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【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆蒙古(三)

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Religions  
  The predominant religion is Tibetan Buddhism. It was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with only one showcase monastery allowed to remain. Since 1990, as liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence.
Economy  
  Economic activity has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. From 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR to early 2000, Mongolia endured both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth due to reform embracing free-market economics and extensive privatisation of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia"s primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatisation. Growth improved from 2002 at 4% to 2003 at 5%, due largely to high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolia"s economy continues to be heavily impacted by its neighbours. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia"s chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy. The actual size of this grey - largely cash - economy is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally constitute a sizeable portion. Money laundering is growing as an accompanying concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on very favorable terms. Mongolia seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
Currency C Tugrug    
  The Tugrug ("төгрөк" in Mongolian) (currency code MNT) is the official currency of Mongolia. As of 7 February 2005, the currency was worth around MNT 1,212 per USD.
Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics  
  Wrestling is the national sport of the country. The Naadam sports festival is held for 3 days each summer in Ulaanbaatar, and starts on the 11th of July. There are several alternative Naadams held in the capitals of different aimags (provinces) - some on different dates. Apart from Wrestling, the other two sports being competing in the Naadam festival are archery and horse riding.
   Mongolia won a bronze medal from Khashbaatar Tsagaanbaatar in the judo competition (60 kg cat) in the 2004 Athens Olympics. Since its first participation in the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Mongolia has gathered a total of 15 Olympic medals (5 silvers and 10 bronzes).   The 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens was the tenth time that the nation had competed.
Culture  
  The culture of Mongolia could be described as homogeneous; there is little variation within the population. A traditional method of greeting, especially in the country side, is for the younger person to hold their arms out, palm up, and grasp the older person just in front of the elbow. The elder does the same, but with palms face-down. This is done mostly during the new year or when people meet for the first time that year. The embrace looks vaguely Russian, but is missing the ritual kiss, and reminiscent of smelling. Usually only used amongst close relatives. Asking directions is never done without some small talk first. Typical questions include asking how a person spent the last season, the condition of their livestock, or inquiring about their personal health.
   When invited into a get (home), one will be offered tea with milk and salt, and a plate with various cheeses and/or breads. One should show good behaviour by taking at least one small piece. To show respect when accepting something (like a snuff bottle), hold the right elbow with left hand, or use both hands together. Even if one does not want to drink alcohol, always accept the bowl, make the gesture as if drinking, and pass it on or put it back. Refusal or pushing something back is not done.
   During spring and summer, the most popular drink is "Airag", fermented horse milk. The Russians call it "Koumiss". Mongols can drink up to ten liters a day. Stomach problems are common the first time, even for locals. A famous area for this lightly alcoholic drink is Hujirt. Airag from the Gobi tends to be stronger; it depends on the type of grass. "Shiming" or "Archi", is another local milk vodka made from horse or cow"s milk. It tastes like water, but contains more than five percent alcohol, by volume.
   When visiting a temple or monastery, decent clothes are a must. It is a Mongolian habit to keep the arms covered till the wrist.
   In Mongolia, the given name is more important than the family name, and commonly used. The majority of the Mongolian population still live in the country, and most still prefer to wear the national costume on a daily basis, the Del (smock) and Gutul (high boots). On feast days, men might also wear the Loovuz, the peaked hat.
   Traditional styles of music were modernized and standardized, sometimes adding European elements. Traditional long-songs are one of the greatest features of mongolian music. Long Songs are generally sad, and are sometimes perceived as being morose. Lyrical themes vary depending on context. They can be philosophical, religious, romance, or celebratory, and often use horses as a symbol or theme repeated throughout the song. Eastern Mongols typically use a moriin khuur (horse-head fiddle) as accompaniment, sometimes with a type of indigenous flute. Western Mongols typically sing long-songs unaccompanied.
   The horse-head fiddle, or moriin khuur, is a distinctively Mongolian instrument, traditionally played by the uligershin (bards) of that culture, and is seen as a symbol of the country.   Perhaps the best-known musical form of the Mongols is the throat-singing tradition, extant among all or most Mongols though best well-known internationally from Tuva.

宗教信仰  
  西藏佛教是蒙古国占主导地位的宗教。1990年前一直受共产主义的压制,仅保留有一个供于展览的寺庙。1990年后,蒙古的自由化兴起,佛教才得以重新焕发生机。
经济  
  蒙古传统的经济活动以农牧业为基础。蒙古拥有大量的矿藏资源。铜、煤、钼、锡、钨和金是主要的工业产品。从1991年苏联的瓦解到2001这段时间,政治上的不作为导致了蒙古的全面倒退,同时还伴有自然灾;而自由市场经济改革和原有国有经济的私营化改革也使蒙古经济得以前进。2000年、2001年和2003年三年连续的冬季严寒和夏季干旱使大批牲畜死亡,GDP出现负增长。这进一步导致蒙古在出口领域的价格劣势,蒙古国内出现广泛的反对私营化运动。2003年GDP终于摆脱负增长,达到4%,2003年达到5%,这个成绩大部分应归于金属铜价格的高增长以及新的金属金色生产。 周边国家的经济仍然深深影响着蒙古国的经济状况。例如蒙古国80%石油产品和很大一部分电力资源是从俄罗斯购买而来,这让它的经济在价格变动面前异常脆弱。中国是蒙古国主要的出口对象没,也是“灰色经济”和“影子经济”的主要来源。世界银行和其余国际组织估计灰色经济至少和官方经济持平。这种灰色经济(大部分是现金)的实际总量很难精确计算,因为这些钱并没有经手过任何税收部门或者银行组织。 来自国外工作的蒙古人的合法或非法汇款占了这些钱的很大一部分。洗钱问题也因此越受到关注。 蒙古在2003年末在得到优惠的条件下终于和俄罗斯解决了110亿的债务。 蒙古寻求更多的参与机会和融入亚洲区域经济和贸易领域。
货币-图格里克(Tugric)   
  图格里克Tugric(货币代码MNT)是蒙古的官方正式货币。到2005年2月7日图格里克对美元的折价为1美元换1,212MNT.
主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就
   摔交是该国的“国家运动”。那达慕体育节每个夏天在Ulaanbaatar举行三天,一般在7月11日开始。在其余各省的省会城市也会有那达慕体育节,其中一些那达慕比赛时间上也不同。除了摔交之外,在那达慕上另外两项运动是箭术和骑马。在2004年雅典奥运会上,来自喀什巴塔尔・沙甘巴塔尔(Khashbaatar Tsagaanbaatar)的蒙古人在60公斤级柔道比赛中赢得一枚铜牌。 自1964年第一次参加东京夏季奥林皮克运动会以来,蒙古一共获得了15枚奥运会奖牌(包括5枚银牌和10枚铜牌)。2004年的夏季雅典奥运会是该国第十次参加此项国际赛事。
文化   
  蒙古的文化可以说是很单一的,变化很少。蒙古国的年轻人,尤其是在农村地区,有一种传统的问候方式:伸出手臂,手掌向上,抓住年长的人的肘的前部。年长的人也做同样的姿势,唯一不同是手掌向下。这种姿势往往在新年的时候或者在一年里第一次见面的的时候使用。这种拥抱看起来很象俄国人的姿势,但是蒙古人不礼节性的接吻,也不做意味深长的微笑。这样的接吻和微笑一般只在较亲密的亲戚朋友间使用。 问路的时候,首先要说些琐事再向对方问路。 比如可以首先问问对方最后一个季节是怎么度过的,或者他们所养的牲畜的状况,抑或是问问对方的健康状况。这些都是典型的开启对话的方式。蒙古家庭里来了客人,他们一般会端上和有牛奶和盐的茶,还有就是一个盛满各式各样干酪和/或面包的盘子。客人为了表示礼貌一般可以只拿一点点来品尝。客人接受主人送来的东西(比如一个鼻烟瓶),为了表示尊重,客人可以用两只手捧着。如果客人不愿意喝酒,可以拿着酒碗,做出正在喝的姿势,然后把酒碗传给别人或者放回去。 拒绝或者将主人送来的东西推回去是不可以做的。
   在春天和夏天,最流行的饮料叫艾日格(Airag),这是一种发酵的马奶,俄国人称之为酸马奶。蒙古人一天最多可以喝10公升。第一次喝这种东西的时候胃部一般都会不舒服,即使一些当地人也是如此。一个叫温泉的地方就因为这种淡淡的酒精饮料而驰名。来自戈壁的艾日格味道往往更重一些,这味道的轻重与否和所用的杯子也有关系。"Shiming" 或Archi",是当地另一种用马奶或者牛奶制成的伏特加酒,它尝起来象水,但是从体积上说,它的酒精含量比酒精还要高出5%。造访寺庙或者修道院时必须着盛装。用衣服盖住整个胳膊,直到手腕,这是蒙古人的习惯。在蒙古,名比姓还要重要,比较使用的也更加频繁。大多数蒙古人住在农村,多数人依然每天喜欢穿着民族服装:Del(罩衫),Gutul (高跟靴子)。在有宴会的日子,男人们可能也会穿着Loovuz (牙舌帽)。
   蒙古的传统风格的音乐已经被现代化、标准化了,有时候还添加了欧洲的元素。传统的“长歌”是蒙古音乐中最有代表性的一种。这些长歌一般都是忧伤的,有时候甚至是郁闷的。乐曲的主题根据情景的不同变化各异。可以是哲理性的主题,也可以是和宗教有关的,浪漫的,欢庆的。常常这些音乐会使用马作为音乐的象征或主题贯穿始终。东部的蒙古人常常使用马头琴来为音乐伴奏,有时候也用一种当地的长笛。 西部的蒙古人唱长哥的时候则往往没有任何伴奏。马头琴是一种很有特点的蒙古乐器,长期以来都是uligershin弹奏,马头琴被认为这个国家的象征。嗓唱的传统也许是现存的蒙古最著名的音乐形式了。

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