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葡萄酒和阳光有助于女人的健康

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Wine first: In a report from Spain, researchers at the University of Barcelona evaluated the effects of moderate consumption of red and white wine -- 6.8 ounces, or two glasses a day -- in 35 nonsmoking Spanish women, average age 38.

The study was done like any other controlled medical trial, with each woman drinking the recommended "dose" of either white or red wine for four-week periods, with a four-week dry period separating each round of study.

"The data showed that, in comparison with the baseline period, consumption of both red and white wines increased serum [blood] HDL cholesterol (often called 'good' cholesterol), which suggests a cardio-protective effect," said the report in the November issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

"Similarly, serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (both markers of chronic inflammation), decreased significantly after both wine ingestion periods," the authors wrote.

Other markers of cardiac health were affected "in a healthy way" by red wine a little more than by white wine, the researchers added. The study provides, "scientifically rigorous evidence" that moderate wine consumption helps keep the heart healthy by preventing low-grade inflammation in women, the Spanish team concluded.

"This continues to add to many other studies by showing the mechanisms by which both red and white wine help prevent heart disease," said Dr. R. Curtis Ellison, professor of medicine and public health at Boston University. "When you give women a glass and a half of wine each day, you have considerable effects on improving inflammation, a little more for red wine than for white," said Ellison, who was not involved in the research.

A number of other studies have shown the same protective effect in men, with slightly greater intake of wine, Ellison said.

Next, sunlight: In the same issue of the journal, a British-American team reported a trial in which levels of inflammation-related molecules were measured against blood levels of vitamin D, made naturally by the skin when it is exposed to sunlight.

"The purpose of the study was to see if there was a correlation between vitamin D levels and indicators of aging," said co-researcher Jeffrey P. Gardner, a professor at the Center of Human Development and Aging at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

In addition to measuring blood levels of inflammation-linked molecules such as C-reactive protein, the researchers also measured the length of sections of the women's DNA called telomeres.

"Other people's work indicated that telomeres were bioindicators of aging, more than a person's chronological age," Gardner said.

Longer telomeres indicate low levels of inflammation, he explained.

Sure enough, the data indicated that higher levels of circulating vitamin D was associated with longer telomere length. Women with the lowest concentration of vitamin C and highest concentration of C-reactive protein had telomeres short enough to indicate about 7.6 more years of aging than women with the highest vitamin D and lowest C-reactive protein levels.

"Optimal vitamin D status may provide a benefit during the aging process," the researchers concluded, with additional trials needed to prove the point.

Still, health experts caution that excessive exposure to sunlight remains a leading risk factor for skin cancer. And too much drinking can harm the body in numerous ways.

先谈谈酒吧:来自西班牙的一份报告称,巴塞罗那大学的学者对35个平均年龄38岁且不抽烟的西班牙女性进行了调查研究:适量饮用红、或白葡萄酒——每天6.8盎司或两杯——对她们的影响。

跟其它受控医学实验一样,该研究为每位女性提供推荐用量的红或白葡萄酒,以四星期为一周期,每周期之间有为期四星期的无酒日。

《美国临床营养期刊》(11月刊)的一份报告称:“数据结果表明,通过与基准期对比,适量的饮用红或白葡萄酒可提升血清中高密度脂蛋白(HDL)胆固醇(即通常所称的‘好’胆固醇)的含量,即表明其具有保护心脏的功效。”

作者称:“同样的,经过两种酒的饮用期,测试者血清中的白细胞介素-6和高敏C反应蛋白浓度(两者都是慢性抑郁症的标志)显著降低。”

研究人员补充说,对于心脏健康的其它指标,红葡萄酒稍微比白葡萄酒更有益处。西班牙研究组通过研究得出结论,“有科学根据的严密的证据”证明,摄入适量的酒可以帮助女性预防轻度炎症,从而有助保持心脏健康。

波士顿大学医药与公共健康学院的教授R. Curtis Ellison 博士称:“此项研究为那些探究红葡萄酒和白葡萄酒都有助预防心脏疾病的机制的诸多研究增添了新的内涵。”Ellison博士并没参与调研,他说:“如果你一天给女人一杯半葡萄酒,这会大大改善她们的炎症,而且红葡萄酒比白葡萄酒的效果要稍微好一点。”

Ellioson说:“还有许多研究证明了葡萄酒对男人也同样有保养效果,只是摄入量需大一些。

下面,再来说说阳光:在此期刊的同一期里,一支英美研究小组报告了一个关于炎症程度的实验,相关分子会与血液中维生素D的水平抗争,而维生素D是在皮肤暴露在阳光中时由皮肤自然产生的。

纽泽西医药牙科大学人类发展与衰老中心教授Jeffrey P. Gardner ,作为合作研究者,说:“这项研究的目的是想看看维生素D的水平与衰老迹象之间是否有联系。”

除了测量像C-活性蛋白的与炎症有关的分子的血液水平外,研究人员还测量了女性的DNA上一部分叫做端粒的区域的长度。

Gardner 说:“其他人的研究表明端粒比一个人的实际年龄更适合作为是一种衰老的生物指示器。”

他解释说,更长的端粒代表了更低水平的炎症。

可以肯定的是,研究数据表明生理循环中更高水平的维生素D和较长的端粒有关。有最低浓度的维他命C和最高浓度的C-活性蛋白的女性的端粒很短,这表明她们会比那些具有最高维生素D含量和最低C-活性蛋白水平的女性衰老超过7.6 年。

“最佳的维生素D的状态会在衰老的过程中起到有利方面的作用。” 研究人员总结道,但这一说法需要更多的实验证明。

同时,健康专家还提醒过度暴露于阳光下会有得皮肤癌的危险,而且饮酒过多也会在很多方面对身体产生伤害。

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