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【大耳朵最游记】Macedonia 马其顿(三)

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Economy  
   The Republic was one of the poorer areas of the former Yugoslavia. Its economy suffered from the same problems faced by other former socialist East European countries. With the combined effects of its post-independence move to an open market economy and the collapse of the internal Yugoslav economy arose various economic and political problems with a great number of its main trade partners. Additionally due to the negative impact of the Yugoslav wars, the Kosovo war, the following UN-mandated sanctions against Serbia (which accounted for 60% of its markets prior to the disintegration of Yugoslavia), the 1994-1995 economic trade embargo imposed by Greece and the 2001 Albanian crisis, economic difficulties persisted until early 2002. It has since made a sluggish recovery, though the extent of the unemployment and gray market, combined with relatively poor law system continue to be of grave concern. Its per capita GDP remains one of the lowest in Europe.
Currency C denar  
   The Macedonian denar (currency code MKD) is the official currency of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The currency was introduced on 26 April 1992 and at that time was equivalent to the Yugoslavian convertible dinar (YUN). On 5 May 1993 the currency was reformed, with one new denar (MKD) being equal to 100 old denars (MKN).
Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics  
   The Macedonian athletes reportedly have many successful appearances at the international sport scene. Macedonia has been a host to many international sports competitions and events.   Among them include the International Traditional Free Style Wrestling Tournament "Makedonski Biser" (Macedonian Pearl), Ohrid Swimming Marathon, Sar Planina Cup in Skiing, Mavrovo Skiing Festival, Pelister Skiing Slalom, Swimming Event Skopje, Trophy of Macedonia in handball, Bike Race Through Macedonia, Boxing Tournament "Zlaten Gong" (Golden Gong), etc.   Macedonia has also been a host for many European and regional events, such as World Championship in Wrestling and the Chess Olympics.
   The 1992 Barcelona Olympics is Macedonia’s first participation of the Summer Olympics, separately from the Yugoslavia team. Mogamed Ibragimov won the very first Olympic medal, a bronze medal, for Macedonia since its independence at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney when he defeated the two time Olympic Bronze medalist, Amirreza Khadem Azghadi (Iran).
Culture  
   The Macedonian Philharmonic Orchestra, established in 1944 in the People"s Republic of Macedonia within Yugoslavia, is the oldest cultural institution in the field of music. There are six chamber ensembles, such as ‘Tanec’, that represent the richness of Macedonian Slav folklore and songs, and there are ten other folklore ensembles that are active. There are three professional and twenty amateur choirs. Each year about 50,000 people attend concerts of the Macedonian Philharmonic Orchestra and the various folk dance ensembles and other cultural and artistic associations. In addition to the concerts held as part of the Ohrid Summer Festival, an annual festival of classical music named Interfest was established in Bitola a few years ago. The Skopje International Jazz Festival has become a highly prestigious music event. Many of the most renowned jazz groups and names in the world of jazz have taken part in the festival, and in concept and atmosphere, participants and critics consider it one of the most successful jazz festivals around the world.
   Folk music is one of the most cherished areas of Slavic Macedonian culture, and several folk festivals take place each year. The oldest is Folkfest, held in Valandovo, and most festivals have greater turnouts among Macedonian Slav expatriates in Australia and Canada. The Festival of Old Town Songs in Ohrid and the Ilinden Days of Folk Song in Bitola are events that celebrate traditional Macedonian Slav songs. Mak-Fest in Stip and the Skopje Festival are the two best-known festivals of popular music in Macedonia.
经济   
   马其顿共和国是前南斯拉夫较贫穷的区域之一。经济面临着和前东欧社会主义国家所面临的相同问题。在联盟的影响下,开放了市场经济,南斯拉夫的经济崩溃引发了各种不同的经济问题,以及很多和交易伙伴间的政治问题。 另外,由于南斯拉夫战争的不利冲击及科索沃战争、联合国对塞尔维亚共和国制裁( 南斯拉夫瓦解之前占它的60%的市场),1994年到1995年希腊强加了贸易封港令、2001年阿尔巴尼亚的危机,共和国经济困难持续到了2002年初。虽然失业率和萧条的市场,以及不完善的法律系统,开始慢慢恢复。它的人均国内生产总值为欧洲最低的之一。
货币C 第纳尔  
   马其顿的第纳尔 (货币代码为 MKD)是马其顿的官方通用货币。 1992年4月26日开始使用,当时相等于南斯拉夫的流通货币单位(YUN) 。 1993 年5月 5 日,货币改革, 新的denar(MKD) 相等于100个旧的denars(MKN)。
主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就  
   马其顿的运动员在国际的运动现场有很多出色的表现。马其顿已经是许多国际运动比赛项目的主办国家,包括国际传统自由风格的摔跤巡回赛 “Makedonski Biser”、游泳马拉松、滑雪、马其顿手球、穿过马其顿的骑脚踏车比赛、斯科普里游泳活动, “ Zlaten Gong”(金锣)拳击巡回赛等。
   1992年巴赛罗那奥运会是马其顿从南斯拉夫独立后第一次参加夏季奥运会。Mogamed Ibragimov 在2000年悉尼奥运会为马其顿带来了它的第一枚奥运会奖牌,一枚铜牌。当时,他是击败了二次奥运会铜牌得主, Amirreza Khadem Azghadi(伊朗) 。
文化
   1944年,南斯拉夫马其顿人民共和国建立马其顿的爱乐团体管弦乐队,在音乐领域中一个最古老的文化机构。它有六个室内歌舞团, 如“Tanec”,代表马其顿民俗和歌曲的丰富,有十个活跃的民俗歌舞团。 有三个专业和二十个业余唱诗班。 每年大约 50,000个人参加马其顿的爱乐团体管弦乐队,和各种不同的民俗舞蹈团或其他文化和艺术协会音乐会。除作为Ohrid夏天节日的部分音乐会之外,这个叫做Interfest的古典音乐年度活动日,数年以前在Bitola 建立。斯科里普国际爵士乐节,享有高度的威望。世界上大部份最有名的爵士乐团体、名人都参加过该节日, 参加者和评比者认为它是全球最成功的爵士乐节日之一。
   民俗音乐是斯拉夫马其顿的最珍贵的文化财富之一,每年都举行一些民间节日。最古老的是在 Valandovo举行的Folkfest,其它有大量马其顿人参加的节日在澳洲和加拿大举行。 在Ohrid举行的Festival of Old Town Songs和Bitola举行的Ilinden Days of Folk Song,是庆祝传统马其顿斯拉夫歌曲的活动。Mak-Fest in Stip和the Skopje Festival 是马其顿流行音乐中最有名的盛会。

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