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【双语最游记】密克罗尼西亚联邦

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Federated States of Micronesia
History
The Federated States of Micronesia are located on the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific Ocean. The ancestors of the Micronesians settled there over 4,000 years ago. A decentralized chieftain-based system evolved into a more centralized economic and religious empire centered on Yap. European explorers - first the Portuguese in search of the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and then the Spanish - reached the Carolines in the 16th century, with the Spanish establishing sovereignty.

In 1914 German administration ended when the Japanese navy took military possession of the Marshall, Caroline and Northern Mariana Islands. Japan began its formal administration under a League of Nations mandate in 1920. During this period, extensive settlement resulted in a Japanese population of over 100,000 throughout Micronesia while the indigenous population was about 40,000. During World War II, the islands and people had been exploited by the Japanese Military to the point of impoverishment.

The United Nations created the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) in 1947. Ponape (then including Kusaie), Truk, Yap, Palau, the Marshall Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands, together constituted the TTPI. The United States accepted the role of Trustee of this TTPI.

On 10 May 1979, four of the Trust Territory districts ratified a new constitution to become the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The neighboring trust districts of Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands chose not to participate. The FSM signed a Compact of Free Association with the US, which entered into force on 3 November 1986, marking Micronesia"s emergence from trusteeship to independence. Under the Compact, the U.S. has full authority and responsibility for the defense of the FSM. This security relationship can be changed or terminated by mutual agreement. The Compact provides US grant funds and federal program assistance to the FSM.

Geography
The FSM are located in the Pacific Ocean, northeast of Papua New Guinea. The FSM are located in the region known as Micronesia, which consists of hundreds of small islands divided in seven territories. The term Micronesia may refer to the Federated States or to the region as a whole.

It consists of 607 islands extending 1,800 miles across the archipelago of the Caroline Islands east of the Philippines. The four constituent island groups are Yap, Chuuk (called Truk until January 1990), Pohnpei (called Ponape until November 1984), and Kosrae. These four states are each represented by a white star on the national flag.

Separated from the four main island groups are the islands of Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi, which are geologically and geographically, are part of Micronesia, but linguistically and culturally are part of Polynesia: the languages spoken on these two islands are of the Samoic family of Polynesian languages.

Political System

   The FSM are governed by the 1979 constitution, which guarantees fundamental human rights and establishes a separation of governmental powers. The unicameral Congress has 14 members elected by popular vote.  Four senators - one from each state - serve 4-year terms; the remaining 10 senators represent single-member districts based on population, and serve 2-year terms. The President and vice president are elected by Congress from among the four state-based senators to serve 4-year terms in the executive branch. Their congressional seats are then filled by special elections. The president and vice president are supported by an appointed cabinet. There are no formal political parties.

密克罗尼西亚联邦
历史
密克罗尼西亚联邦座落于西太平洋加罗林群岛(Caroline Islands)。4000年前密克罗尼西亚人的祖先就开始在岛上定居。分散的首领管理系统进化成一个更集中的以Yap为中心的经济和宗教帝国。欧洲勘测者―最先是葡萄牙人寻找Spice Islands(印度尼西亚),接着是西班牙人―16世纪到达加罗林岛,建立了西班牙的主权。

1914年,德国的行政管理在日本海军占有马绍而群岛(Marshall)、卡罗林群岛(Caroline)和北部马里亚纳群岛(Northern Mariana Islands)之后结束。1920年起,日本在国际联盟的授权下开始了它的正式行政管理。这段时期内,大量移民使日本人口超过了100,000,而密克罗尼西亚当地居民约40,000。 二战期间,各岛和人民都被日本军事所剥削而变为贫困。

1947年联合国创立了太平洋岛国托管领土(TTPI),由波纳佩(Ponape)(包括科斯雷(Kusaie)),Truk, 雅浦(Yap), 帕劳群岛(Palau), 马绍而群岛和北部马里亚纳群岛共同组成。 美国接受托管这领土。

1979年5月10日,四个托管领地(Trust Territory)批准密克罗尼西亚联邦(FSM)新宪法的通过。 托管邻区帕劳群岛(Palau), 马绍而群岛和北部马里亚纳群岛选择不加入其中。FSM和美国签署了一份《自由联系条约(Compact of Free Association)》,并于1986年11月3日生效,标志着密克罗西亚岛从托管统治到独立。 根据协议,美国负有对FSM 防御的全部权限和责任。这项安全关系可通过互相协商被改变或终止。通过这协议,美国向FSM提供贴资金和联邦项目援助。

地理
FSM座落在太平洋岛国内,位于巴布亚新几内亚(Papua New Guinea)东北部。 FSM所在区域被称作密克罗尼西亚,密克罗尼西亚包括几百个小岛,被划分成7个板块。密克罗尼西亚这个名称指的是同盟国家或整 体地区。

它包括607个岛屿,跨越菲律宾东部加罗林群岛(Caroline Islands),跨越1,800英里。它的四大群岛是雅浦(Yap)、丘克(Chuuk)(1990年1月被称为“Truk”)、波纳佩(Ponape)和 科斯雷(Kosrae)。 国旗上的四颗星星代表这四个州。

从四个主要岛屿分出来的岛有Nukuoro岛和Kapingamarangi岛,从地理和地质上说,属于密克罗尼西亚,但是从语言和文化上说,这两个岛属于玻利尼西亚:在这两个岛上,人们使用Samoic族语和玻利尼西亚语。

政治体系
FSM由根据1979年的宪法治理。 该宪法保证了基本人权和分散政府力的权力。一院制议会的14个席位由民众选举产生。 4名参议员――每州1名― 任期4年;其余10名参议员代表根据更人口划分的单一地区,任期为2年。 总统和副总统由国会在4名州际性议员中选举产生,在行政分部任职,任期4年。 他们的议会席位由一个特别选举填补。该联邦没有正式的政党。

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