密码:
注册找密码我的浏览
设首页加收藏加书签 ______

首页每天学英语背单词语法词汇口语阅读写作翻译寓言四级六级名著绕口令笑话外语动态诗歌散文雅思商务

您所在的位置: 大耳朵首页 > 文章资料 > 轻松英语 >...> 孟子 > 万章上 > 正文

站内搜索:

小提示:学单词背单词请到大耳朵免费在线背单词系统
belvedere/['belvidiə]/ n. 望景楼...

《孟子》中英文版 第九编 《万章上》(7)

本文属阅读资料
《孟子》中英文版

第九编 《万章上》(7)



第七章 自任以天下之重



萬章問曰:“人有言‘伊尹以割烹要湯’有諸?”

Wan Zhang asked Mencius, saying, 'People say that Yi Yin sought an introduction to Tang by his knowledge of cookery. Was it so?'



孟子曰:“否,不然。伊尹耕於有莘之野,而樂堯舜之道焉。非其義也,非其道也,祿之以天下,弗顧也;繫馬千駟,弗視也。非其義也,非其道也,一介不以與人,一介不以取諸人,湯使人以幣聘之,囂囂然曰:‘我何以湯之聘幣為哉?我豈若處畎畝之中,由是以樂堯舜之道哉?’湯三使往聘之,既而幡然改曰:‘與我處畎畝之中,由是以樂堯舜之道,吾豈若使是君為堯舜之君哉?吾豈若使是民為堯舜之民哉?吾豈若於吾身親見之哉?天之生此民也,使先知覺後知,使先覺覺後覺也。予,天民之先覺者也;予將以斯道覺斯民也。非予覺之,而誰也?’思天下之民匹夫匹婦有不被堯舜之澤者,若己推而內之溝中。其自任以天下之重如此,故就湯而說之以伐夏救民。吾未聞枉己而正人者也,況辱己以正天下者乎?聖人之行不同也,或遠或近,或去或不去,歸潔其身而已矣。吾聞其以堯舜之道要湯,末聞以割烹也。林氏曰:“以堯舜之道要湯者,非實以是要之也,道在此而湯之聘自來耳。猶子貢言夫子之求之,異乎人之求之也”愚謂此語亦猶前章所論父不得而子之意。伊訓曰:‘天誅造攻自牧宮,朕載自亳。’”

Mencius replied, 'No, it was not so. Yi Yin was a farmer in the lands of the prince of Xin, delighting in the principles of Yao and Shun. In any matter contrary to the righteousness which they prescribed, or contrary to their principles, though he had been offered the throne, he would not have regarded it; though there had been yoked for him a thousand teams of horses, he would not have looked at them. In any matter contrary to the righteousness which they prescribed, or contrary to their principles, he would neither have given nor taken a single straw. Tang sent persons with presents of silk to entreat him to enter his service. With an air of indifference and self-satisfaction he said, "What can I do with those silks with which Tang invites me? Is it not best for me to abide in the channelled fields, and so delight myself with the principles of Yao and Shun?" Tang thrice sent messengers to invite him. After this, with the Zhange of resolution displayed in his countenance, he spoke in a different style, "Instead of abiding in the channelled fields and thereby delighting myself with the principles of Yao and Shun, had I not better make this prince a prince like Yao or Shun, and this people like the people of Yao or Shun? Had I not better in my own person see these things for myself? "Heaven's plan in the production of mankind is this: that they who are first informed should instruct those who are later in being informed, and they who first apprehend principles should instruct those who are slower to do so. I am one of Heaven's people who have first apprehended; I will take these principles and instruct this people in them. If I do not instruct them, who will do so?" He thought that among all the people of the kingdom, even the private men and women, if there were any who did not enjoy such benefits as Yao and Shun conferred, it was as if he himself pushed them into a ditch. He took upon himself the heavy charge of the kingdom in this way, and therefore he went to Tang, and pressed upon him the subject of attacking Xia and saving the people. I have not heard of one who bent himself, and at the same time made others straight; how much less could one disgrace himself, and thereby rectify the whole kingdom? The actions of the sages have been different. Some have kept remote from court, and some have drawn near to it; some have left their offices, and some have not done so - that to which those different courses all agree is simply the keeping of their persons pure. I have heard that Yi Yin sought an introduction to Tang by the doctrines of Yao and Shun. I have not heard that he did so by his knowledge of cookery. In the "Instructions of Yi," it is said, "Heaven destroying Jie commenced attacking him in the palace of Mu. I commenced in Bo."'



【原文】



万章问曰:“人有言,伊尹以割烹要1汤:有诸?”

孟子曰:“否,不然。伊尹耕於有莘2之野,而乐尧、舜之道焉。非其义也,非其道也,禄之以天下,弗顾也;系马千驷,弗视也。非其义也,非其道也,一介不以与人,一介不以取诸人。汤使人以币3聘之,嚣嚣4然曰:‘我何以汤之聘币为哉!我岂若处畎亩之中,由是以乐尧、舜之道哉!’汤三使往聘之,既而幡然改曰:‘与我处畎亩之中,由是以乐尧、舜之道,吾岂若使是君为尧、舜之君哉!吾岂若使是民为尧、舜之民哉!吾岂若於吾身亲见之哉?天之生此民也,使先知觉後知,使先觉觉後觉也。予,天民之先觉者也,予将以斯道觉斯民也,非予觉之,而谁也?’

“思天下之民,匹夫匹妇有不被尧、舜之泽者,若己推而内之沟中;其自任以天下之重如此!故就汤而说之,以伐夏救民。吾未闻枉己而正人者也,况辱己以正天下者乎?圣人之行不同也;或远或近,或去或不去;归洁其身而已矣。吾闻其以尧、舜之道要汤,未闻以割烹也。《伊训》曰:‘天诛造攻自牧宫,朕载自亳。’”



【注释】



1.要:通“徼”。《晏子春秋·内篇问下》:“不庶几,不要幸。”孙星衍云:“要与徼通。”《孟子·公孙丑上》:“非所以要誉於乡党朋友也,非恶其声而然也。”《荀子·王霸》:“所使要百事者诚仁人也,则身佚而国治。”《韩非子·喻老》:“起事于无形,而要大功于天下。”《吕氏春秋·爱类》:“要利之人,犯危何益?”高诱注:“要,徼也。”这里用为探求、求取之意。

2.有莘:古国名,在今河南陈留县东北。

3.币:《书·召诰》:“太保乃以庶邦冢君出取币,乃复入锡周公。”《书·康王之诰》:“宾称奉圭兼币。”《周礼·大宰》:“四曰幣贡。”《左传·襄公二十八年》:“寡君是故使吉奉其皮幣。”《礼记·曲礼》:“幣曰量幣。”《礼记·月令》:“用圭璧更皮幣。”《战国策·齐策三》:“请具车马皮幣。”《荀子·大略》:“币厚则伤德,财侈则殄礼。”《说文》:“幣,帛也。”这里用为古人用作礼物的丝织品之意。

4.嚣:(ao敖)通敖。《诗·大雅·板》:“我及尔谋,听我嚣嚣。”《尔雅》:“仇仇,敖敖,傲也。”《孟子·尽心上》:“人知之,亦嚣嚣。”这里用为傲慢之意。嚣嚣然:很傲慢的样子。



【译文】



万章问:“人们说‘伊尹曾用割肉烹调技术来求取商汤王’,有这件事吗?”

孟子说:“不,不是这样的。伊尹在莘国的郊野种田,而欣赏喜爱尧、舜所行的道路。如果不是尧、舜的行为方式,不是尧、舜所走的道路,即使把天下的财富都作为俸禄给他,他也不屑一顾。即使给他一千辆马车,他也不看一眼。如果不是尧、舜的行为方式,不是尧、舜所走的道路,他一点小东西也不会拿给别人,也不会向别人要一点小东西。商汤王派人用皮币帛礼聘请他,他很傲慢地说:‘我要汤的财物干什么呢?怎么能比得上我安于田野之中,在此以尧、舜之道为乐趣呢?’商汤王三次派人去聘请他,他后来改变了想法说:‘我与其身居田野之中,由此以尧、舜之道为乐趣,但我怎么能使现在的君主成为尧、舜一样的君主呢?我怎么能使现在的百姓成为尧、舜治理下的百姓呢?我何不在我有生之年亲眼看到这些呢?上天生育这些民众,使先明理的人启发后明理的人,使先觉悟的人启发后觉悟的人。我,是上天生育这些民众中先觉悟的人,我要用这个尧、舜之道来启发上天所生活民众。不是我去启发他们觉醒,又有谁呢?’

“想这天下的百姓,一个个男子和女子如果有没受到尧、舜之道恩惠的,就好像是自己将他们推进水沟中一样。伊尹就是这样自愿把天下的重担挑在肩头的,所以他俯就商汤王而游说征伐夏国以拯救人民。我没有听说过有自身屈曲而能矫正别人,有屈辱自己而能够匡正天下的人?圣人的行为方式是不同的,有的远避,有的亲近,有的离去,有的不离去;归根究底洁身自好而已。我只听说伊尹以尧、舜之道求取商汤王,却没有听说用割肉烹调技术来求取商汤王。《伊训》里说:‘上天的惩罚由夏桀自己造成,我只是自亳邑开始计划而已。’”



【解说】



既然已经说清楚了“孝”,也就知道了为什么本章转而谈到伊尹之就商汤了。伊尹自耕自食,自得自乐,根本瞧不起名誉、财富和地位,然而,仅仅是自耕自食、自得自乐就可以度过这一生吗?这一生就有价值吗?就是遵循了尧、舜之道吗?当然不是!所以伊尹幡然改曰:“与我处畎亩之中,……非予觉之,而谁也?”伊尹的这个思想被后世的孔子所继承,在《论语》若干篇章中,孔子就反对过所谓的“隐士”。隐士只是求得自己的快乐和幸福,就如佛教中的阿罗汉、辟支佛一样,自己得到解脱而不管别人的死活。而尧、舜呢?就如佛教中的菩萨一样,有着无穷的大慈悲心,以拯救天下之民为己任。伊尹之继承尧、舜之道,也就会如尧、舜一样,以拯救天下民众为己任。所以伊尹之“孝”,就是继承前辈的思想和道路。所以孟子称赞他“其自任以天下之重如此!”这种行为方式才是孟子所提倡的最佳行为方式!
您是否对这篇资料想说点什么?欢迎评论或者纠错,或者提交填空题答案! 您也可以立即
万章上
高瞻远瞩
放眼全球
推荐资源
最新社区精华帖子更多>>
  • 走遍美国教学版
    走遍美国教学版
  • 哈利学前班[英语儿歌]
    哈利学前班[英语儿歌]
  • 海绵宝宝 英文版
    海绵宝宝 英文版
  • 风中的女王第1季
    风中的女王第1季
经典学习方法更多>>

听力排行

试题

视听

歌曲

电影

文章资料目录导航
经典名著 四六级考试 IELTS雅思 听说读写能力 在线语法词典 行业英语一 行业英语二 生活英语 轻松英语 专题英语
双城记 宝岛
战争与和平
悲惨的世界
傲慢与偏见
读圣经学英语
八十天环游地球
考试动态
学习资料
历年真题
模拟试题
心得技巧
学习方法经验
考试动态
考试介绍
考试辅导
历年真题
模拟试题
心得技巧
英语听力
英语口语
英语阅读
英语写作
英语翻译
英语词汇
名词 冠词数词
动词 动名词
代词 形容词
情态 独立主格
倒装 主谓一致
连词 虚拟语气
职场英语
外贸英语
商务英语
银行英语
文化英语
体育英语
房地产英语
会计英语
金融证券
医疗英语
计算机英语
公务员英语
实用英语
电话英语
旅游英语
购物英语
市民英语
宾馆英语
好文共赏
英语文库
名人演说
小说寓言
谚语名言绕口令
笑话幽默 诗歌
笨霖笔记
CNN英语魏
实用九句
双语阅读
发音讲解
分类词汇

免责声明:本站只提供资源播放平台,如果站内部分资源侵犯您的权益,请您告知,我们会立即处理。
Copyright © 2010-2017 大耳朵英语  京ICP备10010568号 | 京公网安备 11010802020324号

微信扫一扫手机学英语 关闭
微博扫一扫手机学英语 关闭
QQ扫一扫手机学英语 关闭
0.162082s