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【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆Kazakhstan哈萨克斯坦

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History  
 From the fourth century AD, the territory of Kazakhstan was ruled by a series of nomadic nations. Following the Mongolian invasion in the early 13th century, administrative districts established under the Mongol Empire formed territories of the Kazakh Khanate. Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region, were then rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century. Although there was a brief period of autonomy following the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Kazakhs eventually succumbed to Soviet rule. In 1920, the area of present-day Kazakhstan became an autonomous republic within Russia and, in 1936, became the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. Soviet repression of the traditional elites, along with forced collectivization in late 1920s-1930s, brought mass hunger and led to unrest. Kazakhstan experienced population inflows of thousands exiled from other parts of the Soviet Union during the 1930s and later became home for hundreds of thousands evacuated from the Second World War battlefields. The Kazakh SSR contributed five national divisions to the Soviet Union"s World War II effort.
   The period of the Second World War marked an increase in industrialization and increased mineral extraction in support of the war effort. Kazakhstan had an overwhelmingly agricultural-based economy. In 1953, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the "Virgin Lands" program to turn the traditional pasturelands into a major grain-producing region for the Soviet Union. The policy, along with later modernizations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, sped up the development of the agricultural sector, which to this day remains the source of livelihood for a large percentage of Kazakhstan"s population. During the 1950s and 1960s, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan"s northern pastures under the "Virgin Lands" program. This caused an influx of immigrants (mostly Russians and some other deported nationalities) which skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives.
   In the waning days of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow. Under the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev"s policy of glasnost and riding on the groundswell of Soviet republics seeking greater autonomy, Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty as a republic within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in October 1990. Following the August 1991 abortive coup attempt in Moscow and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan declared independence on 16 December 1991. Geography   
  Kazakhstan is located in central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River lies in eastern-most Europe. It is bordered by Russia (with border length 6,846 km), Uzbekistan (2,203 km.), China (1,533 km), Kyrgyzstan (1,051 km) and Turkmenistan (379 km). Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest nation in the world, in terms of geographical area, with an area of 2.7 million sq. km. (1.56 million sq. mi.). It is equivalent to the size of Western Europe.
Kazakhstan is located deep within the Asian continent, with coastline only on the landlocked Caspian Sea. The proximity of unstable countries such as Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Azerbaijan to the west and south further isolates Kazakhstan. The terrain extends east to west from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oasis and desert of Central Asia.
Political System  
  Kazakhstan is a constitutional republic with a strong presidency. The president is the head of state and also the commander in chief of the armed forces. He may veto legislation that has been passed by the Parliament. The prime minister, who serves at the pleasure of the president, chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves as Kazakhstan"s head of government. There are three deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in the Cabinet.
Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament, comprised of the lower house (the Mazhilis) and upper house (the Senate). Single mandate districts popularly elect 67 seats in the Mazhilis; there also are 10 members elected by party-list vote rather than by single mandate districts. The Senate has 39 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies (Maslikhats) of Kazakhstan"s 16 principal administrative divisions (14 regions, or oblasts, plus the cities of Astana and Almaty). The president appoints the remaining seven senators. Mazhilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the Parliament.



历史  
   从公元前4世纪起,哈萨克斯坦这片土地就被许多游牧民族统治过。自13世纪早期蒙古人入侵以后,在蒙古帝国的统治下建立了一些行政区域,形成了哈萨克斯坦汗国。 哈萨克的原住民是由土耳其和蒙古两个移居此地的民族构成,但他们一直没有联合构成一个独立的国家。虽然在俄罗斯帝国崩溃后,哈萨克斯坦有过很短的自治时期,但是最终它臣服于苏联的统治。1920年,今天哈萨克斯坦所在的地区成为俄罗斯内部的一个自治共和国,1936年成为哈萨克苏维埃社会主义共和国。在20世纪20到30年代,苏联对于传统精英集团的压迫,以及强制推行的集体化导致了民众的饥饿和社会的不稳定。在20世纪30年代,许多人从苏联的其他地区被放逐到哈萨克斯坦,之后,又有许多人从第二次世界大战的战场上被疏散到这里,并安家落户。在二战期间,哈萨克斯坦苏维埃共和国为苏联贡献了5个师的军力。
   为了支持战争,第二次世界大战见证了工业化和矿藏的大量开采。哈萨克斯坦是一个农业国。在1953年,苏联领导人赫鲁晓夫发起了“处女地”计划,将传统的畜牧业地区改为以为苏联种植谷物为主。这项政策,以及之后苏联领导人勃列日涅夫领导下的现代化运动,加速了农业地区的发展。直到今天,大部分哈萨克斯坦人依然依靠农业谋生。 20世纪50年代到60年代,在“处女地”计划之下,苏联鼓励国民开垦哈萨克斯坦北部的畜牧业用地。由此带来了大量移民的涌入(大部分是俄国人和其他一些被国家驱逐的人),从而加速了民族融合,也使得非哈萨克斯坦人超过了原住民。
   在苏联统治下充满危机的日子里,不满情绪日益增长。在苏联领导人米凯尔-戈尔巴乔夫的开放政策下,在苏维埃共和国为了寻求更大的自治权的潮流下,哈萨克斯坦于1990年10月宣布,在苏维埃共和国联盟内成为一个自治的共和国。随着1991年8月莫斯科政变的流产,以及随后苏维埃联盟的瓦解,哈萨克斯坦于1991年12月16日宣布独立。
地理  
   哈萨克斯坦位于亚洲中部,东北部与中国接壤,流经欧洲东部大部分地区的乌拉河有一小部分从这里经过。它与俄罗斯(有6846千米的边境)、乌兹别克斯坦(有2203千米的边境)、中国(有1533千米的边境)、吉尔吉斯斯坦(有1051千米的边境)以及土库曼斯坦(有379千米的边境)接壤。哈萨克斯坦是世界上第九大国家,地理面积为270万平方千米(156万平方英里),相当于整个西欧的面积。
哈萨克斯坦位于亚洲大陆的€深处,其海岸线仅仅是内陆的里海。周边是一些局势不稳定的国家,如阿富汗、塔吉克斯坦和阿塞拜疆,从西部和南部进一步将哈萨克斯坦与外界隔离。 它的领土东起里海,西至阿勒泰山,北邻西西伯利亚平原,南到中亚的绿洲和沙漠。
政治体系   
   哈萨克斯坦是一个宪政共和国,拥有一个非常有权力的总统。总统是国家的首脑,同时也是陆海空三军的首领。他可以通过议会废止法律。总理,一方面主管内阁为总统服务,另一方面他是哈萨克斯坦的政府首脑。在内阁成员里,有3位副总理和16位部长。
   哈萨克斯坦实行双议会制,由下议院(the Mazhilis)和上议院(参议院)构成。单一授权地区在下议院可选出67个议席;还有10个议席则由个党员投票选举产生。上议院有39个议席。两个议院通过各自的选举程序(Maslikhats),在哈萨克斯坦的16个主要行政区(14个地区或州,再加上阿斯塔纳和艾玛迪两个城市)选举产生。剩下的7个议席由总统任命。虽然大部分政府提案都会在议会通过,但众议院的议员以及政府都有权制定法律。

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