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【大耳朵最游记】博闻天下☆不丹(一)

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BHUTAN

History
  By the tenth century, Bhutan"s political development was heavily influenced by its religious history. Various sub-sects of Buddhism emerged which were patronised by the various Mongol and Tibetan overlords. Until the early 17th century, Bhutan existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms until unified by the Tibetan lama and military leader Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal. To defend the country against Tibetan forays, Namgyal built a network of impregnable dzong (fortresses), and promulgated a code of law that helped to bring local lords under centralised control. In the 18th century, the Bhutanese occupied the kingdom of Cooch Behar to the south. In 1772 Cooch Behar appealed to the British East India Company who assisted them in ousting the Bhutanese and later attacked Bhutan in 1774. A peace treaty was signed in which Bhutan retreated to its pre-1730 borders. The border skirmishes with the British continued for the next hundred years and eventually led to the Duar War (1864C65) in which Bhutan lost. In 1865, Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu, under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land. During the 1870s, power struggles between the rival valleys of Paro and Trongsa led to civil war in Bhutan. This saw the ascendancy of Ugyen Wangchuck,   the ponlop (governor) of Tongsa, who united the country following several civil wars and rebellions in the period 1882- 85.
  Under the British influence, a monarchy was set up in 1907. Ugyen Wangchuck was unanimously chosen as the hereditary king. The British government recognised the new monarchy, and in 1910 Bhutan became a suzerain of the British government in exchange for political autonomy. A treaty whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs was signed. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. After India gained independence from Britain in August 1947, Bhutan were given the option to remain independent or to join the Indian Union. Bhutan chose to remain independent, and on 8 August 1949, Bhutan"s independence was recognised by India.
历史
  一直到公元十世纪,不丹政治的发展都受到其宗教历史的严重影响。各种佛教派别都受到蒙古和西藏统治者的厚待。直到17世纪早期,不丹都是以一个集合体的形式存在,各个小型封地间战事不断,最后被西藏喇嘛和军事领导Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal统一。为了保卫国家抵御西藏人的劫掠,Namgyal建造了一个牢不可破的要塞网络,并颁布法律将地方领主置于中央控制之下。18世纪,不丹占领了Cooch Behar王国南部。1772年Cooch Behar要求英属东印度公司帮助他们驱逐不丹人,随后在1774年占领了不丹,同时签订了一项和平协议,它规定不丹人必须撤回到1730年前的界限。在之后的几百年里不丹在边境与英国时有战事发生,最终导致 Duar War(1964-1965年),不丹战败。19世纪70年代期间,敌对的Paro和Trongsa流域间的权力斗争导致了不丹内战。Tongsa的 ponlop(统治者)在1882-85年期间经历了一系列国内战争和反叛,终于统一了国家,这就可以看出Ugyen Wangchuck的优势了。
  1907年,在英国的影响下,不丹成立君主制政体。Ugyen Wangchuck毫无异议地成为世袭的国王。英国政府承认了新政权,1910年不丹以政治自治为条件加入英联邦。双方协议英国不干涉不丹内务,不丹允许英国帮助他处理外部事务。英国的这个角色在1947年后由独立的印度担任。1947年8月印度从英国独立出来,不丹被给予了选择的权力,保持独立或加入印度联盟。不丹选择了独立,1949年8月8日印度承认不丹独立。

Geography
  Bhutan is located in southern Asia, between China and India. The northern region consists of an arc of glaciated mountain peaks with an extremely cold climate at the highest elevations. Most peaks in the north are over 7,000m above sea level; the highest point is the Kula Kangri, at 7,553m, and Gangkhar Puensum, at 7,541m, which is the highest unclimbed mountain in the world.
  The Black Mountains in central Bhutan form a watershed between two major river systems, the Mo Chhu and the Drangme Chhu. Peaks in the Black Mountains range between 1,500 m and 2,700 m above sea level, and fast-flowing rivers have carved out deep gorges in the lower mountain areas. Woodlands of the central region provide most of Bhutan"s forest production. The Torsa, Raidak, Sankosh, and Manas are the main rivers of Bhutan, flowing through this region. Most of the population lives in the central highlands.
  70% of Bhutan is forested. In the south, the Shiwalik Hills are covered with dense forests, lowland river valleys, and mountains up to around 1,500 m above sea level. The foothills descend into the subtropical Duars plain. The Bhutan Duars is divided into two parts: the northern and the southern Duars. The northern Duars has dense vegetation and abundant wildlife. The southern Duars has moderately fertile soil, heavy savannah grass, dense, mixed jungle, and freshwater springs.
地理
  不丹地处南亚,在中国和印度之间。北部区域由呈弧线冰雪覆盖的山峰组成,最高点的气候极度寒冷。北方的许多山峰都在海拔7000米以上;最高点是海拔7553米的Kula Kangri和海拔7541米的Gangkhar Puensum,是世界上最高的未被攀登的山脉。
  不丹中部的黑山成为两大河系Mo Chhu和Drangme Chhu的分水岭。黑山顶的山脉在海拔1500米到2700米之间,急流在较低的山区冲刷出很深的峡谷。中央区域的森林是不丹主要的产林区。Torsa、Raidak、Sankosh和Manas是不丹的主要河流,流过整个国家。绝大多数的人口居住在中央高地。
  不丹70%的地方被森林覆盖。南部的Shiwalik山区有茂密的森林、低地的河谷,每座山的海拔都在1500米之上。丘陵地带以下是亚热带的Duars平原。不丹的Duars被分成两部分:北部、南部的Duars。北部Duars有浓密的植被和丰富的野生动植物。南部Duars有肥沃的土壤、茂密的大草原、密集多样的丛林和泉水。

Political System
  Bhutan"s head of state is the Dragon King, or Druk Gyalpo. Although his title is hereditary, he can be removed by a two-thirds majority vote by the parliament, the unicameral National Assembly, or Tshogdu. The 154-seat National Assembly is composed of locally elected town representatives (105), religious representatives (12), and members nominated by the king (37), all of whom serve a three-year term. Suffrage in Bhutan is unique in that each family-unit, rather than individual, has one vote.
In 1998, the monarch"s executive powers were transferred to the council of ministers, or cabinet (Lhengye Shungtsog). Candidates for the council of ministers are elected by the National Assembly for a fixed, five-year term, and must be a part of the legislative assembly. The cabinet is headed by the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The post of Prime Minister rotates each year between the five candidates who secured the highest number of votes. A new constitution that includes provision for a two-party democratic system has been unveiled and is likely to be put to the people in a referendum at the end of 2005.
政治体系
  不丹的国家元首是 Dragon King, 或 Druk Gyalpo。虽然他的头衔是世袭的,但是如果议会、单院制的国民大会或Tshogdu有2/3的人投票通过就可将其罢免。国民大会的154个席位由地方代表(105人)、宗教代表(12人)和国王推荐的成员(37人)组成,任期都是3年。不丹的投票权是特有的,以每个家庭而非个人为单位,每家都有一票。
  1998年,君主的执行权被转移到部长委员会或内阁(Lhengye Shungtsog)。部长委员会的候选人由国民大会选出,规定任期五年,同时他必须是立法委员会的成员。内阁由首相领导,首相是政府的最高首脑。首相的职务每年都在五位候选人之间变换,主要看谁的票数多。不丹已经通过了一项新的宪法,其中包括两院的民主制度,有望在2005年底实现全民公投。


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