the long plane ride.
C) They weren't accustomed to the change in weather.
D) They died due to lack of care by family members.
22. The author had to conduct the two women's funerals probably because ________.
A) he wanted to console the two families
B) he was an official from the community
C) he had great sympathy for the deceased
D) he was priest of the local church
23. People feel guilty for the deaths of their loved ones because ________
A) they couldn't find a better way to express their grief
B) they believe that they were responsible
C) they had neglected the natural course of events
D) they didn't know things often turn out in the opposite direction
24. In the context of the passage, "... the world makes sense" (Line 2, Para, 4) probably means that ________.
A) everything in the world is predetermined
B) the world can be interpreted in different ways
C) there's an explanation for everything in the world
D) we have to be sensible in order to understand the world
25. People have been made to believe since infancy that ________.
A) everybody is at their command
B) life and death is an unsolved mystery
C) every story should have a happy ending
D) their wishes are the cause of everything that happens
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Frustrated with delays in Sacramento, Bay Area officials said Thursday they planned to take matters into their own hands to regulate the region's growing pile of electronic trash.
A San Jose councilwoman and a San Francisco supervisor said they would propose local initiatives aimed at controlling electronic waste if the California law-making body fails to act on two bills stalled in the Assembly~ They are among a growing number of California cities and counties that have expressed the same intention.
Environmentalists and local governments are increasingly concerned about the toxic hazard posed by old electronic devices and the cost of safely recycling those products. An estimated 6 million televisions and computers are stocked in California homes, and an additional 6,000 to 7,000 computers become outdated every day. The machines contain high levels of lead and other hazardous substances, and are already banned from California landfills (垃圾填埋场).
Legislation by Senator Byron Sher would require consumers to pay a recycling fee of up to $30 on every new machine containing a cathode (阴极) ray tube. Used in almost all video monitors and televisions, those devices contain four to eight pounds of lead each. The fees would go toward setting up recycling programs, providing grants to non-profit agencies that reuse the tubes and rewarding manufacturers that encourage recycling.
A separate bill by Los Angeles-area Senator Gloria Romero would require high-tech manufacturers to develop programs to recycle so-called e-waste.
If passed, the measures would put California at the forefront of national efforts to manage the refuse of the electronic age.
But high-tech groups, including the Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group and the American Electronics Association, oppose the measures, arguing that fees of up to $30 will drive consumers to online, out-of-state retailers.
"What really needs to occur is consumer education. Most consumers are unaware they're not supposed to throw computers in the trash," said Roxanne Gould, vice president of government relations for the electronics association.
Computer recycling should be a local effort and part of residential waste collection programs, she added.
Recycling electronic waste is a dangerous and specialized matter, and environmentalists maintain the state must support recycling efforts and ensure that the job isn't contracted to unscrupulous ( 毫无顾忌的 ) junk dealers who send the toxic parts overseas.
"The graveyard of the high-tech revolution is ending up in rural China," said Ted Smith, director of the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. His group is pushing for an amendment to Sher's bill that would prevent the export of e-waste.
26. What step were Bay Area officials going to take regarding e-waste disposal.'?
A) Exert pressure on manufacturers of electronic devices.
B) Lay down relevant local regulations themselves.
C) Lobby the lawmakers of the California Assembly.
D) Rally support to pass the stalled bills.
27. The two bills stalled in the California Assembly both concern ________.
A) regulations on dumping hazardous substances into landfills
B) the sale of used electronic devices to foreign countries
C) the funding of local initiatives to reuse electronic trash
D) the reprocessing of the huge amounts of electronic waste in the state
28. Consumers are not supposed to throw used computers in the trash because __.
A) they contain large amounts of harmful substances
B) this is banned by the California government
C) some parts may be recycled for use elsewhere
D) unscrupulous dealers will retrieve them for profit
29. High-tech groups believe that if an extra $30 is charged on every TV or computer purchased in California, consumers will _______.
A) abandon online shopping
B) buy them from other states
C) strongly protest against such a charge
D) hesitate to upgrade their computers
30. We learn from the passage that much of California's electronic waste has been _
A) collected by non-profit agencies
B) dumped into local landfills
C) exported to foreign countries
D) recycled by computer manufacturers
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Throughout the nation's more than 15,000 school districts, widely differing approaches to teaching science and math have emerged. Though there can be strength in diversity, a new international analysis suggests that this variability has instead contributed to lackluster (平淡的) achievement scores by U.S. children relative to their peers in other developed countries.
Indeed, concludes William H. Schmidt of Michigan State University, who led the new analysis, "no single intellectually coherent vision dominates U.S. educational practice in math or science.'' The reason, he said, "is because the system is deeply and fundamentally flawed."
The new analysis, released this week by the National Science Foundation in Arlington, Va., is based on data collected from about 50 nations as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study.
Not only do approaches to teaching science and math vary among individual U.S. communities, the report finds, but there appears to be little strategic focus within a school district’s curricula, its textbooks, or its teachers' activities. This contrasts sharply with the coordinated national programs of most other countries.
On average, U.S. students study more topics within science and math than their international counterparts do. This creates an educational environment that "is a mile wide and an inch deep," Schmidt notes.
For instance, eighth graders in the United States cover about 33 topics in math versus just 19 in Japan. Among science courses, the international gap is even wider. U.S. curricula for this age level resemble those of a small group of countries including Australia, Thailand, Iceland, and Bulgaria. Schmidt asks whether the United States wants to be classed with these nations, whose educational systems "share our pattern of splintered (支离破碎的) visions" but which are not economic leaders.
The new report "couldn't come at a better time," says Gerald Wheeler, executive director of the National Science Teachers Association in Arlington. "The new National Science Education Standards provide that focused vision," including the call "to do less, but in greater depth."
Implementing the new science standards and their math counterparts will be the challenge, he and Schmidt agree, because the decentralized responsibility for education in the United States requires that any reforms be tailored and instituted one community at a time.
In fact, Schmidt argues, reforms such as these proposed national standards "face an almost impossible task, because even though they are intellectually coherent, each becomes only one more voice in the babble ( 嘈杂声)."
31. According to the passage, the teaching of science and math in America is
A) focused on tapping students' potential
B) characterized by its diversity
C) losing its vitality gradually
D) going downhill in recent years
32. The fundamental flaw of American school education is that ________.
A) it lacks a coordinated national program
B) it sets a very low academic standard for students
C) it relies heavily on the initiative of individual teachers
D) it attaches too much importance to intensive study of school subjects
33. By saying that the U.S. educational environment is "a mile wide and an inch deep" (Line 2, Para. 5), the author means U.S. educational practice ________.
A) lays stress on quality at the expense of quantity
B) offers an environment for comprehensive education
C) encourages learning both in depth and in scope
D) scratches the surface of a wide range of topics
34. The new National Science Education Standards are good news in that they will
A) provide depth to school science education
B) solve most of the problems in school teaching
C) be able to meet the demands of the community
D) quickly dominate U.S. educational practice
35. Putting the new science and math standards into practice will prove difficult because ________.
A) there is always controversy in educational circles
B) not enough educators have realized the necessity for doing so
C) school districts are responsible for making their own decisions
D) many schoolteachers challenge the acceptability of these standards.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
"I've never met a human worth cloning," says cloning expert Mark Westhusin from his lab at Texas A&M University. "It's a stupid endeavor." That's an interesting choice of adjective, coming from a man who has spent millions of dollars trying to clone a 13-year-old dog named Missy. So far, he and his team have not succeeded, though they have cloned two cows and expect to clone a cat soon. They just might succeed in cloning Missy this spring - or perhaps not for another 5 years. It seems the reproductive system of man's best friend is one of the mysteries of modern science.
Westhusin's experience with cloning animals leaves him upset by all this talk of human cloning. In three years of work on the Missy project, using hundreds upon hundreds of dog's eggs, the A&M team has produced only a dozen or so embryos (胚胎) carrying Missy's DNA. None have survived the transfer to a surrogate (代孕的) mother. The wastage of eggs and the many spontaneously aborted fetuses (胎) may be acceptable when you're dealing with cats or bulls, he argues, but not with humans. "Cloning is incredibly inefficient, and also dangerous," he says.
Even so, dog cloning is a commercial opportunity, with a nice research payoff. Ever since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, Westhusin's phone has been ringing with people calling in hopes of duplicating their cats and dogs, cattle and horses. "A lot of people want to clone pets, especially if the price is right," says Westhusin. Cost is no obstacle for Missy's mysterious billionaire owner; he's put up $3.7 million so far to fund A&M's research.
Contrary to some media reports, Missy is not dead. The owner wants a twin to carry on Missy's fine qualities after she does die. The prototype is, by all accounts, athletic, good-natured and supersmart. Missy's master does not expect an exact copy of her. He knows her clone may not have her temperament. In a statement of purpose, Missy's owner and the A&M team say they are "both looking forward to studying the ways that her clones differ from Missy."
Besides cloning a great dog, the project may contribute insight into the old question of nature vs. nurture. It could also lead to the cloning of special rescue dogs and many endangered animals.
However, Westhusin is cautious about his work. He knows that even if he gets a dog pregnant, the offspring, should they survive, will face the problems shown at birth by other cloned animals: abnormalities like immature lungs and heart and weight problems~ "Why would you ever want to clone humans," Westhusin asks, "when we're not even close to getting it worked out in animals yet?"
36. By "stupid endeavor" (Line 2, Para. 1), Westhusin means to say that ________.
A) animal cloning is not worth the effort at all
B) animal cloning is absolutely impractical
C) human cloning should be done selectively
D) human cloning is a foolish undertaking
37. What does the first paragraph tell us about Westhusin's dog cloning project?
A) Its success is already in sight.
B) Its outcome remains uncertain.
C) It is doomed to utter failure.
D) It is progressing smoothly.
38. By cloning Missy, Mark Westhusin hopes to ________.
A) study the possibility of cloning humans
B) search for ways to modify .its temperament
C) examine the reproductive system of the dog species
D) find out the differences between Missy and its clones
39. We learn from the passage that animal clones are likely to have ________.
A) a bad temper C) defective organs
B) immune deficiency D) an abnormal shape
40. It can be seen that present cloning techniques ________.
A) still have a long way to go before reaching maturity
B) have been widely used in saving endangered species
C) provide insight into the question of nature vs. nurture
D) have proved quite adequate for the cloning of humans
Part III Vocabulary(20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41. My grandfather, a retired worker, often ________ the past with a feeling of longing and respect.
A) considers C) contrives
B) contemplates D) contacts
42. Medical students are advised that the wearing of a white coat ________ the acceptance of a professional code of conduct expected of the medical profession.
A) supplements C) signifies
B) simulates D) swears
43. The doctors ________ the newly approved drug into the patient when he was critically ill.
A) injected C) projected
B) ejected D) subjected
44. Apart from philosophical and legal reasons for respecting patients' wishes, there are several practical reasons why doctors should ________ to involve patients in their own medical care decisions.
A) enforce C) endeavor
B) endow D) enhance
45. This is a long ________ - roughly 13 miles down a beautiful valley to the little church below.
A) terrain C) degeneration
B) descent D) tumble
46. She was deeply ________ by the amount of criticism her play received.
A) deported C) involved
B) deprived D) frustrated
47. Some scientists are dubious of the claim that organisms ________ with age as an inevitable outcome of living.
A) depress C) deteriorate
B) default D) degrade
48. Many manufacturers were accused of concentrating too heavily on cost reduction, often at the ________ of the quality of their products.
A) expense C) expansion
B) exposure D) expectation
49. One witness ________ that he'd seen the suspect run out of the bank after it had been robbed.
A) convicted C) retorted
B) conformed D) testified
50. Nothing Helen says is ever ________. She always thinks carefully before she speaks.
A) simultaneous C) spontaneous
B) homogenous D) rigorous
51. She gave ________ directions about the way the rug should be cleaned.
A) explicit C) transient
B) brisk D) opaque
52. It took a lot of imagination to come up with such a(n) ________ plan.
A) inherent C) vigorous
B) ingenious D) exotic
53. A ________ official is one who is irresponsible in his work.
A) timid C) suspicious
B) tedious D) slack
54. Most mathematicians trust their ________ in solving problems and readily admit they would not be able to function without it.
A) conception C) intuition
B) perception D) cognition
55. He had an almost irresistible ________ to talk to the crowd when he entered Hyde Park.
A) impulse C) stimulation
B) instinct D) surge
56. Encouraged by their culture to voice their opinions freely, the Canadians are not afraid to go against the group ________, and will argue their viewpoints enthusiastically, though rarely aggressively.
A) consent C) consensus
B) conscience D) consciousness
57. He still ________ the memory of his carefree childhood spent in that small wooden house of his grandparents'.
A) nourishes C) fancies
B) cherishes D) scans
58. She expressed her strong determination that nothing could ________ her to give up her career as a teacher.
A) induce C) reduce
B) deduce D) attract
59. The microscope and telescope, with their capacity to enlarge, isolate and probe, demonstrate how details can be ________ and separated from the whole.
A) radiated C) prolonged
B) extended D) magnified
60. Lighting can be used not only to create an atmosphere, but also to ________ features of the house, such as ornaments or pictures.
A) highlight C) activate
B) underline D) upgrade
61. By turning this knob to the right you can ________ the sound from the radio.
A) intensify C) enlarge
B) amplify D) reinforce
62. One of the attractive features of the course was the way the practical work had been ________ with the theoretical aspects of the subject.
A) embedded C) integrated
B) embraced D) synthesized
63. They couldn't see a ________ of hope that they would be saved by a passing ship.
A) grain C) slice
B) span D) gleam
64. The traditional markets retain their ________ for the many Chinese who still prefer fresh food like live fish, ducks, chickens over packaged or frozen goods.
A) appeal C) image
B) pledge D) survival
65. ________ efforts are needed in order to finish important but unpleasant tasks.
A) Consecutive C) Perpetual
B) Condensed D) Persistent
66. A number of students ________ in flats, and others live in the nearby holiday resorts, where there is a reasonable supply of competitively priced accommodation.
A) revive C) gather
B) inhabit D) reside
67. He bought his house on the________ plan, paying a certain amount of money each month.
A) division C) installment
B) premium D) fluctuation
68. He could not ________ ignorance as his excuse; he should have known what was happening in
A) petition C) resort
B) plead D) reproach
69. Many ecologists believe that lots of major species in the world are on the________ of extinction.
A) margin C) verge
B) border D) fringe
70. Any salesperson who sells more than the weekly ________ will receive a bonus.
A) ratio C) allocation
B) quota D) portion
Part IV Error Correction(15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank, lf you add a word, put an insertion mark in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash in the blank.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says its ten-year campaign to remove leprosy (麻风病) as a world health problem has been successful. Doctor Brundtland, head of the WHO, says a number of leprosy cases around the world has S1.
been cut of ninety percent during the past ten years. She says S2.
efforts are continuing to complete end the disease. S3.
Leprosy is caused by bacteria spread through liquid from
the nose and mouth. The disease mainly effects the skin and S4.
nerves. However, if leprosy is not treated it can cause permanent
damage for the skin, nerves, eyes, arms or legs. S5.
In 1999, an international campaign began to end leprosy.
The WHO, governments of countries most affected by the
disease, and several other groups are part of the campaign.
This alliance guarantees that all leprosy patients, even they S6.
are poor, have a right to the most modern treatment.
Doctor Brundtland says leprosy is no longer a disease
that requires life-long treatments by medical experts. Instead,
patients can take that is called a multi-drug therapy. This S7.
modern treatment will cure leprosy in 6 to 12 months,
depend on the form of the disease. The treatment combines S8.
several drugs taken daily or once a month. The WHO has
given multi-drug therapy to patients freely for the last five S9.
years. The members of the alliance against leprosy plan to
target the countries which still threatened by leprosy. Among S10
the estimated 600,000 victims around the world, the WHO
believes about 70% are in India. The disease also remains a
problem in Africa and South America.
Part V Writing(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an open letter on behalf of the student union asking people to give help to a student who is seriously ill. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Your Help Needed
PartⅠ Listening Comprehension
1.D) She can provide the man with the apartment he needs
2.B) He quite agrees with Mr. Johnson's views
3.A) Study in a quiet place
4.A) It has been put off
5.C) Janet admires the Sydney Opera House very much
6.D) It falls short of her supervisor's expectations
7.A) Karen is very forgetful
8.B) Skip the class to prepare for the exam
9.C) The man wants to be a business manager
10.B) They cater chiefly to tourists
12.C) He thought the boss was unfair to him
13.C) She always accepts them cheerfully
14.A) Sue got promoted
15.D) By asking each other some personal questions
16.A) Refrain from showing his feelings
17.B) Distinguishing oneself
18.D) When tests show that they are relatively safe
19.C) Because their genes differ from those who have been tested for it
20.A) They will have to take ever larger doses
PartⅡ Reading Comprehension
21.A) They lived out a natural life
22.D) he was priest of the local church
23.B) they believe that they were responsible
24.C) there's an explanation for everything in the world
25.D) their wishes are the cause of everything that happens
26.B) Lay down relevant local regulations themselves
27.D) the reprocessing of the huge amounts of electronic waste in the state
28.A) they contain large amounts of harmful substances
29.B) buy them from other states
30.C) exported to foreign countries
31.B) characterized by its diversity
32.A) it lacks a coordinated national program
33.D) scratches the surface of a wide range of topic
34.A) provide depth to school science education
35.C) school districts are responsible for making their own decisions
36.D) human cloning is a foolish undertaking
37.B) Its outcome remains uncertain
38.D) find out the differences between Missy and its clones
39.C) defective organs
40.A) still have a long way to go before reaching maturity
Part Ⅲ Vocabulary
Part IV Error Correction
S1. a → the
S2. of → by
S3. complete → completely
S4. effects → affects
S5. for → to
S6. even → even if/even though
S7. that → what
S8. depend → depending
S9. freely → free
S10. which → which are
1. M: I’m looking for an unfurnished two-bedroom apartment, but all your apartments are furnished.
W: We can take care of that. We can simply remove the furniture.
Q: What does the woman mean?
2. W: I don’t agree with Mr. Johnson on his views about social welfare. He seems to suggest that the poor are robbing the rich.
M: He might have used better words to express his idea. But I’ve found what he said makes a lot of sense.
Q: What does the man mean?
3.W: I’ve been studying all the time, but I still can’t see any improvement in my grades.
M: Maybe instead of studying in your dorm, you’d better go some place where there are fewer distractions.
Q: What does the man advise the woman to do?
4. W: The seminar originally scheduled for today has been cancelled. The hours I’ve spent preparing for it are totally wasted.
M: Not really. As far as I know it’s been postponed till next week.
Q: What does the man say about the seminar?
5. M: Hi, Janet, I hear you’ve just returned from a tour of Australia. Did you get a chance to visit the Sydney Opera House?
W: Of course I did. It would be a shame for anyone visiting Australia not to see this unique creation in architecture. Its magnificent beauty is simply beyond description.
Q: What do we learn from this conversation?
6. M: Sherry, how are you doing with your thesis?
W: Oh my thesis. That’s something I definitely don’t want to talk about right now. I finished my draft some time ago. But my supervisor said I should do more research if I want to achieve the quality that he expects of me.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation about the woman’s thesis?
7. W: I can’t believe Karen is late for such an importance occasion as a job interview. I reminded her time and again yesterday.
M: You should have known her better by now. Everything you tell her goes in one ear and out the other.
Q: What does the man imply?
8. W: Hi, Joe, I wonder if you could do me a favor and tell the professor I’ve lost my voice. So I can’t attend this morning’s class. I need time to study for tomorrow’s exam.
M: I don’t think it’s wise to say so. Since you’re not going to give the lecture, you might as well simply skip the class and apologize to the professor later.
Q: What will the woman probably do?
9. M: After high school, I’d like to go to college and major in business administration. I really like power and enjoy telling people what to do.
W: You’re very ambitious. But I’d rather spend my college days finding out what children are interested in. Child’s psychology is for me.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
10. M: It seems the restaurants here have little business these days.
W: That’s true. But ours is a scenic resort. And this is not the busy season. When summer comes, you’ll see armies of tourists waiting in line in order to get a seat.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation about the restaurants in the town?
Both John and Sue joined the staff of a successful public relations firm in New York during the same year. They had just completed their PR degrees at a nearby university and were thrilled to be hired by one of the finest PR firms in the city. John’s first assignment was to create a promotion campaign for a client who was putting a new game on the market. Initially Sue was assigned to work with a sportswear company on a marketing concept for its newest line of clothing. As time passed and work with their respective first clients became more and more difficult, John and Sue realized that they had been assigned two of the toughest clients in town. Although John completed his assignments quickly and successfully, he was furious when he learned that the boss had deliberately assigned him a difficult client. In response he not only complained to his colleagues but also to the boss’s secretary. Sue, on the other hand, had a more difficult time satisfying her first client and she took several additional months to actually complete the assignment. However, she just laughed when she heard that the boss had made the assignment purposely. Over the next two years, John worked reluctantly with each assignment and problem that he encountered. Sue accepted each assignment cheerfully. And when problems arose, she responded with her characteristic “No problem, I can handle it.” Although Sue took longer to complete her projects than John and both were equally successful on the assignments they completed, Sue was given the first promotion when there came a vacancy.
11. What’s the relationship between John and Sue now?
12. Why was John was furious after he finished his first assignment?
13. What’s Sue’s attitude to difficult tasks?
14. How does the story end?
American visitors to Eastern Asia are often surprised and puzzled by how Asian cultures and customs differ from those in the United States. What’s considered typical or proper social conduct in one country may be regard as odd, improper or even rude in the other. For example, people from some Eastern Asian countries may begin a conversation with a stranger by asking personal questions about family, home or work. Such questions are thought to be friendly, whereas they might be considered offensive in the United States. On the other hand, people in most Asian cultures are far more guarded about expressing their feelings publicly than most Americans are. Openly displaying annoyance or anger, yelling, arguing loudly and so forth is considered ill-mannered in countries such as Japan. Many Eastern Asians prefer to hold their emotions in check and instead express themselves with great politeness. They try not to be blunt and avoid making direct criticisms. In fact, they often keep their differences of opinion to themselves and merely smile and remain silent rather than engage in a confrontation. By comparison, Americans are often frank about displaying both positive and negative emotions on the street and in other public places. Americans visiting Asia should keep in mind that such behavior may cause offense. A major difference between Americans culture and most Asian cultures is that in Asia, the community is more important than the individual. Most Americans are considered a success when they make a name for themselves.
15. How would some Asians start their conversation when they meet for the first time?
16. What would a Japanese do when he feels annoyed?
17. What is encouraged in American culture according to the passage?
In order for a chemical to be considered a drug, it must have the capacity to affect how the body works. No substance that has the power to do this is completely safe. Drugs are only approved after tests have demonstrated that they are relatively safe when used as directed and when their benefits outweigh their risks. Thus some very dangerous drugs are approved because they are necessary to treat serious illnesses. Many people suffer ill effects from drugs called side effects, even though they take the drug exactly as directed. The human population contains a great variety of genetic variation, but drugs are tested on just a few thousand people. When a particular drug is taken by millions, some people may not respond in a predictable way, even though the drug has been tested. A patient may also acquire a tolerance for a certain drug, which means the patient has to take ever larger doses to produce the desired effect. Tolerance may lead to habituation, in which the person becomes so dependent on the drug that he or she becomes addicted to it. Addition causes severe psychological and physical disturbances when the drug is taken away. Finally, drugs often have unwanted side effects. This usually causes only minor discomfort, such as a skin rash, headache or sleepiness. Certain drugs, however, can produce serious adverse reactions.
18. Under what circumstances are drugs approved?
19. Why do many people suffer side effects from a drug even though they take it as directed?
20. What will happen when patients acquire a tolerance for a certain drug?