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中国驻英国大使傅莹在牛津大学发表演讲(双语)

本文属阅读资料

2009年4月29日,中国驻英国大使傅莹应牛津大学学联之邀在牛津大学发表题为《中国是强国吗》的演讲,200余名牛津学联成员和牛津师生出席。牛津学联是享有世界声望的辩论协会组织,经常邀请各国政要和国际知名人士前往演讲和讨论。这是该协会成立186年来第一次邀请中国政府代表发表演讲。

中国是强国吗?

——在牛津学联的演讲

中华人民共和国驻英国大使 傅莹

2009年4月29日

Is China a Power?

Speech by Ambassador Fu Ying at Oxford Union

29 April 2009

迪克森主席,

各位学联的成员们,

女士们、先生们:

Corey Dixon,

Union Officers and Members,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

感谢邀请我发表演讲。

Thank you for inviting me to speak here.

多年前,我在肯特大学学习国际政治的时候,曾经参加了一个活动,其中包括出席牛津的一场辩论会。记得当时我们提了许多让演讲者很为难的问题,现在轮到我来接受烘烤了。但是我觉得自己有责任回来,为延续牛津良好的学术辩论传统出一份力。

When I was a student of international politics in Kent University many years ago, I took part in a program which included an Oxford Union debate. I remember we gave the speaker very hard time. Now it’s my turn to be on the grill. But I do feel duty bound to come back to contribute to the good tradition of academic debating in Oxford.

我今天演讲的题目是:“中国是强国吗?”

My topic is about China: “is China a power?”

2008年北京奥运会灿烂的烟火,被视为是庆祝中国成为世界强国的礼花。英国皇家国际问题研究所、威尔顿庄园、《金融时报》和《经济学家》,还有不少美国刊物都在谈论中国成为强国的问题。国际上正在形成中国已经成为世界强国的共识。因此,外界对中国的一举一动都高度关注,并且品头论足。

The splendid fireworks of the Beijing Olympics in 2008 are seen as marking China’s ascendance into world power status. Chatham House, Wilton Park, the Financial Times and economist, together with many American publications are all talking about China as a power. An international consensus is emerging that China is a world power. There is therefore a lot of scrutiny about the rights and wrongs in China and what China should and should not do.

美国学者伯格斯滕首先提出中美G2的想法,布热津斯基也认为,中国在国际上排名第二,仅次于美国。欧洲2007年底就有民调显示,80%的受访者认为中国已经是仅次于美国的第二强国。这些都表明,中国正在从国际政治的边缘转向中心。

FRED BERGSTEN (Director of the Peterson Institute for International Economics) first suggested the idea of G2. Brzezinski believed that China is second only to the United States. A survey in Europe at the end of 2007 echoed his view as 80% of respondents believed China has became the number two world power. Clearly China is moving from the margin to the center of the world politics.

外界对于中国将成为什么样的强国也经常表达出强烈的关注。我演讲的时候经常碰到这样的问题:随着中国的日益强大,中国是否会将自己的意志强加于人?

There are some loudly expressed concerns about what kind of power China will become. I am often asked during speech occasions: as China grows stronger, would China impose its will on others?

但是,在中国国内,对“中国是强国吗”这个问题有着完全不同的看法。大部分中国人认为,中国还远远没有达到强国的地位,一个流行的说法是,外界在“忽悠”中国。

But, is China a power? The response of the Chinese people is very different. Most of them see China still as a developing country. A popular saying in Chinese is “HuYou” 忽悠 (meaning sweeping China off its feet).

今年1月,我在中国大使馆举办了一场讨论会,参加的有140多人,除了外交官,还有常驻伦敦的中资企业人士和记者。大家围绕中国的国际地位问题进行了热烈的讨论,这是我经历过最热烈的一场中国人之间的辩论了。

Last January, I hosted a debate in my Embassy. The topic was China’s international status. About 140 people came, including embassy diplomats, business people and journalists stationed in London. It was the most heated debate I’ve had with my fellow Chinese.

一位年轻人首先发言说,中国是世界居二的国家,排位仅次于美国。在场的大部分人不赞成他的意见,人们纷纷发言,列举各种数字和存在的问题,以说明中国只是一个发展中国家。当我问到,有谁赞同他的意见时,只有4个人举起手来,加上他是5个人。也就是说,140个人中不到4%的人与布热津斯基对中国的判断持相同的看法。

A young man kicked off the debate by saying that China is a world power second only to the US. He was challenged by almost the whole crowd. People spoke one after another, citing statistics and problems in China to argue that we are just another developing country. I then asked, who would agree with him? I saw only four hands up. It means only five people, including the gentleman himself were of the view, or less than 4% of the participants shared Brzezinski’s perception.

我于是问,大家认为哪个国家在世界上排名第二位?人们毫不犹豫地说,是俄罗斯。我又问:哪个国家排第三?回答:德国。第四?英国。问到第五的时候,大概有一半的人提到可能是法国,一半的人说可以是中国了。

Then I asked the crowd: which country do you think is the No 2 power in the world? They answered almost without hesitation,“Russia”。 “Which is the third?”“Germany.”“The fourth?”“Great Britain.” When it came to the fifth, some said France some said it could be China.

当然,大家也认为这样简单的排列是不准确的,各国的地位和处境是一个非常复杂的问题。但是,这个讨论在一定程度上能反映中国人的心态。中国和外界对这一问题出现了两种截然不同的认识,孰是孰非?很显然,两方面的观点都能找到事实依据。

Though such generalized way of ranking cannot be an accurate reflection of the complex positions and circumstances of different countries. Yet this discussion can reflect the general thinking of the Chinese people. Are we right, and is the world wrong? There are clearly facts to support both arguments.

多年前,邓小平在介绍中国的时候,曾经用“既大又小、既强又弱”的表述来说明中国的特点。今天的中国仍然如此。外界往往看到中国大和强的一面,而在国内,我们对国家存在的弱点和面临的挑战看得更清楚一些。

Many years ago, when Mr. Deng Xiaoping was summarizing about China with an international visitor, he said, China was both “big and small, strong and weak”。 This still remains true of today’s China. People outside China seem tend to see the big and strong aspects of China, while inside China, we are more aware of its weaknesses and challenges.

我可以用一组中英对比数字来说明一下中国的独特的国情。

Let I compare some statistics about China and UK to illustrate the two dimensions of China.

在GDP总量上,中国2008年跃居为世界第三,并且将很快上升到第二位,而英国则降到了世界第6位。但在人均GDP上,中国只有3000多美元,排第104位,英国大约46,000美元,是中国的15倍,排名第20位。这意味着英国民众的生活水平比中国高得多。

-- China’s GDP has ascended to the 3rd place in the world in 2008, and is expected to rise to No 2 in the near future. UK’s ranking came down to No 6. However, in per capita terms, China has only 3,000US$, its world ranking is No 104 while UK has about 46,000US$, 15 times higher, ranking 20th. This means, UK citizens have a much higher living standard.

中国在商品贸易上是世界第三大贸易国,英国排第8位。但在服务贸易上,英国排名世界第二,而中国的服务业刚刚起步。

-- In terms of trade, China is the third largest in the world, UK is No. 8. However, UK services trade is No 2 in the world and China is just developing the services sector.

到今年3月底,中国的外汇储备是英国的30倍。全球市值最大的10家银行中,中国占4家,英国1家,中国工商银行的市值可以买两个汇丰还要多一些。但是,伦敦是世界金融中心,拥有550家跨国银行和170家国际证券公司,欧洲排名前500位的大公司中,100家总部落户伦敦。

-- By the end of March, China’s foreign currency reserves are 30 times that of UK. Among the 10 biggest banks in the world, 4 are from China and 1 is from UK. The market value of ICBC (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China) can buy two HSBCs and still with a bit of surplus. However, London is a global financial center with about 550 foreign banks and 170 international securities firms. Among the top 500 companies in Europe, 100 set their headquarters in London.

英国早就进入后工业化社会,城镇人口占总人数的90%,而中国还处在工业化、城镇化的早期,60%的人口是农民。在中国还有1.35亿人每天生活费不足1美元。

UK is in a post industrial society and urban residents take up 90% of the population. China is in the early phase of industrialization and urbanization. 60% of the population is rural residents. And 135 million people still live under a dollar a day.

这样的数据还可以列举很多。根据一项调查,80%的中国人不认为中国已经是世界强国。这是毫不奇怪的。中国人常说,家家有本难念的经,其中的复杂性只有家人自己最知晓。在中国这样的人口大国,任何小的困难只要乘以13亿就会成为大难题,任何成就除以13亿就变得微不足道。

The list can go on and on. That is why, as survey shows, 80% of Chinese disagree that we have achieved the status of a global power. As an old Chinese saying goes, only the family members can appreciate the complexities and difficulties within the family. The Chinese Premier once remarked: any small problem in China can grow into a huge one if multiplied by 1.3 billion. A big achievement can become too tiny to notice once divided by that number.

那么,中国的目标是什么?中国人心中的追求又是什么呢?

Then, what is China’s target? What are we trying to achieve?

这个问题不太好一概而论。简而言之,我们希望把中国建设成为一个繁荣昌盛、民主法治的国家,一个在世界上推进和平合作的国家。

It is hard to generalize. To put in a simple term, we are hoping to develop China into a country with prosperity, democracy and rule of law and a country that works for peace and cooperation in the world.

中国人所追求的繁荣就是人人居有其所、幼有所教、病有所医、老有所养的社会。现在,这个目标的实现已经不那么遥远了。

The Chinese pursuit of prosperity is to enable everyone to have a roof over the head, every child in school, the sick having access to medical care and the elderly taken care of. That is now within grasp.

中国历史上第一次摆脱了饥饿。记得在我上大学的时候,人们彼此的问候不是“你好吗”,而是“吃了吗?”温饱曾经是中国家庭和中国政府最关心的大问题。

For the first time in history, people are not dying of hunger in China. Even when I was in college, the greeting words for people meeting each other on the street was not: how are you? But: have you had your meal? Food was the biggest concern of the families and of the government.

但是现在,如果你问我女儿这代人“吃了吗?”,他们会怀疑你是不是有毛病。我遇到一对刚刚从上海回来的美国夫妇,他们说上海的天际线美得如梦如幻。

Now you ask the young people like my daughter: have you had your meal? They would wonder if you have a problem. I met an American couple from the States who just came back from Shanghai and they think the Shanghai skyline is like surreal.

但是中国最大的变化不仅仅发生在上海这样的大城市,而且发生在广大的农村地区。不知道大家有没有注意到,从2006年第一天起,中国政府取消了农业税。在过去长达2600年漫长的岁月里,中国历代封建王朝和后来的许多届政府的主要财政收入都来自于农民的税赋。农业税的取消,标志着中国从农业社会迈入了工业社会。

But the most significant changes in China in not only in big cities like Shanghai, but in the vast rural China. I wonder how many people noticed that in the first day of 2006 China abolished agricultural tax. For 2600 years the central kingdoms and successive governments mainly depended on taxing the farmers. This move marks the transition of China from an agrarian to industrial society.

2007年,随着“村村通”项目的实施,中国绝大多数的村庄实现了通电,很多人第一次用上了电灯。中国有一半的农民看不起病,现在农村合作医疗保障制度覆盖了90%的农村人口。虽然每人只有区区的50元钱,后来长到100元钱,但这却足以让不少农民病有所医。

In 2007, the program of extending power supply to every village, many people saw electric light for the first time in their lives. About half of the rural population in China never went into the hospital for economic reasons. A cooperative medical care scheme now covered 90% of rural China. Albeit small, 50 yuan per person to start with and it has grown to 100 yuan now,    but it has enabled many farmers to be cared of in sickness.

尽管中国的发展还不很平衡,一些农村地区仍然存在贫困的现象,但我们相信,中国走向繁荣的步伐不会停止,老百姓的日子会一年比一年好。

Although the prosperity is not evenly shared and there is still poverty in the countryside, we are confident that the trend of prosperity is going to continue and the people will be better off with each passing year.

讲到中国,就不能不提到中国的民主政治建设。世界往往高估中国的经济成就,而低估中国在政治改革和发展社会主义民主上取得的显着进步。

I can’t talk about China without mentioning the political and democratic development. The world tends to over-estimate the economic progress in China and overlook China’s progress in political reform and socialist democratic development.

来这里演讲前,我在百度上搜索“中国民主政治改革”,不到一秒钟就找到139万个搜索结果。不少人对这个问题提出各种各样的意见,有许多很有意思的分析和建议。

Before coming here, I searched through Baidu, a Chinese search engine “China’s democratic political reform”, I got 1.39 million results in less than a second. There are very different opinions on this subject and some interesting analysis and suggestions.

我本人经历过上世纪60年代文化大革命期间的无政府状态,也见证了改革开放带来的进步,深深体会到中国在加强民主决策、推行法治建设上取得了很大的进步。

For me, having seen the anarchy of the Cultural Revolution of the 60s and having witnessed the progress of the reform, I can see China has come a long way in the development of democratic decision making and the rule of law.

比如,全国人民代表大会在中国的政治生活中发挥着越来越重要的作用。中国231部法律中,223部是在过去30年制定的。全国人大在短短30年里完成的立法,是很多国家耗时几百年才制定出来的。

Take the role of the National People’s Congress for example, it has assumed very important role in China’s political life. Of the 231 pieces of laws in China, 223 were promulgated in the past 30 years. The National People’s Congress is covering huge legislative work that in many countries was done in a span of hundreds of years.

《物权法》发布前在全国范围内进行了创纪录的长达7年的讨论。在《劳动法》的审议过程中,全国人大收到了20万条建议,其中65%来自社会基层。

The property law took a record 7 years of debating through out of the country. When the labor law was debated, the NPC received 200 000 suggestions, 65% came from the grassroots level.

我还记得当外国记者第一次出现在全国人大的会场时,人大代表们是多么的惊讶。现在,采访全国人大会议的外国记者越来越多,今年达到了800人。记者们甚至还可以参加一些会议的讨论并提问。

I remember the first time international journalists appeared during the National People’s Congress, the delegates were quite surprised. Now they come in bigger number, 800 came this year, and they even sit in some of the meetings and asked questions.

正如胡锦涛主席在17大报告中所提出,“让权力在阳光下运行”,民主建设的核心是民主决策。党和政府建立健全了民主决策机制,重大决策出台之前均广泛征求各方意见。

As President Hu Jintao said at the 17th Party Congress: power should operate under the sunshine. At the center of the democratic reform is the decision making process. Both the Party and the Government have set up the structure with which, major decisions are made only after full consultations.

提高人事透明度也是各项改革措施的焦点之一。我有一次在北京拜访科技部,看到门厅里贴着关于人事任命的公示,并欢迎大家提意见。在中国,对所有级别的重要任命都进行这样的公示。

Transparency in the personnel system has also been a focus of constant reform measures. I once visited the Ministry of Science and saw at the entrance hall some big posters about who is going to be promoted and opinions are invited. This is done at all levels and for all important posts.

10年前,中国建立了农村基层选举制度,到2004年底,64,000个村委会通过直接选举产生,85%的村庄成立了村民会议或村民代表会议制度。

Election was introduced at rural level 10 years ago. 64,000 village committees were set up as of the end of 2004, all of them being directly elected. 85% of the villages have set up mechanism for important decisions.

当然,我并不是说中国的民主制度十全十美。胡锦涛主席在中国共产党十七大报告中60多次提到“民主”二字,恰恰表明作为党的总书记他对这个问题的重视和在党和政府内加强民主建设的决心。中国改革之路还在途中,还在不断的变革之中。

However, I am not saying that China has the perfect democratic system. The reason that the President used the term democracy about 60 time, precisely because, as the General Secretary of the Party, he wanted to emphasis the importance and was calling for greater effort to develop democracy in the Party and the government. We are half way through the reform program and everything is still in a transitional process.

正如在北京每年都可以看到新建筑一样,在中国每年在政治上也都有新的发展变化,总的方向是更加公开、更加透明、更加负责任。

Just like you can see new building in Beijing every year, you will also see new political development in China every year. The direction is towards greater openness, transparency and accountability.

在国际上,中国希望发挥鼓励对话与合作的作用,不将自己的意志强加于人或干涉别国内政。

On the international front, the role China wants to play is to encourage dialogue and cooperation. We do not believe in imposing our own will on others, or interfering into other countries internal affairs.

我曾参与朝核问题六方会谈,当时中国是在美国和朝鲜之间进行斡旋。

I was personally involved in the 6-party talks in which China’s role was to mediate between the North Koreans and Americans.

朝鲜认为他们有两个选择,一是发展核武器,一是参加谈判。我们告诉朝鲜,中国不支持他们发展核武器,因为这不利于整个地区的和平。但是,如果他们愿意参加谈判,我们将全力支持。

The North Koreans believed that they had two options: going nuclear or go into negotiations. We said China can not support them going nuclear because it was not in the interest of peace in the region. However, if they accepted negotiation, we would be fully supportive.

我们也明确告诉美国,如果他们想通过军事手段搞政权更迭,我们不赞成,我们只支持和平进程。

We also told the Americans that we were not with them for regime change through military means. We would only take part in a peace process.

实践证明,通过谈判解决问题的道路受到了各方的广泛支持。虽然现在这一道路暂时面临困难,但我相信各方最终还会回到谈判桌上来。

The path to negotiated settlement proved to be the widely supported option for the peninsular issue. Though it is in stalemate now, I am confident that the parties will come back to the negotiating table.

我们把自己在世界上的角色定位为促进和平,因为中国和世界的利益从未如此紧密相联。金融危机再次说明,我们都在同一条船上。正如胡锦涛主席在伦敦金融峰会上指出的,只有同舟共济,才能顺利抵达彼岸。

We see our role in the world as to contribute to peace. China’s interest has never been so closely linked with the world and vice versa. The financial crisis brought home the fact that we are sharing one boat. As the Chinese President remarked at the London summit, only by working together, can we steer the boat to its desired destination.

回到我演讲开始时提出的那个问题:中国是一个强国吗?

Now coming back to the question with which I started the speech, is China a power?

我坚信,中国有着13亿勤劳、智慧和追求幸福生活的人民,注定要成为一个强盛的国家,但是,中国不会成为霸权。

I firmly believe that, China, a country with 1.3 billion, smart, hard working and happy, is destined to be a strong country in the world. But China will not become hegemony.

中国取得今天的成就,不是靠打仗,而是靠广大人民的辛勤劳动和与世界的公平贸易得来的。中国力量的根基在于经济发展。

China has come this far not through war, but through hard work by its vast number of people and through fair trading with the world. The source of the strength of China is in its economy.

因此,中国外交的目标也将是推动世界的和平与合作,唯此中国方能更好地发展经济,使人民过上更加美好的生活。

China’s diplomatic objective is to promote peace and cooperation in the world, in which China can continue to prosper and its people can achieve better life.

谢谢!

Thank you.

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