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【大耳朵双语最游记】法国 FRANCE (一)

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History  
        The borders of modern France roughy align with those of the ancient territory of Gaul, inhabited by Celts known also as Gauls. Gaul was conquered by the Romans in the first century BC, and the Gauls eventually adopted Romance speech and culture. Christianity also took root in the second and third centuries AD. Gaul"s eastern frontiers along the Rhine were overrun by Germanic tribes in the fourth century AD, principally the Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" derived. The modern name "France" derives from the name of the feudal domain of the Capetian Kings of France around Paris. Existence as a separate entity begins with the division, in 843, of Charlemagne"s Carolingian empire into eastern, central and western parts. The eastern part (which would soon unite with the central portion as the Holy Roman Empire) can roughly be regarded as the beginnings of what is now Germany, the western part, that of France. Charlemagne"s descendants ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of France. His descendants, the Capetian, Valois and Bourbon dynasties, ruled France until 1792, when the French Revolution established the French First Republic.
        Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the republic in 1799, making himself First Consul. His armies engaged in several wars across Europe, conquered many countries and established new kingdoms with Napoleon"s family members at the helm. Following his defeat in 1815, the French monarchy was re-established. In 1830, a civil uprising established the constitutional July Monarchy followed by the Second Republic in 1848. The short-lived Second Republic ended when the late Emperor"s nephew, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected President and proclaimed a Second Empire in 1852. Louis-Napoléon was ultimately unseated following the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. The Third Republic was then re-established.
        Although ultimately a victor in both World War I and World War II, France suffered extensive losses in its empire, comparative economic status, working population, and status as a dominant nation state. After World War II, the Fourth Republic was established. In 1958, the current semi-presidential Fifth Republic was established under the leadership of General de Gaulle.
        In recent decades, France"s reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the political and economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of the Euro in January 1999. France has been at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a more unified and capable European political, defence and security apparatus. However its population voted against ratification of the European Constitutional Treaty in May 2005.

Geography   
        France is located in Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; and bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain. France is known by Frenchmen as "the Hexagon" because of its shape. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Andorra, and Spain.
        France possesses a large variety of landscapes, ranging from coastal plains in the north and west, where France borders the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, to the Pyrenees mountains in the south-west and the Alps in the south-east, the latter containing the highest point in western Europe, Mont Blanc at 4810 m. In between are found other elevated regions such as the Massif Central, the Jura, the Vosges, or the Ardennes which are quite rocky and forested, as well as extensive river basins such as those of the Loire River, the Rhône River, the Garonne and Seine.

  
法国
历史  
        现代法国的边界大致与古代高卢(Gaul)领土一样,居住在这里的凯尔特人(Celts)也被认为是高卢人。公元前一世纪,高卢被罗马征服,并最终接受了罗马的语言和文化。 公元前二和三世纪,基督教也在高卢领土扎根下来。 公元前四世纪,高卢在莱茵河(Rhine)边的东部边界受到日尔曼部落的蹂躏,尤其是弗兰克斯部落(Franks),法郎的古代名字还是缘自弗兰克斯一词。 法国现在的名字来源于在巴黎周边的法国Capetian国王封地的名字。 843年,作为独立实体存在始于查里德曼帝国(Charlemagne"s Carolingian empire)东部、中部、西部的分界线。东部(随后与神圣罗马帝国中部联合)被认为是当今德国的前身,西部则是当今的法国的起源。查里德曼大帝的子孙一直统治法国直到987年,直到法国的公爵和巴黎的伯爵Hugh Capet加冕为法国国王。他的子孙Capetian, Valois和波旁王朝统治法国直到1792年,当时,法国大革命建立了法兰西第一共和国。
        1799年,拿破仑・波拿巴(Napoleon Bonaparte)控制共和国,自封为第一执政官。在几场战争中,他的军队横扫欧洲,占领了很多国家,并建立拿破仑家族掌权的王国。1815年,随着他的胜利,法国君主政体再次建立。1830年,全民起义建立了拥护宪法的六月君主政体(July Monarchy),其后是1848年的第二共和国。第二共和国存在很短时间就垮台了,过世皇帝的外甥路易斯・拿破仑・波拿巴被选为总统,并在1852年宣布成立第二帝国。1870年,随着佛朗哥-普鲁士战争,路易斯-拿破仑下台。第三帝国再次建立。
        虽然法国最终成为一战和二战的胜利者,但是它受到了巨大损失,失去了它的帝国身份、相应的经济地位、劳动人口和作为民主国家的地位。二战后,第四共和国成立。1958年,戴高乐总统建立了当前的半总统制的第五共和国。
在最近的几十年里,法、德两国的调解与合作对欧洲的政治、经济联合很重要,包括1999年1月欧盟的成立。法国走在欧洲国家的最前线去寻找货币结盟的动力以促使建立更加统一、更有能力的欧洲政治、防御和安全设施。 但是,2005年5月,其人民投票反对批准欧洲宪法条约(European Constitutional Treaty)。
地理  
        法国位于西欧,毗邻比斯开湾(Bay of Biscay)和英吉利海峡(English Channe),位于比利时和西班牙之间,英国的东南面, 毗邻意大利和西班牙间的地中海。 由于其版图形状,法国人称法国是六角形。 与其接壤的有比利时、卢森堡公国、德国、瑞士、意大利、摩纳哥、安道尔共和国(Andorra)及西班牙。
        法国拥有多种地形,从西北部和北海(North Sea)及大西洋接界的沿海平原,到西南部的比利牛斯山脉和东南部的阿尔卑斯山(Alps),法国境内的阿尔卑斯山拥有西欧的最高点Mont Blanc,海拔4810米高。两座山之间是其他较高的区域,如Massif Central, the Jura, the Vosges, or the Ardennes,这些地方多山石和森林,还有广阔的湖泊,如卢瓦尔河(Loire River)、尼日尔河(Rhône River)、加伦河(Garonne)及塞纳河(Seine)。


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