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(中英文对照)温家宝会见两会中外记者

本文属阅读资料
(中英文对照)温家宝会见两会中外记者

2007年 3月
温家宝总理会见中外记者
Premier Wen Jiabao's Press Conference

温家宝:女士们、先生们、同志们,这是我作为本届政府总理在两会期间的最后一次记者招待会。这次两会受到全国人民的广泛关注,单就互联网上向总理提的问题已经超过100万条,点击的人数超过2600万人次。我昨天浏览了一下,有一个网民写道:总理的心究竟离我们有多近?他在思虑什么?就在昨天下午,我收到了一个代表转来的一所小学学生写给我的信。尽管再忙,我还是用毛笔亲笔给孩子们回了信,鼓励他们茁壮成长。我在网上看到有一个消息,一个政协委员提出关于要建立儿童医疗保险的建议已经四个年头了。我很注意这件事情,立即写了批语。我说,关系孩子们健康的事情应该重视,有关部门要认真研究。

  本届政府工作走过了四个年头,它告诉我们,必须懂得一个真理,这就是政府的一切权力都是人民赋予的,一切属于人民,一切为了人民,一切依靠人民,一切归功于人民。必须秉持一种精神,这就是公仆精神。政府工作人员除了当好人民的公仆以外,没有任何其他权力。必须坚定一个信念,只要解放思想,与时俱进,追求真理,只要坚持改革开放,只要坚持科学发展、和谐发展、和平发展,我们就一定能够把中国建设成为一个富强、民主、文明、和谐的现代化国家。

谢谢大家。

Premier: Ladies and Gentlemen, Comrades, this is my last press conference as the premier of this government during the sessions of the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. People all over China have followed the two Sessions with keen interest. Over one million questions are posted for me on the internet, which have been read by over 26 million people. Yesterday, I browsed a website and came cross this question: How close does the Premier feel to us in his heart? What is on his mind? Yesterday afternoon, I received a letter written to me by pupils from a primary school forwarded by a deputy. Busy as I was, I wrote a letter back to them with a writing brush, wishing them all the best. I also read a news story on the internet that a CPPCC member has put forward a proposal for four years in a row calling for the establishment of medical insurance for children. I took his proposal very seriously and immediately gave written instructions that we need to handle matters concerning children's health on a priority basis and that the competent government authorities should take steps to address this issue.

It has been four years since this Government took office. These four years have taught us one thing: We must be guided by the fundamental principle that all the power of the government is bestowed on us by the people and that all the power belongs to the people. Everything we do should be for the people; we must rely on the people in all our endeavors, and we owe all our achievements to the people. We must uphold the honorable conduct of public servant. Government officials should be good public servants and serve the people. They do not have any other power. We must remain in the conviction that as long as we free our minds, keep pace with the advance of times, seek truth, continue reform and opening up, pursue scientific, harmonious and peaceful development, we will surely turn China into a prosperous, democratic, culturally-advanced, harmonious and modernized country.

Thank you.

华尔街日报记者:我有两个问题。一个问题是现在国际投资者都非常关注中国的股市,您是否认为在过去的两年,中国的股市上涨或者发展过快、过猛?您是否认为普通的投资者现在承担着过大的风险?中国政府打算采取什么样的措施来给股市降温,或者说来调控股市?另外一个问题是有关中国的外汇储备投资的。中国政府提出要建立一个新的投资机构,寻求外汇储备的多元化。我想问的是,中国新成立的这种机构,它将把投资投向哪些具体的资产?

Wall Street Journal: International investors are now very interested in China's stock market. Do you think the rise of the stock market over the past two years went too far too fast? And the average Chinese investors might be risking too much? What measures is your government considering to further cool down or regulate the stock market? And on another topic related to investment. The government has announced plans for a new agency to manage the diversification of China's foreign exchange reserves. Can you tell us what kind of assets this agency will invest in?

温家宝:我关注股市的发展,但更关注股票市场的健康发展。去年以来,我们加强了资本市场的基础性制度建设,特别是成功地推进了股权分置改革,解决了历史上的遗留问题。我们的目标是建立一个成熟的资本市场。这就需要:第一,提高上市公司的质量;第二,建立一个公开、公正、透明的市场体系;第三,加强资本市场的监管,特别是完善法制。最后,要加强股市信息的及时披露,使股民增强防范风险的意识。

  你谈到中国的外汇储备如何使用,这确实是我们面临的一个大问题。从我国的经历来看,外汇少的时候,有少的难处。上世纪90年代的时候,我们因缺少外汇,曾经向国际货币基金组织借,他们只借给我们八亿美元。现在外汇多了,超过一万亿美元了,怎么把它使用好?这又成为我们一个新的难题。

  中国实行外汇储备的多元化,这是基于外汇安全的考虑。我们是要组建一个外汇投资机构,这个机构是超脱于任何部门的,依照国家的法律来经营外汇,有偿使用,接受监管,保值增值。

  中国对外投资时间还短,我们十分缺乏经验。我最近查了一下资料,现在非金融类的对外投资,截至2006年底,只有733亿美元,去年一年新增160亿美元。这同发达国家比起来,简直是微乎其微。

  我知道你提出的问题,是关注我们成立这个公司开展对外投资会不会影响美元资产。在中国的外汇储备当中,美元资产占多数,这是个事实。中国购买美元资产是互利的,中国组建外汇投资公司,不会影响美元资产。

Premier: I follow closely the development of the stock market, and I particularly hope to see its healthy growth. Since last year, we have strengthened the development of institutional infrastructure for the capital market. In particular, we have successfully introduced the reform of listing non-tradable shares of listed companies, thus resolving an outstanding issue. Our goal is to build a mature capital market. To meet this goal, first, we need to improve the performance of listed companies. Second, we need to develop an open, fair and transparent market system. Third, we need to enhance oversight and regulation of the capital market and especially improve the relevant legal framework. Finally, we should see to it that stock market related information is released on a timely basis and make individual stock investors more aware of investment risks.

As to the issue of how to use China's foreign exchange reserves you have mentioned, this is indeed a big issue we face. From our own experience, we know how difficult it could be when we lacked foreign exchange. In the 1990s, China did not have enough foreign exchange, so we borrowed foreign exchange from the IMF. The IMF only lent us 800 million US dollars. Now our foreign exchange reserves have exceeded one trillion US dollars, and how to make good use of them has become a new issue for us.

China practices diversification of its foreign exchange reserves to ensure their security. Yes, we do plan to set up a foreign exchange investment company, and it will not be under any government department. The company will manage the foreign exchange according to law on a paid-use basis. It will be under government oversight and regulation and should preserve and increase the value of the assets.

As it has not been long since China began to make investment overseas, we have little experience in this area. I recently looked at the statistics, which show that as of the end of year 2006, China's overseas investment in the non-financial category was only 73.3 billion US dollars. It increased by 16 billion US dollars last year. Still, it is insignificant in comparison with that of developed countries.

I know by raising this question, you may wonder whether the overseas investment to be made by this newly established company will affect US dollar denominated assets. China's foreign exchange reserves mainly consist of US dollar denominated assets. This is the fact. China's holding of US dollar denominated assets is mutually beneficial in nature. The setting up of a Chinese foreign exchange investment company will not affect the US dollar denominated assets.

人民日报记者:刚才总理介绍了昨天下午给一所小学的小学生写回信,这是民生问题。民生是本次两会代表委员最关心的问题,也是政府工作报告的关键词。这份朴实的报告在民生方面出台了许多新政策,也增加了这方面投入。请问总理,如何在制度上保证这些政策和资金真正落到实处、发挥效益,让百姓得到实惠?

People's Daily: Premier, you just told us that yesterday afternoon you wrote back to primary school pupils. This concerns people's well-being. People's well-being is the biggest concern of the deputies to the two Sessions this year, and it is also the focus of the Report on the Work of the Government. In your report, which is down-to-earth in style, a number of policy initiatives for improving the well-being of the people and increased government input for this purpose are proposed. What systemic measures will be adopted to ensure the effective implementation of these policies and use of financial input so that people will benefit from them?

温家宝:我们改革和建设的最终目的是满足人们日益增长的物质和文化需求,这就需要解决民生问题。民生问题涉及人们的衣食住行,但当前最重要的是促进教育机会的均等,继续实施积极的就业政策,逐步缩小收入分配的差距,建立覆盖城乡的社会保障体系。

  解决民生问题,要有制度的保障。我们免除农业税和农业特产税是立了法的;我们实行免费的九年义务制教育是立了法的;我们将要开始的实行覆盖城乡的低保制度也要用法制保障。我们正在拟定城乡医药卫生体制改革方案,最终也要建立制度。有了制度,就不会轻易改变,就不会因为政府的更替和领导人的变化而发生变化。

  解决民生问题要首先着眼于生活困难群体。因为在中国城乡,生活困难群体占有相当大的比重,特别是农民。一个船队,决定它速度快慢的不是那个航行最快的船只,而是那个最慢的船只。如果我们改善了困难群体的生活状况,也就改善了整个社会的生活状况。

  解决民生问题还要让人民生活得快乐和幸福。这就要保障人民的民主权利,推进社会的公平与正义。记者也许问,什么叫快乐?我可以借用诗人艾青的一句诗:“去问开化的大地,去问解冻的河流。”

Premier: The ultimate goal of our reform and development endeavor is to meet the increasing material and cultural needs of the people. So the well-being of the people needs to be improved. This issue concerns the daily life of the people. The most important thing we should do now is to promote equal opportunity in education, continue the pro-active employment policy, narrow the income gap and build a social security system that covers both urban and rural areas.

To improve people's well-being, we need institutional guarantee. We have legislation on rescinding the agricultural tax and taxes on special agricultural products. We have legislation on nine-year free compulsory education. And we will develop a legal framework for the system of urban and rural basic cost of living allowances to be established. We are drafting a plan to reform the urban and rural medical and health system, and the plan will eventually be institutionalized. Once the institutional arrangements are in place, it will not be easy to change things, and the institutional arrangements will not change simply because of the change of the government or leaders.

In addressing issues related to the well-being of the people, the focus of our efforts should be on the disadvantaged groups, because these groups are fairly large, particularly in rural areas. The speed of a flotilla is not determined by the fastest ship, but the slowest one. Unless the well-being of the disadvantaged groups is improved, the well-being of the whole society won't be improved.

To improve the well-being of the people, we should make people feel happy about their life. To do so, we must ensure people's democratic rights and promote social justice and fairness. You may ask: what do you mean by being happy? Let me quote a line from Ai Qing, a Chinese poet, "Go and ask the thawing land, go and ask the thawing river".

日本NHK电视台记者:我想提两个问题:第一个是日中关系。现在,日中关系面临着改善的时机,同时许多问题还没有得到解决。您认为现在日中关系还有什么不足?在改善这种关系上需要做什么?另外一个是日本公民被绑架问题。中国对这个问题,今后能够发挥什么样的作用?

NHK: I have two questions. The first one is on Japan-China relations. Japan-China relations now have an opportunity for improvement. On the other hand, many problems remain. What needs to be done to improve these relations? My second question is on the abduction of Japanese nationals. What role can China play regarding this issue?

温家宝:中日两国是一衣带水的邻邦。中国有一句古话:“召远在修近,闭祸在除怨。”这是管子的话。在中日两国政府的共同努力下,我们就消除影响两国关系的政治障碍问题达成了共识,这就促成了安倍首相去年10月访问中国。中日两国发展合作关系,世代友好,符合历史潮流,符合人民愿望。虽然现在两国间还存在许多问题,但是已有一个基石,就是三个政治文件。

  中日关系的三个政治文件从政治上、法律上和事实上总结了两国关系的过去,也从长远和战略上,规划了两国关系的未来。我们要坚持这三个文件的精神,以史为鉴,面向未来。如果说安倍首相去年10月访问中国是一次“破冰之旅”,我希望4月份我对日本的访问将成为一次“融冰之旅”。我将和安倍首相就建立中日战略互惠关系的内涵达成共识,并就建立两国经济合作的机制、促进科技教育的交流和人员的往来、特别是青少年的往来进行磋商。我希望中日两国之间能够构建长期稳定、健康发展的友好合作格局。

  至于你提的第二个问题,我们已经多次表示,对于日本公民遭受绑架一事表示同情和理解。但是,这是日本和朝鲜之间的问题。我希望日、朝通过沟通与谈判,能够顺利解决这个问题。

Premier: China and Japan are close neighbors facing each other across a narrow strip of water. As the ancient Chinese philosopher Kuan-tzu observed: "To win distant friends, one needs, first of all, to have good relations with his neighbors. To avoid adversity, one needs to ease animosity." Thanks to the joint efforts of the Chinese and Japanese Governments, agreement was reached on removing the political obstacle to the growth of China-Japan relations. This led to Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's visit to China last October. To promote cooperation between China and Japan and friendship between the two countries from generation to generation is the trend of history and meets the aspiration of our two peoples. It is true that there are still many problems between China and Japan, but there are three political documents between the two countries, and they form the foundation of China-Japan relations.

These three political documents settled the previous China-Japan relations on the political, legal and factual basis. They also set the direction for the growth of China-Japan relations from long-term and strategic perspective. We should adhere to these three documents and take history as a mirror to guide the future growth of bilateral relations. If Prime Minister Abe's visit to China in October last year can be termed as an ice-breaking trip, then I hope my visit to Japan in April will be an ice-thawing journey. I expect to reach agreement with Prime Minister Abe on establishing China-Japan strategic relations of mutual benefit, and I will have talks with him on setting up the economic cooperation mechanism and promoting scientific and educational exchange and mutual visits between the two peoples, especially the young people. I hope China and Japan will work together to ensure the long-term stable and sound growth of a relationship of friendship and cooperation.

As to your second question, we have expressed on many occasions China's sympathy for and understanding of the issue of abduction of Japanese nationals. However, this is an issue between Japan and the DPRK. I hope it can be resolved smoothly through dialogue and negotiation between them.

台湾东森电视台记者:2007年是两岸关系的关键之年,当然现在两岸关系是政治冷,但是民间交流非常热,有越来越多的台商到大陆来。继开放台商包机和推动台湾水果进口之后,台湾民众现在非常关心大陆居民到台湾来观光,请问什么时候开始正式开放和实施?为了进一步推动两岸关系,还有哪些具体措施和构想?2008年也是关键的一年,在北京有奥运,在台湾有大选,对于未来的两岸关系,您的期待和看法是什么?

ETTV (Taiwan): The year 2007 is a crucial year for cross-Straits relations. The political relations across the Taiwan Straits are now cold, but people-to-people exchanges are very active. More and more Taiwan business people are coming to the mainland. Now that chartered flights are opened for Taiwan business people on the mainland and fruits from Taiwan can be sold to the mainland, people in Taiwan are now showing a great interest in the possibility of mainland tourists visiting Taiwan. When will such visits take place? What other steps are you going to take to advance cross-Straits relations? With the upcoming Olympics Games in Beijing and election in Taiwan, the year 2008 is also a crucial year. What is your view on and expectation of the future of cross-Straits relations?

温家宝:这两年是海峡两岸关系十分关键的时刻。关键在哪里?关键在于维护台海的和平与稳定。我在政府工作报告里已经再次重申:我们坚决反对“台湾法理独立”等任何形式的分裂活动。我们密切关注着台湾分裂势力在“**”的道路上所采取的种种行动和他们分裂的图谋。我们绝不允许改变台湾自古以来就是中国领土不可分割的一部分的历史事实和国际公认的法律地位。

  我们将牢牢把握海峡两岸和平发展的主题,继续贯彻和执行有利于两岸关系和平发展的各项政策措施。你说得很对,现在台商来大陆发展的越来越多。去年两岸双边贸易额已经达到1000亿美元,其中台湾向内地出口达到800亿美元。我们将保护台商以及台湾同胞在大陆投资、就学、旅游等各方面的合法利益。我们积极推进全面的、直接的双向的“三通”。首先要解决两岸客运包机周末化的问题和两岸货运包机便捷化的问题。大陆同胞到台湾旅游已经期盼多时了,准备多日了。我们希望早日实现这个愿望。海峡两岸和平发展是大势所趋,是任何人无法改变的。“沉舟侧畔千帆过,病树前头万木春。”

Premier: The years 2007 and 2008 will indeed be crucial for cross-Straits relations. Why? Because they are critical to upholding peace and stability across the Taiwan Straits. In my Report on the Work of the Government, I reiterated our firm opposition to all forms of separatist activities, including "de jure Taiwan independence". We are watching closely the attempts the separatist forces in Taiwan are making for "Taiwan independence". We will never allow any change to the history, reality and universally-recognized legal status of Taiwan, that is, it has been an inalienable part of China's territory since ancient times.

We will make every effort to promote peace and development across the Taiwan Straits and continue to implement policies that are conducive to the peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations. You are right in pointing out that more and more Taiwan business people are coming to the mainland. Last year, the two-way trade reached 100 billion US dollars, 80 billion US dollars of which was Taiwan's export to the mainland. We are firm in protecting the lawful rights and interests of Taiwan businesses and Taiwan compatriots in making investments, studying and traveling on the mainland. We will actively promote comprehensive, direct and two-way links between the two sides, namely "the three direct links". The first priority is to open chartered passenger flights on weekends on a regular basis and simplify procedures for chartered cargo flights between the two sides. People on the mainland have longed to make tourist visits to Taiwan, and much preparation has been made. We hope that their wish can be realized at an early time. Peace and development across the Taiwan Straits represent the trend of the times. This is a trend no one can reverse, as described in a classical Chinese poem: A thousand sails pass by the wrecked ship; ten thousand saplings shoot up beyond the withered tree.

中央电视台记者:刚才总理说除了做公仆,没有其他权力。我想这话不仅是对政府工作人员说的,更是对领导干部说的。我问的问题与此相关,也就是反腐败的话题。最近陈良宇、郑筱萸等案件的查处和披露引起很大的反响。我们也听到了来自观众的声音:一方面大家觉得特别的欣慰,因为加大反腐力度一直是人们所期待的,而另一方面人们很忧虑,为他们看到的腐败现象忧虑。如何有效地遏制一些行政领域权钱交易的现象?

CCTV: You have just said that government officials should work as public servants and do not have any other power. This applies not only to government functionaries, but more to leading officials. My question is about the anti-corruption issue. The investigation and disclosure of cases involving Chen Liangyu and Zheng Xiaoyu have aroused keen public response. We have received a lot of comments from our viewers. On the one hand, people feel relieved because they had hoped stern actions would be taken against corruption. On the other hand, people are disturbed by corruption that they have seen. How can the power-for-money deals in some areas of government administration be effective curbed?

温家宝:应该承认,随着市场经济发展,腐败现象接连不断地发生,在一些部门和地方还比较严重,甚至涉及到许多高级领导人。解决这个问题,首先,要从制度上入手。因为造成腐败的原因是多方面的,其中最为重要的一点,就是权力过于集中,而又得不到有效的制约和监督。这就需要改革我们的制度。要贯彻我们已经制定的行政许可法,减少审批事项。政府部门掌握了大量的行政资源和审批权力,容易滋生权钱交易、以权谋私、官商勾结的腐败现象。第二,要推进政治体制改革。减少权力过分集中的现象,加强人民对政府的监督。今后,凡属审批事项,特别是涉及人民群众利益的,都要公开、公正和透明。第三,要实行教育和惩治并举的方针。让每个干部和领导者懂得“水能载舟,亦能覆舟”。对于那些贪污腐败分子,不管发生在哪个领域,涉及到什么人,不管他职务多高,都要依法严肃惩处。

Premier: There is no denying that with the development of the market economy, corruption has increased. It is quite serious in some sectors and localities. Some of the cases even involve many high-ranking officials. To solve the problem, we need first to address institutional deficiencies. Corruption is caused by many factors, and the most important factor is excessive concentration of power and the lack of effective checks and oversight. This makes it necessary to reform our system. We must implement the Administrative Permit Law that has been enacted and reduce the number of matters that require government approval. When government departments have excessive administrative resources and power of approval, it will give rise to corruption where public officials trade power for money, abuse power for personal gains, or act in collusion with business people. Second, we must promote reform in the political system. We should work to redress concentration of power and enhance public supervision of the government. All the decisions on administrative approval, particularly those concerning the interests of the general public, must be made in an open, fair and transparent way. Third, we should adopt a two pronged approach of both education and punishment. Every cadre and leading official should know that "while water can carry a boat, it can also overturn it." All corrupt officials, no matter who they are, how senior their positions are and in what fields they have committed corruption, must be brought to justice.

法国世界报记者:最近您在《人民日报》发表了一篇文章。您提到社会主义制度和社会主义民主并不是相互排斥的,您同时还说社会主义的初级阶段要经历一百年。请问这是否意味着说,中国在未来的一百年都不需要民主?

Le Monde: Recently in an interview you gave to the People's Daily, you said that socialist system and democratic politics are not mutually exclusive. You also said that an initial stage of socialism will persist for a hundred years. Do you mean by that there will be no democracy in China in the next one hundred years?

温家宝:我这篇文章讲述了一个道理:就是社会主义与民主、法制不是相悖离的。民主、法制、自由、人权、平等、博爱等等,这不是资本主义所特有的,这是全世界在漫长的历史过程中共同形成的文明成果,也是人类共同追求的价值观。我同时强调,世界上有2000多个民族,200多个国家和地区,他们的社会历史文化不同,他们的发展水平不同,实现民主的形式和途径也是不相同的。这种文化的多样性是不以人们的意志为转移的。

  至于你提到社会主义民主是什么?我可以明确地说,社会主义民主归根结底是让人民当家作主,这就需要保障人民的民主选举、民主决策、民主管理和民主监督的权利;就是要创造一种条件,让人民监督和批评政府;就是要在平等、公正和自由的环境下,让每一个人都得到全面的发展;就是要充分发挥人的创造精神和独立思维的能力;就是要实行依法治国,完善法制,建设法治国家。

  我们的社会主义建设,包括社会主义民主政治建设,经验都还不足。我们愿意实行开放政策,学习世界上一切先进的文明成果,结合我们自己的实际,走中国式的民主道路。你说我的文章讲到社会主义初级阶段要经历100年,是否意味着说100年不要民主,这是你误解了。我是讲社会主义由不成熟到成熟、由不完善到完善、由不发达到比较发达,还需要一个很长的过程。在这个阶段中,我们要实现两大任务,推进两大改革。两大任务就是:一是集中精力发展社会生产力;二是推进社会公平与正义,特别是让正义成为社会主义国家制度的首要价值。两大改革是:一是推进以市场为取向的经济体制改革;二是以发展民主政治为目标的政治体制改革。

  民主制度同任何真理一样,都要接受实践的检验,任何国家和地区,民主制度的状况、优劣,都要以实践为检验标准。

Premier: In my article, I made the point that socialism and democracy and rule of law are not mutually exclusive. Democracy, legal system, freedom, human rights, equality and fraternity are not something peculiar to capitalism. Rather, they are the common achievements of human civilization made in the long course of history and the common values pursued by entire mankind. I also emphasized in that article that there are over 2,000 ethnic groups in more than 200 countries and regions in the world. As they differ in social condition, history, culture and the level of development, they achieve democracy in different ways and in different forms. Whether one likes it or not, this cultural diversity is a fact.

You are actually asking what socialist democracy means. Let me be very clear about it: Socialist democracy, in the final analysis, is to enable the people to govern themselves. This means we need to ensure people's rights to democratic election, democratic decision-making, democratic management and democratic oversight. It means we need to create conditions for people to oversee and criticize the government. It means we need to ensure that everyone enjoys all-round development in an equal, fair and free environment and that people's creativity and independent thinking are fully released. It also means that we need to run the country according to law, improve the legal system and strengthen the rule of law.

We still lack experience in socialist development, including the development of socialist democracy. We will continue to follow the opening-up policy, draw on all the achievements of human civilization, and build Chinese democracy in keeping with China's particular conditions. You asked that by saying in my article that the primary stage of socialism will last for a hundred years, whether I mean that there will be no democracy in China in the next one hundred years. You have got me wrong. What I mean is that it will take a long time for the immature, unfledged and underdeveloped socialist system to become mature, full-fledged and developed. During this period, we need to achieve two major tasks and forge ahead with two important reforms. The two major tasks are, first, to make concerted efforts to develop social productivity, and second, to promote social fairness and justice. In particular, we should make justice the core value of the socialist system. The two important reforms are, first, to promote market-oriented reform of the economic system, and second, to promote democracy-oriented reform in the political system.

Democracy, like any other truth, must be put to the test of practice. Only practice can tell whether the democracy practiced in a country or region is good or not.

香港经济日报记者:今年是香港回归祖国十周年。请问总理,对香港回归十年来的表现,您有什么样的评价?我们知道总理一直非常关心香港的情况。请问总理,对香港未来的发展有什么样的希望?在今天大会刚刚通过的政府工作报告里,提到要加快金融体制改革。请问总理,香港作为一个国际金融中心,在我们国家未来的金融体制改革方面可以扮演什么样的角色?

Hong Kong Economic Times: This year marks the 10th anniversary of Hong Kong's return. What is your assessment of Hong Kong's performance in the past 10 years since its return? We know that you care a lot about Hong Kong. What are your expectations of Hong Kong's future growth? In the Report on the Work of the Government just adopted today, you talked about the need to accelerate the reform of the financial system. Hong Kong is an international financial center. What role do you expect Hong Kong to play in the reform of China's financial system?

温家宝:香港回归十年来,确实走过了一条不平凡的道路。这十年来,中央政府坚定不移地贯彻执行“一国两制”、港人治港、高度自治的方针,坚决按基本法办事,没有干预属于香港特别行政区内部的事务。香港特别行政区政府团结香港市民,战胜了亚洲金融风暴等一系列的困难,经济得到稳定、恢复和发展,民生得以改善。

  香港目前正处在一个重要的发展时期。我一直认为,香港背靠祖国、面对世界,有着特殊的区位优势。香港有着世界最自由的经济,广泛的国际联系,有着较为完备的法制和经济管理人才的优势。香港具有的金融中心地位以及航运中心地位、贸易中心地位,是其它地区不可替代的。值此香港回归十年之际,我请你转达对香港同胞的问候,我衷心希望香港更加繁荣,更加开放,更加包容,更加和谐。紫荆花盛开了。今年花儿红,明年花更好!

Premier: In the past 10 years since its return, Hong Kong has made significant strides on the road of advance. Over the past 10 years, the Central Government has faithfully observed the principles of "one country, two systems" and "Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong with a high degree of autonomy", and acted in strict accordance with the Basic Law. It has not intervened in the administration of the Hong Kong SAR Government. The Hong Kong SAR Government has united the Hong Kong people in overcoming a number of difficulties, including the Asian financial turmoil. As a result, Hong Kong has maintained economic stability, recovery and growth and improved the well-being of its people.

Hong Kong is now at a crucial stage of development. It has always been my view that backed by the mainland and facing the world, Hong Kong has a unique geographical advantage. It has the freest economy in the world, extensive links with the rest of the world, a full-fledged legal system and a rich pool of managerial expertise. Hong Kong's position as a financial center, shipping center and trade center is irreplaceable. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Hong Kong's return, I would like to ask you to convey my warm greetings to our Hong Kong compatriots. I sincerely hope that Hong Kong will become more prosperous, open, inclusive and harmonious. The bauhinia flower is in full bloom. The red bauhinia is beautiful this year, and it will be even more beautiful next year.

英国金融时报记者:我的问题是关于中国政府对国内和全球环境保护的政策。为什么中国政府去年没有达到降低能耗和减少污染的目标?具体问题是在哪些方面?有预期说到2009年,中国将成为全球最大的温室气体排放国。中国将来会不会愿意接受国际社会共同确定的温室气体排放目标?

Financial Times: My question is about Chinese Government's policies on domestic and global environment protection. Why did the Chinese Government fail to meet its targets for reducing energy consumption and pollution last year? What are the specific reasons? It has been estimated that by 2009, China will become the world's biggest producer of greenhouse gases. Will China at a certain point in the future accept the greenhouse gas emission target jointly set by the international community?

温家宝:关于我们去年没有完成降耗减排的目标,我在人代会上已经作了充分说明,就今后采取的措施也提出了八个方面。这里我想不再重复了。

  你提的第二个问题,是关于我们对温室气体排放的态度。我们赞成《京都议定书》。虽然我们是一个发展中国家,但是我们还是根据关于温室气体排放的国际公约,制定了中国应对气候变化的国家方案。我们提出:从2006年至2010年,单位GDP的能源消耗降低20%。虽然《京都议定书》对于发展中国家并没有规定必须执行的指标,但是中国政府还是本着对世界负责的态度,认真地履行自己应尽的国际义务。

Premier: I gave a full explanation at the NPC session about why we fell short of meeting the targets for reducing energy consumption and pollutant discharge last year and proposed eight measures to address this issue. So I will not repeat them here.

Your second question is about our position on greenhouse gas emission. We support the Kyoto Protocol. Although China is still a developing country, we have formulated a national program in response to climate change according to the international convention on greenhouse gas emission. We have set a target for cutting energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% in the period of 2006 to 2010. Although the Kyoto Protocol has not set obligatory targets for developing countries, the Chinese Government is acting with a sense of responsibility to the world and is earnestly fulfilling its due international obligations.

中国新闻社记者:中国经济增长已经连续四年超过10%,而通胀率低于3%。这在中国和世界上都是少见的。有专家认为,2007年将是中国经济的一个重要拐点,您对此怎么看待?中国经济当前存在的主要问题是什么?今后还能不能继续保持高增长、低通胀的发展势头?

China News Service: China's growth rate has exceeded 10% while inflation rate has been kept below 3% for four years running. This is rare both in China and the world. Some scholars believe that China's economy will reach a turning point in 2007. What's your view? What do you think are the major problems in China's economy? Will China be able to maintain such a momentum of high growth and low inflation?

温家宝:近些年来,中国经济保持了平稳较快的发展,但无论是过去、现在还是将来,都不必评功摆好。我的脑子里充满了忧患。“名为治平无事,而其实有不测之忧”。中国经济存在着不稳定、不平衡、不协调、不可持续的结构性问题。所谓不稳定,就是投资增长率过高,信贷投放过多,货币流动性过大,外贸和国际收支顺差过高。所谓不平衡,就是城乡之间、地区之间、经济与社会发展之间不平衡。所谓不协调,就是一二三产业不协调,投资与消费之间不协调,经济增长过多地依赖于投资和外贸出口。所谓不可持续,就是我们还没能很好地解决节能降耗问题和生态环境保护问题。这些都是摆在我们面前需要解决的紧迫问题,而且是需要长期努力才能解决的问题。

  我曾经说过,中国已经连续多年保持平稳较快的增长速度,这个势头还能不能继续保持下去?首先,条件是具备的。最重要的是我们能拥有一个较长时间的国际和平环境,集中力量发展经济。其次,是我们拥有一个潜力很大的国内市场需求。但是,能不能做好,关键在于我们的政策和应对能力。今后我们将继续推进扩大国内需求,特别是消费需求;推进改革开放,消除体制和机制上的障碍;推进知识和技术的创新,使经济增长建立在一个坚实的基础上;推进节能降耗和污染减排,使中国的发展能够保持可持续性。实现这个任务,虽然十分艰巨,但是我们抱有信心。

Premier: China's economy has maintained fast yet steady growth in recent years. However, this gives no cause for complacency, neither in the past, nor now, or in the future. My mind is focused on the pressing challenges. "A country that appears peaceful and stable may encounter unexpected crises." There are structural problems in China's economy which cause unsteady, unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development. Unsteady development means overheated investment as well as excessive credit supply and liquidity and surplus in foreign trade and international payments. Unbalanced development means uneven development between urban and rural areas, between different regions and between economic and social development. Uncoordinated development means that there is lack of proper balance between the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors and between investment and consumption. Economic growth is mainly driven by investment and export. Unsustainable development means that we have not done well in saving energy and resources and protecting the environment. All these are pressing problems facing us, which require long-term efforts to resolve.

I have said that China's economy has enjoyed fast yet steady growth for years. Can we sustain this momentum? First, the conditions are there. The most important condition is that we have a fairly long peaceful international environment that enables us to focus on economic development. Second, we have a domestic market with huge potential. However, the key to sustaining the momentum of China's economic growth lies in our ability to pursue the right policies. We will continue to expand domestic demand, especially consumption. We will press ahead with reform and opening up to remove institutional and structural obstacles and enhance knowledge and technology based innovation. All this will lay down a solid foundation for ensuring economic growth. We will further promote energy and resources saving and reduction of pollutant discharge to make economic growth sustainable. The task is a difficult one, but we are confident that we can accomplish it.

德国法兰克福汇报记者:我想问一个有关达赖喇嘛的问题。达赖喇嘛表示希望到中国来朝圣,但是中方有一些官员称,达赖喇嘛一直宣扬“西藏独立”。达赖喇嘛现在已经表明他不寻求“西藏独立”,但为什么中国政府仍然视他为一个民族分裂分子?您是否会允许达赖喇嘛在北京奥运会期间来中国朝圣?

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: The Dalai Lama has expressed the hope to come on a pilgrimage to China. But some officials of your government still accuse him of advocating Tibetan independence. Why does the Chinese Government still see the Dalai Lama as a splittist although he says he does not advocate independence any more? Would you welcome the Dalai Lama on a pilgrimage maybe during the Olympic Games in Beijing?

温家宝:我们对达赖喇嘛的政策是明确和一贯的,只要达赖喇嘛承认西藏是中国不可分割的一部分,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分,放弃分裂活动,那么我们就可以就他个人的前途问题同他进行接触和商谈,这个大门始终是敞开的。

  西藏是中国的一个自治区。大家如果还记得的话,1956年西藏自治区筹建的时候,十四世达赖喇嘛是当时的筹委会主任。但是,现在达赖喇嘛在国外组建“西藏流亡政府”,宣扬西藏的“高度自治”,甚至要求中国的军队从西藏全部撤出,居住在西藏的汉人和其他民族也要全部迁出,人们不难看出:他是真心希望祖国的统一还是在破坏祖国的统一?对达赖喇嘛,我们不仅要看他说些什么,更要看他做些什么。我们希望达赖喇嘛能够为了祖国的统一、西藏的发展多做有益的事情。

Premier: Our policy toward the Dalai Lama is clear and consistent. So long as the Dalai Lama recognizes that Tibet is an inalienable part of China and that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China and stops his separatist activities, we can have contact and discussion with him on his future. The door is always open.

Tibet is an autonomous region of China. If you still remember, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama was the chairman of the preparatory committee for establishing the Tibet Autonomous Region in 1956. But he later set up a so-called "Tibetan Government in Exile" abroad. He calls for "a high degree of autonomy" in Tibet and even demands that all Chinese troops withdraw from Tibet and that all the Han people and other non-Tibetan ethnic groups in Tibet move out. People will naturally ask: Does the Dalai Lama genuinely hope to see a unified China, or is he bent on undermining China's unity? We will not only hear what he has to say; more importantly, we will watch what he does. We hope that the Dalai Lama will do something useful for China's unity and the development of Tibet.

美联社记者:中国在今年进行了反卫星武器的试验,尽管美国和前苏联也进行了这样的试验,但他们在最近的20年里没有再进行这样的试验。这次试验和中国不断加强军事力量这一事实,是否与中国倡导的和平发展相矛盾?

Associated Press: China conducted an anti-satellite test this year. Although the United States and the former Soviet Union did the same in the past, they haven't done so in the last 20 years. Are this test and the fact that China is steadily enhancing its military power consistent with China's advocacy of peaceful development?

温家宝:中国最近进行的空间试验,不针对任何国家,没有威胁任何国家,也不违反有关国际条约。中国主张和平利用太空,反对在太空搞军备竞赛。我愿在这里郑重重申:中国和平利用太空的立场是不变的。而且我还要呼吁,国际上有关国家应尽早谈判签订和平利用外空的有关条约。

  至于说“中国军费不透明”、“中国的太空试验同中国和平发展道路相违背”、“中国对世界是不是有威胁”等等,从这次两会一开始,就不断地有记者提出这个问题。我想回答你两点:第一,中国是一个拥有13亿人口和960万平方公里土地的国家,陆地边界长达2.2万公里,海洋边界长达1.8万公里。我们的军费,无论从绝对数量还是比例大小,在世界上都是居于后位的。这一点不要说是发达国家了,甚至一些发展中国家都超过我们。第二,近代以来,也就是说从1840年鸦片战争以来,中国就遭到帝国主义列强的侵略和压迫。我们这个民族深知遭受奴役、侵略带来的痛苦。我们坚持走和平发展道路是真诚的。我们实行的是防御性的国防政策。我们有限的军事力量,也完全是为了维护祖国的安全、独立和主权。在这个问题上,我们是完全透明的。

Premier: The recent test conducted by China in outer space was not directed against any country. It did not pose a threat to anyone, nor did it violate the relevant international treaties. China stands for the peaceful use of outer space and opposes arms race in outer space. I wish to solemnly reiterate here that China's position on the peaceful use of outer space remains unchanged. I also wish to call on the countries concerned to negotiate and conclude a treaty on the peaceful use of outer space at an early date.

It is alleged that China's military spending lacks transparency, and China's test in outer space runs counter to the road of peaceful development. And questions have also been raised about whether China poses a threat to the world. In fact, these questions have been raised by reporters since this year's NPC and CPPCC sessions opened.

In answering your question, I wish to make two points: First, China has a population of 1.3 billion. It has a land area of 9.6 million square kilometers, with a 22,000-kilometer-long land boundary and an 18,000-kilometer-long coastline. China's military expenditure ranks low in both absolute and relative terms compared with other countries. Even some developing countries are ahead of China in ranking, not to mention developed countries. Second, China suffered from aggression and oppression by imperialist powers in its modern history after the Opium War in 1840. We in China know too well what it meant to be subjected to subjugation and aggression. We are therefore sincere in pursuing peaceful development. Our defense policy is defensive in nature. China's limited military capabilities are solely for upholding China's security, independence and sovereignty. We are very transparent on this issue.
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