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【大耳朵双语最游记】TURKEY 土耳其

本文属阅读资料

History  
Republic of Turkey was established on 29 October 1923 from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire. This new state delivered the "coup de grâce" to the Ottoman state in 1922 with the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican assembly of Turkey. The origins of modern Turkey can be traced back to the arrival of Turks in Anatolia in the 11th century under the Seljuks.   The war of liberation began in protest to the Mondros Armistice and the Treaty of Sevres, under the command of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. The national movement against the victorious Allies of World War I revoked the terms of the treaty which sought to carve up the Ottoman Empire. By 18 September 1922, the invading Entente armies were repelled and the country was liberated. This was followed by the abolition of the Sultans office by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 1 November 1922, ending 631 years of Ottoman rule.

In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne recognised the sovereignty of a new Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal was granted the name Atatürk (meaning father of Turks) by the National Assembly and became the republic"s first President. On 3 March 1924, the National Assembly abolished the ministry of sacred law and a new constitution was approved on 20 April 1924. There was a steady process of secular westernization, guided by Kemal, under this one-party rule. During World War II, Turkey signed a peace treaty with Germany and officially remained neutral until near the end of war.

After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government.

Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community.

Geography  
Turkey is a bi-continental country that is located in the heart of civilisations. Its strategic location extends from the Middle East (Southwest Asia) to Southeast Europe. The Anatolian peninsula comprises most (97%) of its territory, and is situated between the Black Sea on the north and the Mediterranean Sea to south and west, with the Aegean Sea (and Marmara Sea) in between. 3% of the country"s territory is situated in southeastern Europe, west of the Bosphorus straits. Turkey has eight European and Asian countries as neighbours: Bulgaria and Greece on the west; Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan on the northeast; Iran on the east; and Iraq and Syria on the south.

Turkey forms a bridge between Europe and Asia, with the division between the two running from the Black Sea to the north down along the Bosporus strait through the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles strait to the Aegean Sea and the larger Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Anatolian peninsula (also known as Asia Minor) consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, in between the Köroğlu and East-Black Sea mountain range to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. To the east is found a more mountainous landscape, home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and the Araks, as well as Lake Van and Mount Ararat, Turkey"s highest point at 5,166m.

Turkey is prone to very severe earthquakes. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east. Within the last century there were many earthquakes along this fault line.

Political System  

Turkey"s political system is based on separation of powers. Its constitution is called "Anayasa" (Main Law). The function of Head of State is performed by the President. A president is elected every seven years by the Grand National Assembly. The President does not have to be a member of parliament. The executive power rests in the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The PM and Ministers have to be parliamentarians. The Prime Minister is elected by the parliament with a vote of trust to his government. Legislative power rests in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly "Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi", representing 81 provinces. The Grand National Assembly is elected every five years. To be represented in Parliament, a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election. Independent candidates may run. To be elected, they must win at least 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running.

The Judicial system is highly structured. Turkish courts have no jury system; judges render decisions after establishing the facts in each case based on evidence presented by lawyers and prosecutors. For minor civil complaints and offenses, justices of the peace take the case. This court has a single judge. It has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and petty crimes, with penalties ranging from small fines to brief prison sentences. Three-judge courts of first instance have jurisdiction over major civil suits and serious crimes. Any conviction in a criminal case can be taken to a court of Appeals for judicial review.

土耳其
历史    
土耳其从奥托曼帝国的剩余领土中独立出来并于1923年10月29日成为土耳其共和国。1922年,新政权推翻了苏丹穆罕默德六世的统治,代之以共和政体的土耳其,结束了奥托曼政权。 现代土耳其人的起源可以追溯到来自于11世纪塞尔柱王朝统治下的安那托利亚的土耳其人。 在穆斯塔法・凯末尔(Mustafa Kemal Pasha)领导下解放战争爆发, 这战争始于Mondros休战和塞夫勒条约的抗议中。 国民运动反对一战中的战胜国企图对奥托曼帝国进行瓜分的条约。 1922年9月18日,入侵的各国被击退,土耳其获得了解放。 随后在1922年11月1日,土耳其大国民议会废除了苏丹统治政权,结束了631年的奥托曼帝国。

1923年,洛桑条约(Treaty of Lausanne)承认了新的土耳其共和国的主权, 大国民议会授予穆斯塔法・凯末尔((Mustafa Kemal Pasha))Atatürk的称号(意思是土耳其之父)任命其为土耳其共和国的第一位总统。1924年3月3日,大国民议会废除了宗教法律的政府部门,实行政教分离并于1924年4月20日确立新宪法。在凯末尔的一党制的领导下,土耳其稳步地进行着欧美化的进程。在二战期间,土耳其和德国签署了和平条约,并一直保持中立直到二战末期


结束了一党执政后,多党政治使民主党在1950年的大选中获胜及权力的和平更替。 从那以后,土耳其的政党增多,但是民主党在一系列不稳定且间断的军事政变中(1960, 1971, 1980)分裂,这些军事政变最终导致了政党权力交还给民众。 1997年,土耳其军方又一次出面干涉,驱逐了当时伊斯兰倾向的政府,这一事件常被称为“后现代政变(post-modern coup)”。

土耳其在1945年加入联合国,1952年称为北大西洋公约组织的一员。在1964年,土耳其加入欧洲共同体。

地理   

土耳其是同属亚洲和欧洲的国家,位于文明的中心。 它跨越了中东(亚洲西南部)和欧洲东南部。 大部分领土(97%)在安纳托里亚半岛上,北部是黑海(Black Sea),西南部是地中海(Mediterranean Sea),中部是爱琴海(Aegean Sea)(和马尔马拉海Marmara Sea)。国家3%的领土位于欧洲东南部,博斯普鲁斯海峡(Bosphorus straits)西部。土耳其周边有八个欧洲和亚洲邻国:西部是保加利亚和希腊;东北部是克鲁吉亚、亚美尼亚、阿塞拜疆;东部是伊朗; 南部是伊拉克和叙利亚。

土耳其形成了连接欧亚的路桥,并作为欧亚的分界线,这一界线从北方的黑海南下穿越博斯普鲁斯海峡(Bosporus strait)到达马尔马拉海(Sea of Marmara),之后穿越达达尼尔海峡到达爱琴海以及南边更广阔的地中海。安那托利亚半岛(也被称为小亚细亚半岛)中部是高原,并有着长长的海岸线,在北部的Köroğlu和东黑海山脉之间和南部的Taurus之间。东部也有很多高山风景,同时也是很多河流的源头,比如幼发拉底河、底格里斯河和亚力河Araks,这里也有Van湖和阿勒山―土耳其的最高点5166米。

土耳其常会发生剧烈地震。有一条从西到东贯穿国家北方的地震带。上个世纪,该地震带发生了很多地震。

政治体系   

土耳其的政治体系建立在权力分离的基础上。它的宪法叫做"Anayasa"(主要法律)。国家的代表职能由总统来执行。总统由大国民议会选举产生,任期7年。总统不是国会的成员。行政的权力取决于总理和部长会议。总理和各个部长是国会的成员。总理是由议会根据对他所领导的政府信任度选举产生。550个席位的大国民议会Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi掌握立法权,代表着81个省。大国民议会每5年选举一次。一个政党要在大国民议会中会得到席位,它必须在国民议会选举中获得超过10%的国民选票。不属于任何政党的候选人也能参加选举进入议会的。为了被选上,他们必须在他们所属的省中赢得超过10%的选票。

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