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disquisition/[͵diskwi'ziʃən]/ n. 专题论文, 研究, 探讨...

『朱?基总理会见中外记者答记者问』

本文属阅读资料

意大利《24小时太阳报》记者:有人认为,10年以后世界会有3种大货币,美元、欧元,另一个不知道是亚洲的日元还是人民币?你觉得人民币有这个可能性吗?

Some people believe that there will emerge three major currencies in the world.One is the euro,another is the US dollar. Do you think there will be one major currency emerging in Asia?Do you think it will be the Japanese yen or the Chinese renminbi?Do you think there is the possibility for the Chinese renminbi to become one of the major currencies in the world?If so,what measures is the Chinese Government going to take to make that happen?

朱?基答:人民币能否成为世界货币,这个问题不应该由我来回答,而且现在还言之过早。但是我可以说一句:现在人民币非常坚挺,不会贬值。

The question whether the renminbi will become a world currency,in my view,is not a question that should be answered by me and l think it is too ear1y now to discuss this question. What can say is that the renminbi is now very strong and it wiIl not be depreciated.

中央电视台记者:在过去一年中,中国政府经受了严峻的考验,也赢得广泛的赞誉。请问过去一年让你最感困难的是什么,最不满意的是什么,最感动的又是什么? Over the past year,the Chinese Government has witnessed many severe tests and has also won extensive acclaim. My question is what was the most difficult task for you,what were you most dissatisfied with and what touched you the most over the past year?

答:过去的一年我感到非常困难,这个困难超过了我预料的程度。第一,我原来没有估计到亚洲金融危机的影响这么大;第二,我国发生的历史上罕见的特大的洪涝灾害也超出了我的预料。

I think the past year was extremelv difflcult and the difficulties actually were greater than we anticipated. The first reason was that the effect of the Asian financial crisis was more serious than we had expected. And the second reason was that extremelv severe fIooding----which had been rarely seen in history---also caused difficulties greater than we had expected.

但我感到满意的是,我们在以江泽民同志为核心的党中央领导下,依靠全国人民的努力,我们站住了,这两个困难我们都挺过去了。这是不容易的,所以我在政府工作报告中说了一句:“来之不易”呀!

What l am satisfied with over the past year is that,under the leadership of the CentraI Committee of the Communist Party of China with Comrade Jiang Zemin at its core and with the concerted efforts of the entire Chinese people,we have overcome these difficuties and stood rock-solid.I think that this was indeed very difficult.That’s why in my report on the work of the government,I said the achievements really are very hard won.

我所不满意的,是我的工作没有做好。但是,我也感觉到,有个别部门和地区没有很好贯彻中央的方针政策。 What l am dissatisfied with is that l have not done a good job. However,at the same time l also feel that some departments and localities have failed to implement to the letter the policies and measures formulated by the Central Commjttee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council.

我最感动的,是我在抗洪抢险第一线看到我们的人民解放军不顾一切地保卫人民,甚至用身体保卫堤防,我禁不住热泪盈眶。

What touched me most over the past year was what l saw on the forefront of the fight against flooding. I saw People’s Liberation Army soldiers using their bodies to reinforce river embankments and to protect the lives and the safety of the people. When seeing that,I was almost moved to tears.

美国《时代》周刊记者:您再过几天就将访问美国,但是考虑到现在华盛顿出现了一种很不好的反华的情绪,看来您的美国之行就好像您要踏入另一片“雷区”。

Premier Zhu,you are goihg to the United States in a few days,but,given the bad anti-China mood in Washington,it looks like you are going to walk into another minefield.

在华盛顿人们指责中国从事间谍活动,或者是偷窃一些敏感的、高技术的情报用于提高中国自己的军事技术,而这对美国的安全构成了威胁。

They accuse China of spying,of stealing sensitive information---high-tech information which is then used to improve military technology that threatens US securlty.

您对这样的指责作如何的反应?

How do you react to that,to such accusations?

您打算怎样来改变美国人对中国的看法?

What can you do to improve or to change such a perception of China in the United States?

在美国华盛顿有一些政客,他们在要求重新审查美国奉行的对华接触政策,在美国好像不太喜欢中国的情况下,您认为中国还值得把美国当成你们的朋友吗?

Some politicians in Washington are calling for a re-evaluation of the engagement policy with China. Is it worthwhile for you,for Chjna,to befriend the Unjted States even if they do not seem to like you?

答:在中美两国元首实现互访以后,中美之间致力于建立建设性战略伙伴关系,

Since the exchange of visits between the state heads of China and the United States,the two countries have started to work on building a constructive strategic partnership.

中美关系发展势头本来是很好的。

The momentum of the growth of the Sino-US relationship has been quite good.

但是由于种种不讲你们也知道的原因,在美国出现了一种反对中国的潮流,这使我们感到很不安。

However,due to various reasons which I do not see the need to mention here,has emerged an anti-China trend in the United States,which has caused concern from our side.

我不认为我对美国的访问将要进入“地雷阵”,但是确实会遇到很多敌意和不友好的气氛。

I do not think that by paying a visit to the United States l will step into a minefield.But l do expect to encounter some hostile or unfiendly reactIons.

在今年2月22号的business weekly《商业周刊》上登了一篇题为China,what’s going wrong (《中出了什么问题?》)的文章,

In February 22 issue,Business Weekly carried an article titled China,what’s going wrong?This article is very special.

这篇文章十分特别,它认为中国已经大祸临头。

According to that article, it seems as though China is about to encounter a big calamity or insolvency and a major disaster is looming close by.

我还没有看到美国的其他杂志发表过这样的文章。

Actually before that l had never seen an acticle carried by US media describing China like that.

这篇文章的发表也反映了现在美国出现的那一股潮流,实际上是美国的内部斗争把中美关系作为牺牲品。

I think the emergence of such an article reflects the emerging anti-Chjna trend and that the Sino-US relationship has been victimized by partisan politics in the United States.

这样,我也成了一个受害者。这家杂志的封面上登了我的一张照片,这张照片看起来我就像个死人。

I am also a victim, for on the cover of that magazine I was portrayed like a dead person.

在这种气氛中,我应邀访美当然是个很不轻松的任务,很多媒体也预言我的访问不可能成功,但是我还是要去,因为既然你们有气,我就要去给你们消消气。

Under such circumstances,my visit to the US wiIl not be an easy job.According to the prediction of many media organizations,my forthcoming visit is unlikely to be successful. However,I will go anywav to lend them a chance to vent their anger or complaints.

这不是个“地雷阵”,无非是气氛不太好,但我的访问就是要去说明真相,恢复中美致力于建立建设性战略伙伴关系的好势头。

As I just mentioned now,I do not think my visit will lead me into a minefield ,only that l will encounter a negative atmosphere in the United States. By going to the United States l will trv to clarify the truth and also to resume the momentum of developing a constructive strategic partnership between China and the United States.

刚才,你要我说明关于所谓中国盗窃美国军事机密的问题。

Just now you asked me to clarify the truth about the allegation of China stealing US militarv secrets. Now I’d like to answer the question.

我认为,在这个问题上美国方面的人士犯了两个“过低估计”的错误。

To me some people in the United States have made two mistakes.

过低估计了美国自己的保密能力。

One is that the they have underestimated the ability of the United States to guard their secrets.

据我所知,美国洛斯阿拉莫斯实验室里的保密措施十分严密,根本就不可能泄露什么机密,所以直到现在他们没有能够找出那位李文和博士泄露机密的证据,没法起诉他,只好把他解雇了。

To my knowledge,the Los Alamos laboratory has very tight security measures. As each of those working there knows about only a part of a project,it is impossible for them to leak any secrets.Therefore,even now,they have not found any solid evidence to prosecute Dr Wen Ho Lee. They can only fire him.

我们不要忘记历史,

We shall never forget history.

历史上曾经有过这种草木皆兵、人人自危的时期,在美国有过这种时期,

Historically,both China and the United States have experienced such periods when hysteria becomes the norm.

在中国也有过这种时期。就是文化大革命。

A typical example in China is the“cultural revolution.”

过低估计了中国开发军事技术的能力。

Another of fheir rmistakes is that they have underestimated China military research development capabiiities,

中国人是很聪明、很勤奋的,许多华裔美国人的成就就证明了这一点;

The Chinese are intelligent and diligent,as evidenced by many Chinese Americans.

中国独立自主地开发“两弹一星”也证明了这一点。

Also a case in point is that China independently developed its atomic and hydrogen bombs and man- made satellites.

中国完全有能力开发任何的军事技术,

China is fully capable of developing any military technology.

这仅仅是个时间问题。

It is only a matter of time.

但是请记住,中国是最早声明不首先使用核武器的国家。

But please keep in mind that China is the first countrv to declare that not be the first to use nuclear weapons.

我们已经停止了核试验,

Already we have imposed an moratorium on nuclear testing.

我们和美国已经签订了导弹互不瞄准的协议。

We’ve agreed wlth the United States on the mudnon,targeting of missiles ffainst each other.

我们为什么还要冒政治上和道德上的风险去盗窃什么人的军事机密呢?

Why should Chjna take the political and moraI risk of stealing others’ military technology or secrets?

所以,所谓中国盗窃美国的军事机密的问题,可以认为是一种天方夜谭。

The alleged Chinese theft of US military technology is only a fictioh.

台湾人权新闻通讯社记者:1993年下半年开始实施的宏观调控有成效。

Since the introduction of the policy of macro regulation and control in the second half of 1993,such policy has produced four major results.

对付亚洲金融危机有一个很大的截阻作用;

The first result is that it helped China to cope with the Asian financial crisis.

在中国内部使金融市场稳定,物价稳定,社会稳定。

Secondly, it also has exerted three major functions in China,that is stability of the currency,the second is the stability of prices,and the third is social stability.

请问宏观调控今后怎样继续做到内外兼顾?

So my question is jn the course of macro regulation and control by what measures would you take into consideration all these four functions and also in your fiscal and economic policies.

另外,您这次到美国去将面临人权问题,这个问题也可能是一个焦点。请就人权问题提出您的看法。

You are going to visit the United States soon, so l expect the human rights question will become a very important topic during your trip. Would you please give us some of your views on this issue?

答:1993年下半年开始采取加强宏观调控的措施,

It was in l993 that China set up its policy of macro regulation and control.

当时正是中国加大改革开放力度,取得巨大成就的时候。

That was a time when China had achieved great results after the widening of opening up to the outside world and deepening reform.

与此同时也出现了某种程度的过热,就是在房地产、开发区、股票市场方面出现了过热现象。

Meanwhile,there was also some overheating in the economic sector ,mainly in the real estate sector and the stock markets.

这种过热导致1994年通货膨胀达到21.7%。

Such economic overheating resulted in a very high inflation rate of 21.7 per cent in l994.

当时邓小平同志还在世,在他的支持下,以江泽民同志为核心的党中央决定加强宏观调控,

At that time Deng Xiaoping still alive. With his support,and also under the leadership of the CPC CentraI Committee with comrade Jiang Zemin at the core,the decision was made to strengthen macro regulation and control.

采取了16条措施,其中13条是经济措施,有11条是关于金融方面的。

Sixteen measures were adopted,of which l3 were economic measures. And out of the 13 economic measures,11 were related to the banking and financial sector .

由于加强了宏观调控,使中国在两年多一点的时间解决了经济过热问题,改革开放和社会主义建设取得了很大成绩。

Thanks to these 16 measures adopted aimed at strengthening macro regulation and control,within a period of a little more than two years,China successfully resolved the problem of economic overheating and resumed the momentum of economic growth,and also scored great achievements in socialist development..

去年中国之所以能够抵御亚洲金融危机的冲击,就是因为我们在1993年已经发生了这种金融问题, The reason why China had managed to avoid the impact of the Asian financial crisis last year was that it already experienced such a kind of financial crisis in l993.

幸好我们在它还未扩大的时候就把它制止住了。

And, fortunately,we managed to check such financial crisis before it spread.

我们有了宏观调控的经验,才使我们在去年的亚洲金融危机中站得笔直。

And it was precisely because of the accumulated experiece of macro regulation and control that we were able to stand rock- solid last year amid the Asian financial crisis.

我在这里想介绍2月16日《纽约时报》发表的一篇文章,这篇文章意思是说美国在亚洲大力推行资本的过分流动,促成了危机的发生,危机发生后又通过国际金融组织贷款,要一些国家实行紧缩财政、提高利率等并不适合这些国家的政策,结果使金融危机加深。

I’d like to recommend to you a February 16 article in The New York Times titled The.US Would Aid Asia to Let Cash Flow in According to this article,the United States has played a part in promoting the oyerflow of capital in Asia.,that result in the eruption of the crisis in Asia. After the eruption of the crisis, international financial institutions came out to extend loans to these countries while accompanied by some policies which were not approprlate to their national conditions,such as proposals for fiscal austerity and raising interest rates,that actually agravated the crisis.

关于这个问题、这些观点,我早在去年就已经讲过,所有到中国来访问的贵宾,我都给他们讲过,包括你们《时代》杂志2月15日一期封面上的3个人:格林斯潘、鲁宾、萨默斯,你们称之为阻止了世界金融崩溃的3个人。这3个人我去年都跟他们谈过,我想他们也同意我的观点。

I expressed the very same view last year during discussions with many foreign visitors,including Mr Alan Greenspan,Mr Robert Rubin and Lawrence Summers, who were on the cover of the February l5 issue of Time magazine. Time magazine termed them the Three Musketeers who prevented a worldwide financial melt-down. I discussed this question with all these three gentlemen and I believed they agreed with me on that.

我说这些话,并不是想跟《纽约时报》那两位作者分稿费,因为我的这个观点也没有申请专利。

As for me, by mentioning the article,.I do not intend to ask the co-authors of that article to share with me their rovalties for that article,because l didn’t apply patent for my viewpoint.

我只是说,经济的发展、金融的开放必须有宏观调控,

What l want to say is that economlic development and financial liberalization must be accompanied by proper macro regulation and control.

要根据每个国家的具体情况实行不同的宏观调控政策。

And different strategies of macro regulation and control should be adopted according to the specific conditions of different countries.

过快地要求一个国家开放资本市场,过分地扩大资本的流动性,往往欲速不达,很可能破坏这个国家的经济。

To urge a country to liberalize or open its capital market too quickly or to request an overflow of capital in the country would only result in what we call“more haste,less speed” and would only undermine the economy of the country concerned.

刚才还提出了一个人权问题。我想这也是在座很多记者想向我提出的一个问题。

Just now Mr Zhou Yousi also asked the question about human rights,I believe this is also a question of interest to many of you present here today,so l will say a few womds about it.

所有跟我们中国领导人会见的外宾,很少有不谈人权问题的,好像不谈中国的人权问题回去就不好交待。

Actually,of the foreign guests received by Chinese leaders.few failed to mention the question of human rights.It seems that without mentioning the question of human rights thev would find it dillicult to justify themselves after going back.

因此,这个问题在我向他们重复了这么多遍以后,今天实在不想再讲了。

But after so many repetitions regarding this question of human rights,I am really very reluctant to talk about this any more today.

就是美国国务卿奥尔布赖特最近访问中国时,我告诉她一句话。我说:“我参加争取和保障人权运动的历史比你早得多。”她说:“是吗?”

And here I just want to mention one thing,that at my meeting with US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright during her recent visit to China,I told her that l started my struggle for the protection and preservation of human rights much earlier than she did.She asked,“Really?”

表示她不同意我的意见。

That shows she did not quite agree with me.

我就说:“不是吗?”我说:“我比你大10岁,当我冒着生命危险同国民党政权作斗争,参加争取中国的民主、自由、人权运动的时候,你还在上中学呢。”

And then I replied,“Isn’t that the case?” I said I was l0 years older than she is--when l took part in the movement for democracy,freedom and human rights against the Kuomintang government at the cost of my life,she was still in middle school.

我说我们在人权的观点上很多是一致的,

I also said that actually we share many similarities in the viewpoint of human rights.

我在中学学习时就念了法国卢梭写的《社会契约论》、《爱弥尔》、《忏悔录》。人生而平等、天赋人权的观念我早就知道。

When l was in middie school,I had already learned froin textbooks works by Rousseau of France,Emile,Confessions and The SociaI Contract,at all people are born equal and that human rights are endowed by heaven,I have actually learned of such concepts long ago.

我们接受了中国“五四”运动的影响,“五四”运动就是为民主、科学而斗争,所以后来我们在共产党领导下一直是进行着反对专制独裁,反对反动政权侵犯人权的斗争,

We were very much influenced by the May 4th Movement,which was a movement for democracy and science.Then under the leadership of the Communist Party of China,we struggled against dictatorship and also against human rights violations by the reactionary regime.

我们今天怎么可能反过来去压制人权?

So today how possibly could we just reverse our position and suppress human rights?

而且只有我们才知道在中国如何才能够实现保障人权。

And only we know best how we can best preserve and protect human rights in China.

当然,我们在人权问题上并不是没有缺点,也不可能没有缺点。因为中国几千年是封建社会,还有过半封建半殖民地的历史,中华人民共和国成立只有50年,50年怎么可能把所有问题都解决?

But l cannot say that China is perfect in human rights and it is impossible for China to be perfect in this regard,because China has a history of several thousand years of feudal society and also dictatorship.China also experienced a semi-colonial period and that resulted in a colonial mentality. It is only 50 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. How could we possibly resolve all problems accumulated through several thousand years of feudal rule within such a short period of 50 years?

但是我们愿意听取各方面的意见,特别是听取我国人民群众的意见。

But we are willing to solicit views from all sides and our people.

我们天天都在看人民来信,研究怎样满足他们的愿望,实现他们的要求。

We are reading letters from our people everyday and we are doing our best to satisfy their needs.

我们也愿意听取国际友人的意见,因此我们有很多对话的渠道。我们同美国、欧盟、澳大利亚都有人权方面的对话渠道。

We are also willing to listen to the views and comments from friends abroad.We also have al ot of channels for dialogue in human rights areas. For instance, we have diologue with the United States ,the European Union , Australia and so on..

我们在人权方面的工作每天都有进步。

Progress is being made every day on the issue of human rights.

我见到很多国际友人,一见面,就掏出一单子来念,说那些都是被我们逮捕的人,要我们放了他们。中国有12亿5000万人,天天都有犯罪分子,天天都在抓人,我不知道你说的是谁,单子给我去查查好吗?

Sometimes when I have met with friends from abroad ,as soon as we see each other ,they would just take out a list and read the names on the list, saying these are people who have been arrested for the cause of so-called pro-democracy activities and would you release them?And then l would say in China we have i.25 billion people and everv day we have criminal ofenses committed ,everyday we arrest some criminals,would you please give me the list so l can go back and look into that and to find out what is going on?

刚刚闭幕的九届全国人大二次会议通过了宪法修正案,增加了依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家的内容。

The just concluded sessions of congress adopted amendents to the Constitution including the adition to the Constition of rulng the country according to law and also building a socialist legal system. We are doing legislative work every day.

我们全国人大常委会在立法,我们国务院也在立法,国务院立的法叫行政法规。

The Standing Committee of the NationaI People’s Congress is doing legislative work every day.The State Council is drawing up adnministrative rules and regulations everyday.

我们天天在努力健全我国的法制,保障中国人民的人权,我们会继续做下去。

So we are improving our legal system and leslative work every day,and we are doing our job to protect the human rights of the entire Chinese people every day. And we will continue to do so.

我们欢迎外国朋友批评我们的工作,但你不要太急了,我比你还急嘛!

Foreign friends are welcome to criticize us in our job but do not be too impatient.Actually,I am more impatient than you are.

你不要去支持那些民运分子,让他们回来。中国没有法治?没有民主?不是你们想的那样。

Do not support those so-called pro-democracy activists.If these people were to return to China,then there would be no legal system,no democracy,no rule of law in China. There would not be the sitluation as you would imagine.

日本共同社记者:日美两国同意共同研究战区导弹防御系统(TMD),这件事对日中两国友好合作伙伴关系会带来什么负面影响?观察人士说,广东国际信托投资公司倒闭案损害了包括日本在内的外国金融机构对中国的信用,您对此有何评论?还有,您任总理以后第一次访日将于何时实现?

Japan and the United States have agreed to jointly develop the Theatre Missile Defence(THD)system. What negative impact do you think that will have on the friendly relationship and cooperation as well as the partnership between Japan and China?Some observers say that the bankruptcy of China’s Guangdong International Trust & Investment Companv(Gitic)has actually made foreign financial Institutions, including some Japanese ones,lower their credit ratings for China,what is your comment on that?When will your first visit to Japan as premier take place?)

答:我们反对TMD,尤其坚决反对把台湾纳入TMD,因为TMD不但违反了有关导弹的国际协议,也干涉了中国的内政,是对中国主权和领土完整的侵犯。

We are opposed to TMD and we are particularly and firmly opposed to including Taiwan jnto THD,because THD would constitute a violation of international agreements on missiles and an encroachment of China’s sovereignty and territorial jntegrity as well as interference in China;s jnternal affairs.

为什么要搞TMD?据说是因为中国在东南沿海部署了600枚导弹,而过去只有几十枚。我不知道你怎么知道中国部署了600枚导弹,因为连我都不知道!在我们的国土上部署导弹是我们自己的主权,但我们的导弹绝对不会瞄准台湾的兄弟姐妹。我们不会轻易地使用导弹,但我们不能不部署,我们希望和平统一中国,也绝对不能承诺放弃使用武力。如果那样的话,台湾将永远被分离出去。

The reason given for the development of TMD is the allegation that China has deployed 600 missiles along the Taiwan Straits and that in the past only several dozen were deployed there. But I did not know that. How could you know that 600 missiles have been deployed?I did not know that.The deplopment of missiles falls under China’s sovereigntv and these missiles have by no means been targeted at our brothers and sisters in Taiwan. And it is not verv likely that we will use these missiles,or would treat their use very likely and easily. However,we could not but deploy the missiles.We hope to achieve peaceful reunification of the countrv. However,we cannot declare that we renounce the use of force in this regard because otherwise Taiwan would be in a state of perpetual separation from the motherland.

美日建立TMD的另一个理由,就是说朝鲜民主主义人民共和国发射了导弹,在研制核武器,而中国没有对它施加影响。

Another reason given for developing TMD is that the DPRK has launched missiles and js doing research and development on nuclear weapons and that China has not exerted its jnfluence on the DPRK.

我要问:我怎么就不知道它在研制核武器。我们不知道这件事,何况它是一个独立的国家,我们怎么能干预?!

Then I would ask how could you know that,why do I not know that?And how can we exert influence or how can we interfere in the DPRK which is an independent countrv?

Just now l cited two underestimations,but here I think there is an overestimation of the so-called threat.

既然世界上最先进的武器都是从美国出来的,你还害怕什么呀?

As all those advanced weapons origjnate in the United States,then what is the need for the United States to be afraid of that, anything?

关于广信问题,这是大家所关心的。

On the question of Gitic,I think this is also a question of interest to many of the press correspondents here.

广东国际信托投资公司申请破产这件事情,是中国金融改革过程中的一个个别事件。

The application bv Gitic for bankruptcv is an individual case in the course of financjal reform in China.

但是这件事非常重要,它向全世界发出一个信息:中国政府不会为一个金融企业还债,如果这个债务不是由各级政府所担保的话。

But this incident is of great significance for it has sent a signal,a message to the entire world,which is that the Chinese Government wiIl not repay debts for financial institutions jf the debts are not guaranteed by the governments at various levels in China.

这就是说,外国的银行和金融机构对这些金融企业进行贷款时,必须进行风险分析,审慎从事。

That is to say foreign banks and financial institutions need to perform risk analysis and act prudently and cautiously in extending loans to these financial firms.

大多数舆论都认为中国这种做法坚持了金融改革的原则,符合国际惯例。我觉得那些债权银行以及某些金融机构对这个问题的估计太悲观,就是认为中国已经发生了金融危机,没有支付能力,不讲信用。

And I think that the view of dominant public opinion is that this Chinese approach is consistent with the principle of financial reform and international practice.

I think some credit banks and financial institutions have been too pessimistic in their estimation and evaluation of this ncident in believing that China is experiencing a financial crisis and that China has no payment capabilities and that China is no longer creditworthy. I think that is going too far.

中国经济保持快速发展,现在有1465亿美元的外汇储备,国际收支是平衡的,完全有能力偿还债务,问题是这种债务是不是应该由政府来偿还。

China is maintaining rapid economic growth and has foreign exchange reserves of US $1 46.5 billion and also equilibrium in its balance of international payments.So China is fully capable of repay its debts. But the question is whether these debts should be repaid by the government.The answer is, of course,they should not.

同时,我也认为,尽管你破产是合法、合情、合理的,你也不能随便破产,不要破出甜头来,大家都搞破产也不行。

But here l wish to point out that although Gitic’s bankruptcy is lawful,reasonable and fair,one should not assume that one can benefit from the bankruptcy and one should not rush from bankruptcy.

我在中学时念过莎士比亚的《威尼斯商人》,这个剧本里的商人夏洛克借给安东尼奥3000块金币,契约订明如果3个月不还,就要在安东尼奥身体的任何地方割下一磅肉。

When I was in middle school,I read the Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare and that was translated into Chinese as One Pound of Flesh. According to that script,the merchant,Shylock,lent 3,000 ducats to Antonio. Accordjng to the contract thev signed,if Antonio failed to repay the monev in three months,Shylock would have the right to cut one pound of flesh from any part of Antonio.

当然,现在不还债不会割你的肉,但是那个债权银行对你也不会善罢甘休。因此我想,今后不会有太多的金融机构破产,也许就没有了。

Of course,nowadays if one fails to repay debts,he wiIl not face the risk of sacrificing one pound of flesh. But even so,credItor banks wiIl not let you go so easily. So l do not expect to see too many bankruptcies of financial firms in the future and maybe there will be none.

但前提是各个债权银行不要逼债,不要逼它们提前偿还贷款,你逼急了,它就只好破产。

But the precondition is that the creditor banks should not press too hard for debt repayment beforehand or in advance. If you press too hard,they would have no choice but to apply for bankruptcy.

如果大家坐下来按照国际惯例谈一谈,采取资产重组、注资、债权变股权等办法,这个问题是可以得到解决的,你的债务也能得到偿还,它也用不着破产。

If everybody can just sit down and have a discussion according to international practice,for instance to recapitalize the firm or to inject fresh capital into it or to swap the debt into equity,then the problem can be settled and the debts will be repaid and there is no need for the firm concerned to apply for bankruptcy.

你刚才说,这件事影响了一些日本银行的债务,我感到遗憾。但我想大家如果共同努力的话,今后可能不会再发生这样的事情了。

I regret that this problem has somewhat affected some Japanese banks. But l guess maybe there wiIl no longer be such a situation in the future,provided that we make joint efferts.

关于访日问题,去年是中日和平友好条约缔结20周年,江泽民主席对日本进行了成功的国事访问,双方本着“以史为鉴、面向未来”的精神,宣布建立致力于和平与发展的友好合作伙伴关系,这是符合中日两国人民根本利益的。

Now about your question concerning my visit to Japan. Last year was the 20th anniversary of the signing of Sino-Japanese Treaty on Peace and Friendship. President Jiang Zemin paid a state visit to Japan and the two sides agreed to take history as a guide and to work to establish a friendly relationship and co-operation for peace and development between China and Japan,I think this serves the fundamental interests of both China and Japan.

如何落实这一联合声明,中国将尽自己的努力,我也很愿意来做具体落实的工作。至于我何时能够访问日本,要通过外交途径来商量。

As for how to implement the joint statements signed between the two sides, the Chinese side will do its utmost and I personally am ready to do my part in this regard.But as to when l will pav a visit to Japan,that can be discussed through diplomatic channels.)

俄罗斯《独立报》记者:一些观察人士说,现在涉及到重大战略性的国际事务中,似乎只有俄罗斯在支持中国。

Some observers say that it seems that Russia right now is supporting China in the most strategic and important international affairs. The most obvious fact may be the position of Russia and China on TMD.

最明显的一个例子是,中国在反对战区导弹防御系统上与俄罗斯立场非常近似。

Does mean that someday China would like to adopt and to take more practical and specific measures to respond to TMD with Russia?

你是否会料想有朝一日中国在反对战区导弹防御系统方面,会与俄罗斯共同采取更加实际、更加具体的措施?

And does it mean that someday China would be much more closer to Russia than to the United States in international affairs?

如果那样,你是否认为在国际事务中,中国将会与俄罗斯靠得更近,而不是与美国靠得更近。还有,在实施俄中签署的一系列有关文件特别是经贸协议方面,你认为俄罗斯是否有足够能力实施这些协议?

Mr Prime Minister,do you think that Russia will be able to fulfill its obligations to China in accordance with the documents signed between the countries,especially in economics?

答:最近我应普里马科夫总理邀请访问俄罗斯,并进行了第四次中俄总理会晤。

At the invitation of Prime Minister of Yevgeny Primakov, I recently went to Russia for the fifth regular meeting between the Chinese Premier and the Russian Prime Mjnister.

这次会晤是为了落实江泽民主席和叶利钦总统关于建立中俄战略协作伙伴关系的要求所涉及的具体内容。

The purpose of the meeting was to realize the agreement as well the projects signed by President Jjang Zemin and President Boris Yeltsin which were aimed at building a strategic partnership of co-ordination between China and Russia.

我们取得了很多成果,主要是在经济贸易合作方面签订了10几个协定。

We made a very sjgnificant achievement, mainly in the field of economic co-operation and trade. We signed more than l0 agreements in this field,wliich is unprecedented.

俄罗斯支持中国反对TMD,但这并不是说,而且也没有到研究如何对付TMD的时候,因此我们没有谈到这个问题。

It is true that Russia supports China on its stand against TMD,but we’ve not discussed how to respond to TMD.

我认为中国与美国的关系到目前为止还是很好的,双方致力于建立建设性的战略伙伴关系。我们中国与俄罗斯的关系也是很好的,双方建立了战略协作伙伴关系。

In my opinion,our relationship with the United States has been very good so far. We are still engaged in developing a constructive and strategic partnership.So is our relationship with Russia. The two sides are working on building a strategic partnership of co-ordination.

我可以告诉大家一个秘密:我确实在俄罗斯受到了热烈的欢迎。

I can reveal a secret to you. I receive a very warm welcome in Russia.

你们从电视里看到,叶利钦总统同我会见的时候把我的手拉过去放在他的胸口上,会谈结束时,还有一个你们没有看见,因为那时候记者已经退出去了。叶利钦走过来,把我紧紧抱住,我们两人贴脸啦!

As you can see on TV,while meeting with me, President Yeltsin put my hand on his chest.Do youk now what he uttered to me?He told me that just as President Jiang Zemin is his best friend, I am also his best friend.As one belondng to a people known for its courtesy,I also put his hand on mv chest and told him that we Chinese are his trustworthv friends. In another scene you did not see,when the camera men had already left,PresidentYeltsin walked to me and hugged me,putting his cheek to mine.

我想这无非是说明我们是真诚的朋友。

I view this as an indication of true friendship.

我想我这一次访问美国,也会受到同样的接待,会受到热烈的欢迎,而不是去闯“地雷阵”。也许我跟克林顿总统不会拥抱,但可能握手握得很紧,这也是一样的意思。

l believe that upon my visit to the United States l will receive the same warm reception. I do not think I will step into a minefield.

May be President Bill Clinton and l wiIl not necessarity hug each other,but we can shake each other’s hands very firnlly,which might be no less than a strong indication of true friendship.

香港凤凰卫视记者:我的问题跟香港的生活与投资有关。打个比方,如果我在香港打个电话给美国总统克林顿,每分钟只要0.98港元,要是我打电话给您,每分钟就要9.8港元,是10倍的价钱。这次发现从北京打电话回香港,每分钟从原来的8.1元降到了5元。我们知道通过竞争可以降低通话费用,提高服务质量。请问总理,您用什么样的方法可以加快中国电信市场的竞争步伐?还有,现在一些外资银行已经可以经营人民币业务了,那么您认为大概最快什么时候可以全面开放人民币的业务经营?

My question is closely related to the life of and investment by Hong Kong people. If said, I placed a phone call in Hong Kong to President Clinton of the US,it would cost me HK$0.98 per minute.Sut if I placed the call to you in Beijing ,it would cost me HK$9.8,ten times as much.This time when I came to Beijing for thess sessions,I found thati if I placed the phone call from Beijing to Hong Kong,the cost has been reduced from 8.1 yuan to 5 yuan per minute. This shows that competition can help reduce the cost of the phone calls and also can help improve the quality of services. So my question is what measures do you plan to adopt to accelerate the competition in the telecommunications sector in China?My second question is some foreign banks are now already allowed to be engaged in renminbi business,so how soon wiII China totally open renminbi business to foreign banks?

答:中国电信业务正在降价,降得还不够,还要继续降价,办法就是引进竞争。首先,我们正在改革中国电信业体制,一个重要原则就是打破垄断,鼓励竞争。第二,有步骤地开放中国的电信市场,让外国资本进入中国的电信市场。

Indeed,China Telecom is reducing prices. But l do not think the reduction is far enough. I think the price should be reduced continuously and over several times.The way for that is to introduce competition.Now we are reforming the system of China’s telecommunications industrv and trying to break the monopoly and encourage competition. Secondly,we should open the Chinese telecommunications market to foreign investors.

我们也将让外国银行在中国经营人民币业务。具体的细节现在没法谈,反正是要逐步开放。香港银行家赶快申请,申请得越早,批准得越快。

And we will also open renminbi busihess to foreign banks in Chna. But as for details, I am not in the position to talk about them here and now. The general principle is we will open up. So Hong Kong bankers should apply immediately. The earlier you apply,the sooner you will get approval.

英国《金融时报》记者:在您访问美国期间或是在访问美国之后几个月,中美在有关中国加入世贸组织方面,达成协议的可能性有多大?考虑到现在中美之间的关系有所恶化,中美之间达成协议的可能性是增加了还是减少了?另外,在中国看来,开放市场、引入外国的竞争,最困难的是哪些领域?

Could you tell us what the chances are China and the United States to reach an agreement on China’s entry into the WTO either when you visit Washington or sometime later in the month following?Are these chances increased or reduced by the current deterioration in relations between China and the United States ? Are what are the main areas of difficulty from China’s point of view in opening your market to foreign competition?

答:中国进行恢复GATT(关贸总协定)的地位和进入WTO(世贸组织),已经谈判了13年,黑头发都谈成了白头发了,该结束这个谈判了。现在存在这种机遇。

Thirteen years have passed since China started its negotiations first for resuming contracting-party status in Gatt and then for applying for WTO membership.The black hair has turned grey. So now it is time to conclude such negotiations.Now for that there are conditions and possibilities.

是加入了WTO的国家知道没有中国的参加,WTO就没有代表性,就是忽视了中国这个潜在的最大市场。

First,the WTO member states have come to realize that a WTO without China will not be representative enough and that the WTO would have neglected China,the 1argest potential market in the world.

是中国改革开放的深入和积累的经验,使我们对加入WTO的条件所可能带来的一些问题提高了监管能力和承受能力。

Second,with the deepening of reform and opening wider to the outside world as well as the accumulation of experience in this regard,China has alreadv strengthened its supervision and regulation as well as its capability and sustainability with regard to some problems that could arise after China joins the WTO.

因此,中国也准备作出最大的让步。

So China is prepared to make the biggest concessions within its abilities.

最近,我们与美国以及欧盟等国家进行了认真的谈判,双方的差距正在缩小,但是还有相当大的差距。

Recently China conducted serious negotiations with the United States and the European Union in this regard.The gap between the positions of China and its partners is narrowing. But there remains a considerable gap.

只要双方从大局出发,从促进国际市场的繁荣和稳定出发,大家都作一点让步,那么达成协议很有希望的。

As long as the two sides can make concessions based on the larger interest and out of,the large interest of promoting prosperity and stabilitv in respect of the world market and trade.I am very hopeful that we will be able to reach an agreement.

1998年3月19日,新任中国总理朱?基在人民大会堂三楼举行了上任以来的第一个记者会。当时朱?基的一番豪言壮语,至今叫人难以忘怀。

这一次朱?基在老地方再次向中外记者展示他诙谐幽默、反应灵敏、坦诚务实的个人风格和魅力。在回答问题时,几乎每题都有佳句出口,惹来一片掌声雷动。

回答问题的人幽默,听者也为之所动。朱?基就是有这种魅力。

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