History Like the other Arab emirates on the Persian Gulf (Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates), Qatar has been inhabited for millennia, a part of the Persian Empire and Persian Gulf trade route connecting Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. Societies retain their tribal structures based on extended family kinships and clientage. Thani bin Mohammed, the founder of the Al-Thani family was elected Sheikh of Qatar, where he ruled in Al-Bida (now known as Doha). The Al Khalifa family of Bahrain occupied the northern part of Qatar until 1868. That year, at the request of Qatari nobles, the British negotiated the termination of the Al Khalifa claim to Qatar. The tribute ended with the occupation of Qatar by the Ottoman Turks in 1872. When the Turks left at the beginning of World War I, the British recognized Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani as Ruler. The Al Thani family had lived in Qatar for 200 years. Under the 1916 treaty between the United Kingdom and Sheikh Abdullah, similar to those entered into by the British with other Gulf principalities, the Ruler agreed not to dispose of any of his territory except to the UK and not to enter into relationships with any other foreign government without British consent. In return, the British promised to protect Qatar from all aggression by sea and to lend their good offices in case of a land attack. A 1934 treaty granted more extensive British protection. The imperial reach of the British Empire diminished during the Second World War, and even more when India became independent in 1947. Momentum for a British withdrawal from the Gulf emirates increased during the 1950s. British welcomed Kuwait’s declaration of independence in 1961. Seven years later, when Britain officially announced that it would disengage (politically, not economically) from the Gulf in three years time, Qatar joined Bahrain and seven other Trucial States in a federation. However, regional disputes quickly compelled Qatar to resign and declare independence from the coalition that would evolve into the seven-imarat United Arab Emirates. Thus 1971 marked the inauguration of Qatar as an independent sovereign state. Since 1995, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani has ruled Qatar. He seized control of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani while the old Emir holidayed in Switzerland. Under Emir Hamad, Qatar has experienced a notable amount of sociopolitical liberalisation, including the enfranchisement of women, a new constitution and the launch of Al Jazeera, the controversial Arabic satellite television news channel. Geography The Qatari peninsula juts 160 km (100 miles) into the Persian Gulf from Saudi Arabia. Much of the country consists of a low, barren plain, covered with sand. To the southeast lies the spectacular Khor al Adaid or "Inland Sea", an area of rolling sand dunes surrounding an inlet of the Gulf. The highest point in Qatar occurs in the Jebel Dukhan to the west, a range of low limestone outcrops running north-south from Zikrit through Umm Bab to the southern border, and reaching about 90m above sea level. This area also contains Qatar"s main onshore oil deposits, while the natural gas fields lie offshore, to the northwest of the peninsula. Political System The ruling Al Thani family continued to hold power following the declaration of independence in 1971. The head of state is the Emir, and the right to rule Qatar is passed on within the Al Thani family. Politically, Qatar is evolving from a traditional society into a modern welfare state. Government departments have been established to meet the requirements of social and economic progress. The Basic Law of Qatar 1970 institutionalized local customs rooted in Qatar"s conservative Wahhabi heritage, granting the Emir preeminent power. The Emir"s role is influenced by continuing traditions of consultation, rule by consensus, and the citizen"s right to appeal personally to the Emir. The Emir, while directly accountable to no one, cannot violate the Shari’a (Islamic law) and, in practice, must consider the opinions of leading notables and the religious establishment. Their position was institutionalized in the Advisory Council, an appointed body that assists the Emir in formulating policy. There is no electoral system and political parties are banned.
历史 和其它波斯湾的阿拉伯酋长国(科威特，巴林，阿联酋 )一样，卡塔尔一千年前已有居民，它是连接美索不达米亚和印度河（Indus）山谷，波斯帝国同波斯湾贸易路线的一部分。 社会保持了基于家族血族关系和委托关系的宗族结构。 萨尼・本・穆罕默德，阿勒萨尼家族（Al Thani）的创始人，当选卡塔尔的酋长并统治Al Bida (现在的多哈)。 巴林的Al Khalifa家族直到1868年之前一直占有卡塔尔北部。 同年，应卡塔尔贵族的要求，与英国人谈判终止了Al Khalifa对塔尔的要求。进贡在1872年奥斯曼土耳其占领卡塔尔时结束。 当土耳其人在第一次世界大战初撤离卡塔尔时，英国承认Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani为统治者。阿勒萨尼家族（Al Thani）在卡塔尔生活了200年。1916年，在英国和Sheikh Abdullah的条约中，类似于英国与其它海湾公国所签的条约，统治者同意不处理除英国以外的领土关系，和未经英国同意不与其他任何外国政府发展关系。作为回报，英国允诺保护卡塔尔不受海上侵略，同时如果其受到进攻时提供帮助。1934年条约授予了英国更广泛的保护权。 英国在第二次世界大战期间的势力减少，尤其是当印度在1947年独立后。英国从海湾地带的撤军势头在五十年代加强。英国欣然接受了科威特在1961年独立。七年之后，英国宣布它将在三年时间内从海湾脱离关系(政治，并非经济)。 卡塔尔加入巴林和七个其他临时国家组成的联邦。然而，地区争夺很快迫使卡塔尔脱离并独立于联邦，这进一步演化为七个酋长国组成的阿拉伯联合酋长国。这样1971卡塔尔的就职典礼标志其成为一个独立的主权国。 自从1995年以来，埃米尔・哈马德・本・哈利法・阿勒萨尼统治卡塔尔。当他父亲在瑞士度假时，他从他父亲哈利法・本・哈马德・阿勒萨尼的手中夺取了政权。在埃米尔・哈马德时期，卡塔尔经历一个显著的社会政治自由发展时期，包括解放妇女，制订新宪法和开办半岛电视台（Al Jazeera）- 具有争议性的阿拉伯卫星电视新闻频道。 地理 卡塔尔半岛从沙特阿拉伯深入波斯湾160公里( 100英里)。国家地形主要包括贫瘠的平原和荒漠。东南部坐落着壮观的Khor al Adaid或称“内陆海”，是包围海湾入口的沙丘区域。 卡塔尔的最高点在西部的Jebel Dukhan，范围是从Zikrit经北南方，穿过Umm Bab到南方边界的低浅的石灰岩地表地带，海拔90米以上。这区域也埋藏着卡塔尔主要的油田。天然气分布于半岛西北部的海上。 政治体系 统治者阿勒萨尼家族自1971年宣告独立后一直掌握政权。国家首脑是埃米尔，而管辖卡塔尔的权力由阿勒萨尼家族传袭下来。政治上，卡塔尔从传统社会演化成为一种现代的福利国家。它建立了政府部门来满足社会和经济进步的需求。卡塔尔的1970年的基本法制度化了植根于卡塔尔的保守瓦哈比教派教徒（Wahhabi）遗产中的本地习俗，授予埃米尔无上的权力。埃米尔的角色一直受到持续咨询传统的影响，其还包括共识管辖，和公民有权向埃米尔亲自请求。 埃米尔，虽然不直接对任何人负责，但不能违反伊斯兰教法律（Shari’a）；同时在实践中，必须考虑主要领导者的意见和宗教机构。 他们的位置由顾问理事会制度化，这是任命辅助埃米尔制订政策的团体。国家没有选举体系并禁止政党的成立。