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Mexico(墨西哥) 中英双语介绍二

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Education System

Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitution reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages. In the 1970"s, Mexico became the first country to establish a system of "distance-learning" satellite secondary education, aimed for the little towns and rural communities. In 2005 this system included 30,000 connected schools, 3 million students and 300,000 teachers, who use televised lectures and education science programs, pre-recorded and transmited through "EduSat", via satellite.

Population

Mexico has an estimated population of about 106.5 million, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Mexico is ethnically and culturally diverse. About 60% of the population is mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white), another 30% is Amerindian and 9% is white (or of European descent). The remaining 1% includes Afro-Mexicans and others. Mexico is also home for many other Latin American groups: mostly Argentines, but also Brazilians, Nicaraguans, Cubans, and Colombians.

Capital

Mexico City

Languages

Spanish is the official language of Mexico and is spoken by the majority of the population. About 7% of the population speak an Amerindian language. The government officially recognizes 62 Amerindian languages. Of these Nahuatl and Maya are each spoken by 1.5 million, while others, such as Lacandon, is spoken by less than 100. The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual education programs in indigenous rural communities.

Religions

Mexico is predominantly Roman Catholic (about 89% of the population), with 6% adhering to various Protestant faiths (mostly Pentecostal), and the remaining 5% of the population adhering to other religions or professing no religion.

Economy

Mexico has a free market economy that recently entered the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is one-fourth that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Mexico has 12 free trade agreements with over 40 countries including, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. The government is cognizant of the need to upgrade infrastructure, modernize the tax system and labor laws, and provide incentives to invest in the energy sector, but progress is slow.

Currency C peso

   The Mexican peso (currency code MXN) is the currency of Mexico. The symbol used for the peso is "$". Prior to the 1993 revaluation, the currency code "MXP" was used.   The exchange rate is around 1 USD for 10.679 MXN.

Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics

Charrería is traditional, but football is most popular today, with baseball also widely played and followed. Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in central and northern Mexico under the hacienda system. Other sports that enjoy great popularity are Bull fighting, Boxing and Professional wrestling.

The sports in which the Mexican"s have gained enormous international success are Soccer and Boxing. Both are favourites among the peoples in the country, with every towns and barrios (districts) have at least 1 soccer field and a boxing ring. The men national football team have qualified for FIFA World Cup twelve times as well as qualified for the 2006 World Cup in the Germany. It had also won the CONCACAF Gold Cup on four occasions.

In boxing, the country is known for its strong competitive boxing. The country in recent years, have produced many fine champions, such as Oscar de la Hoya, Marco Antonio Barrera, Erik Morales, Julio César Chávez, Genaro Hernandez, Fernando Vargas, Rafael Marquez and Juan Manuel Marquez.

The 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, was Mexico’s nineteenth participation of the Summer Olympics. It won three silver and one bronze medals at the 2004 games. The last gold Olympic gold for Mexico was won four years earlier at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, from its women weightlifter, Soraya Mendivil in weightlifting (lightweight classification).

Mexico City hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics.

Culture

In Mexico, it has become almost a matter of national pride to maintain the otherwise archaic x spelling in the name of the country. It is regarded as more authentic and less jarring to the reader"s eye. Mexicans have tended to demand that other Spanish-speakers use this spelling, rather than following the general rule, and the demand has largely been respected.

Indigenous civilizations are known to have credited many inventions, such as pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, writing, highly-accurate calendars, fine arts, intensive agriculture, engineering, an abacus, a complex theology, and the wheel.

The best-known Mexican genre by far is ranchera, interpreted by a band called mariachi. This style of traditional Mexican son which is considered old-fashioned but respected traditional music and is usually listened to as much as modern music. Mexican ranchera (country music) styles, including norteño and banda, are not only popular within Mexico itself, but they are also frequently enjoyed by Mexican immigrants in both rural and urban American communities

教育体系

墨西哥实行强制性的9年免费小学和中学教育。自从二十世纪六十年代,对原著民实行了双语教学计划。 在二十世纪九十年代晚期的体制改革后,这些计划有了新的推动力。免费供应超过十二多种本土语言的课本。在二十世纪七十年代,墨西哥成为第一个在少数城镇和乡村地区,建立远程卫星初级教育的国家。在2005年,这项计划涉及到了3000所学校、3百万学生及300,000名教师。通过预先录制、卫星"EduSat"传递的方式,进行电视播映讲座、以及科学教育。

人口

墨西哥预计人口数是一亿零六百五十万。墨西哥是世界上讲西班牙语人数最多的国家。 多元化的民族及文化。 人口约60%是混血儿(美印第安与白种人混血),另有30%是印第安人,9%是白种人(或有欧洲血统)。 其余1% 包括非裔墨西哥人及其他。 墨西哥也是许多拉丁美洲人:大部分阿根廷人、也有巴西人、尼加拉瓜人、古巴人及哥伦比亚人。

首都

墨西哥市

语言

西班牙语是墨西哥的官方语言,绝大多数人使用它。 7%的人讲印第安语。官方承认62种印第安语,其中各有一百五千万人讲那瓦特语(Nahuatl)和玛雅语(Maya),不足100人讲拉坎冬语(Lacandon)。 墨西哥政府已经在原著的乡村地区推动建立了双语教育计划。

宗教信仰

墨西哥主要是信奉罗马天主教(约占人口数的89%),6%信奉各种新教(大部分是五旬节教Pentecostal),其余5%信奉其它宗教或不信教。

经济

墨西哥实行自由市场经济,经济实力最近达到十万亿元。混合了现代工业、传统工业及农业,正日渐被私有部门所垄断。政府近来在海港、铁路、通信、发电、天然气分配及航空方面加大竞争。平均收入是美国的四分之一,收入仍然高度不平均。自从1994年加入NAFTA,与美国、加拿大的贸易额翻了三倍。墨西哥同40多个国家签订了自由贸易协议,包括危地马拉、洪都拉斯、萨尔瓦多、欧洲自由贸易区及日本,在自由贸易协议下进行90%多交易。政府意识到要改进基础设施、改革税收体系及劳动法,而且在能源提供刺激性投资,但进展缓慢。

货币―比索

墨西哥比索(货币代码是MXN)是墨西哥货币。符号是"$"。1993年货币升值前使用货币代码是"MXP"。与美元的汇率约是1美元等于10.679墨西哥比索。

主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就

传统运动项目是Charrería,但是如今足球最受欢迎、棒球也被广泛接受。 Charrería是从墨西哥中部、西部庄园体系下发展起来的传统西班牙马术运动形式。其它的大众运动项目是斗牛、拳击及专业摔跤。

墨西哥在足球、拳击项目上已经获得了国际比赛的重大成就。 二者都是本国人最喜爱的运动,每个镇和区有至少一个足球场和拳击场。 国家男子足球队已经12次取得FIFA世界杯决赛资格,并且取得2006德国世界杯资格。它也四次下赢得了CONCACAF金杯。

在拳击方面,该国家因拳击实力强而闻名。在最近几年产生了许多优秀的冠军,如Oscar de la Hoya, Marco Antonio Barrera, Erik Morales, Julio César Chávez, Genaro Hernandez, Fernando Vargas, Rafael Marquez and Juan Manuel Marquez。

2004年希腊雅典的夏季奥运会,是墨西哥第十九次参加夏季奥运会。在2004年比赛中赢得了3枚银牌、1枚铜牌。墨西哥的上一枚金牌是在四年前的

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