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【大耳朵双语最游记】芬兰

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History
   The beginning of Finland"s nearly 700-year association with the Kingdom of Sweden is traditionally connected from the year 1154 till 8th century During the 18th century, Finland was twice occupied by Russian forces (1714C1721 and 1742C1743). After that, "Finland" became the predominant term for the area ― both in domestic Swedish debate and in Russians promising protection from Swedish oppression. In 1808, Finland was conquered by the Russians and thereafter remained an autonomous Grand Duchy in personal union with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.
   On 6 December 1917, shortly after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Finland declared its independence. The independence was approved by Bolshevist Russia, but the following civil wars in Russia and in Finland, complicated the relations. In 1918, the country experienced a brief but bitter Civil War that coloured domestic politics for many years. The Civil War was chiefly fought between "the whites", supported by Imperial Germany, and "the reds", supported by Bolshevist Russia. The reds consisted mostly of property - less rural and industrial workers who, despite universal suffrage in 1906, had found themselves without political influence. The Finnish CRussian border was agreed at the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, largely following the historic border but adding Petsamo and its Barents Sea harbour to Finland.
   During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939C1940 and in the Continuation War of 1941C1944, in time closely following Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944C1945, when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland.   Treaties signed in 1947 and 1948 with the Soviet Union included obligations, restraints and reparations on Finland vis-à-vis the Soviet Union as well as further territorial concessions by Finland (compared to the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940). Finland ceded most of Finnish Karelia, Salla and Petsamo.
   After the Second World War, Finland was in the grey zone between western countries and Soviet Union. The "YYA Treaty" (Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance) gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics and included a guarantee whereby Finland promised to defend her territory and airspace against Germany or her allies, in practice NATO.
   Finland maintained a democratic government and market economy, unlike other countries bordering the Soviet Union. The post-war era was a period of rapid economic growth and increasing wealth and stability for Finland. The war-ravaged agrarian country was transformed into a technologically advanced market economy with a sophisticated social welfare system. When the Soviet Union fell in 1991, Finland suffered economically. It was soon free to follow her own course and joined the European Union in 1995, where Finland is an advocate of federalism contrary to the other Nordic countries that are predominantly supportive of confederalism.
Geography  
   Finland is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bounded by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia. The Åland Islands, off the southwestern coast, are under Finnish sovereignty while enjoying extensive autonomy.
   Finland is a country of thousands of lakes and islands; 187,888 lakes and 179,584 islands to be precise. One of these lakes, Saimaa, is the 5th largest in Europe. The Finnish landscape is mostly flat with few hills and its highest point, the Haltitunturi at 1,328 m, is found in the extreme north of Lapland. Beside the many lakes the landscape is dominated by extensive boreal forests (about 68 percent of land area) and little arable land. The greater part of the islands is found in southwest, part of the archipelago of the Åland Islands, and along the southern coast in the Gulf of Finland. Finland is one of the few countries in the world that is still growing. Owing to the isostatic uplift that has been taking place since the last ice age, the surface area of the country is growing by about 7 sq. kilometres a year.
历史
   最初芬兰跟瑞典王国联合将近700年,传说这种联合是从1154年,直到18世纪。18世纪,芬兰两次被俄军占领 (1714C1721 和1742C1743)。 此后,在瑞典国内的争论和俄国保护其免受瑞典镇压的许诺中,“芬兰”成为该地区最显著的字眼。 1808年,俄国打败芬兰,并在俄帝国联盟中设立了一个自由的大公国(Grand Duchy),一直延续到1917年。
   1917年12月6日,就在苏联布尔什维克革命(the Bolshevik Revolution)之后,芬兰宣布独立,并且得到布尔什维克苏联(Bolshevist Russia)的认可,但是随后苏联和芬兰的国内战争,使得这种关系变得复杂了。1918年,这个国家经历了短暂但残酷的国内战争,对国内政治的影响持续了好多年。国内战争主要是由德国帝国支持的“白军”和布尔什维克苏联支持的“红军”之间的斗争。 红军主要由无产阶级农民和工人组成,尽管1906年实行了普选权,但还是没有什么政治影响力。1920年,芬兰和俄国边界签订Tartu条约,主要按照史上原有的边界,但是增加了Petsamo和巴伦支海港(Barents Sea harbour)于芬兰的边界。
   第二次世界大战中,芬兰两次和苏联交战:1939C1940冬季战争(the Winter War)和1941C1944的延长战(the Continuation War),在巴巴罗萨军事行动(Operation Barbarossa)之后,德国入侵苏联。1947、1948年同苏联签订的条约包括芬兰对苏联的义务、限制和赔款,以及芬兰领土的让步(1940年莫斯科和平协议)(the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940)。芬兰放弃了芬兰的卡累利阿(Finnish Karelia)、Salla和Petsamo.
   二战之后,芬兰处于西方国家和苏联的不明确的地带。据YYA条约 (芬兰和苏联友好、合作和互助公约)(Finno-Soviet Pact of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance), 苏联在芬兰国内政治上起了杠杆作用和包括芬兰保证保卫自己的领土和领空,抵御德国及其同盟,实际上也就是北大西洋公约组织(NATO)。
   不像苏联周边国家那样,芬兰保持了民主政府和市场经济。战后是芬兰经济快速发展、财富不断增长、逐渐稳定的时期。遭受战争破坏的农业国转变为有着完备的社会福利制度、技术发达的市场经济国家。1991年,苏联解体,芬兰在经济上受到打击。它很快自主地走自己的路,并于1995年加入欧盟。
地理
   芬兰属于欧洲东北部的一个北欧国家,西南面是波罗的海(the Baltic Sea),南面是芬兰海湾(the Gulf of Finland),西面是波的尼亚湾(the Gulf of Bothnia)。芬兰与瑞典、挪威、俄罗斯接壤。远离西南海岸线的Aland群岛为芬兰所统治,但是拥有广泛的自治权。
芬兰有成上千万个湖和小岛组成的国家;精确的说来是187,888个湖和179,584小岛。其中Saimaa是世界上第五大湖泊。芬兰地势平坦,很少有山,其最高点,高1,328米,在拉普兰(Lapland)的最北面。包括许多湖泊在内的风景主要是北方森林(大约占陆地总面积的68%)和极少量的耕地。 较大的岛在西南部,Åland岛的一部分,沿着芬兰海湾南部的海岸线。芬兰是为数很少的领土仍在增长的国家。自上一次冰河时代的发生,均衡说的上升,这个国家的领土每年增长7 平方公里。

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