Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav Tryggvason in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that was to last for more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king.Growing Norwegian dissatisfaction with the union spawned its dissolution 7 June 1905. The Norwegian government offered the throne of Norway to Danish Prince Carl who took the name of Haakon VII, after the medieval kings of independent Norway.
Norway was a neutral country during World War I. However, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway also attempted to claim neutrality during World War II, but was invaded by German forces on the 9th of April 1940. The Allies also had plans to invade Norway, in order to take advantage of her strategically important Atlantic coast, but were thwarted by the German operation. Norway put up a stiff fight against the German occupation and armed resistance in Norway went on for two months. King Haakon and the Norwegian government continued the fight from exile in Rotherhithe, London. The German forces in Norway surrendered on 8 May 1945.
The occupation during World War II made Norwegians generally more sceptical of the concept of neutrality. They turned instead to collective security. Norway was one of the signatories of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949 and was a founding member of the United Nations. Norway has twice voted against joining the European Union (in 1972 and 1994), but is associated with the EU via the European Economic Area. However, Norway is a member of the much smaller European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. Norway"s extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean, is where its famous fjords are found, and the country also has a very elongated form, Oslo in fact being closer to Rome than to Norway"s northern regions. The nearby island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are under Norwegian sovereignty and are considered as part of Norway as a kingdom, while Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean and Peter I Island in the South Pacific Ocean are Norwegian dependencies, which are not considered part of the kingdom. Additionally, Norway has a claim for Dronning Maud Land in Antarctica.
The landscape is generally rugged and mountainous, topped by glaciers. Its coastline of over 83,000 km is punctuated by steep-sloped inlets known as fjords, as well as a multitude of islands and islets. The Northern part of the country is also known as the Land of the Midnight Sun because of its northern location, north of the Arctic Circle, where for part of each summer the sun does not set, and in winter much of its land remains dark for long periods.
Norway is bounded for its entire length by seas of the North Atlantic Ocean: the North Sea to the southwest and its large inlet the Skagerrak to the south, the Norwegian Sea to the west, and the Barents Sea to the northeast. To the east, in order from south to north, it shares a long border with Sweden, a shorter one with Finland, and a still shorter one with Russia. Norway"s highest point is the Galdhøpiggen at 2,469m. With a maximum depth of 514m, Hornindalsvatnet is Norway"s and Europe"s deepest lake.
Norway is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. The Royal House is a branch of the princely family of Glücksburg, originally from Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. The functions of the King, Harald V, are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. Although the constitution of 1814 grants important executive powers to the king, these are almost always exercised by the Council of State in the name of the King (King"s Council, or cabinet). The reserve powers vested in the Monarch by the constitution are however significant and an important security part of the role of the Monarchy, and were last used during World War II. The Council of State consists of a Prime Minister and his council, formally appointed by the King. Since 1884, parliamentarism has ensured that the cabinet must have the support of the parliament, so the appointment by the King is a formality.
The Norwegian parliament, Stortinget, currently has 169 members. The members are elected from the 19 counties for 4-year terms according to a system of proportional representation. After elections the Storting divides into two chambers, the Odelsting and the Lagting, which meet separately or jointly depending on the agenda. Laws are proposed by the Odelsting and decided by the Lagting or, in case of disagreement, by the joint Storting. Impeachment cases are raised by the Odelsting and judged by the Lagting as part of the High Court of the Realm. Apart from this, the Storting functions as a unicameral parliament.
在欧洲活跃两个世纪的北欧海盗在994年奥拉夫Tryggvason王接受基督教之后逐渐停止了活动。在随后的几十年间挪威王国发生了变换。1397年，挪威和丹麦结盟，这个联盟持续了四个多世纪。1814年挪威人反对向瑞典割让自己的国土，并且制定了新的宪法。瑞典随后占领挪威，但是瑞典同意挪威保留自己宪法，前提是他们接受在瑞典国王领导下的联盟。 挪威人对联盟日益增长的不满情绪导致了1905年6月7日联盟的瓦解。挪威政府提议丹麦卡尔王子为挪威的君主，依据中世纪独立挪威国王的称呼，被称为哈康七世 (Haakon)。
挪威王国是一个北欧国家，位于斯堪的纳维亚半岛的西部，领土与瑞典、芬兰 和俄罗斯相邻，领海与丹麦和英国相邻。挪威沿着北大西洋广阔的海岸线，建立了著名的海湾，国土也呈现狭长的形状。事实上，奥斯陆（Oslo）更临近于罗马而不是挪威南部。 附近斯瓦尔巴特群岛（Svalbard）和Jan Mayen的岛屿是在挪威的统治下，被看作是挪威范围内的一个小王国，而南大西洋的布维岛和南太平洋的彼德岛是挪威的属地，它们并不承认是王国的一部分。此外挪威声称南极洲的毛德皇后地属于本国。
挪威是一个议会体系的政府立宪制国家。王室是Glucksburg贵族的分支，最初来自德国的Schleswig-Holstein。 国王哈雷德四世行使的职责主要是作为仪式上的国家元首，象征国家团结。虽然1814年的宪法授予国王重要的执行权，但主要还是以国王（国王的内阁）名义由国务院来执行。然而，宪法授予国王军政权体现了君主职能中重要的安全职能的作用，上一次使用此权力是在第二次世界大战。 国务院是由总理和他的顾问班子组成，他由国王正式任命。自1884年以来，议会制度确保了内阁必须支持议会，而国王的任命只是一种形式。
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